Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

William H. Schlesinger

A variety of gases, including water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), add to the radiative forcing of Earth's atmosphere, meaning…

Abstract

A variety of gases, including water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), add to the radiative forcing of Earth's atmosphere, meaning that they absorb certain wavelengths of infrared radiation (heat) that is leaving the Earth and thus raise the temperature of its atmosphere. Since glass has the same effect on the loss of heat from a greenhouse, these gases are known as “greenhouse” gases. It is fortunate that these gases are found in the atmosphere; without its natural greenhouse effect, Earth's temperature would be below the freezing point, and all waters on its surface would be ice. However, for the past 100 years or so, the concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O in the atmosphere have been rising as a result of human activities. An increase in the radiative forcing of Earth's atmosphere is destined to cause global warming, superimposed on the natural climate cycles that have characterized Earth's history.

Details

Perspectives on Climate Change: Science, Economics, Politics, Ethics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-271-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Jerry D. Mahlman

In 2001, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Third Assessment Report revealed an important increase in the level of consensus concerning the reality of…

Abstract

In 2001, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Third Assessment Report revealed an important increase in the level of consensus concerning the reality of human-caused climate warming. The scientific basis for global warming has thus been sufficiently established to enable meaningful planning of appropriate policy responses to address global warming. As a result, the world's policy makers, governments, industries, energy producers/planners, and individuals from many other walks of life have increased their attention toward finding acceptable solutions to the challenge of global warming. This laudable increase in worldwide attention to this global-scale challenge has not, however, led to a heightened optimism that the required substantial reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions deemed necessary to stabilize the global climate can be achieved anytime soon. This fact is due in large part to several fundamental aspects of the climate system that interact to ensure that climate change is a phenomenon that will emerge over extensive timescales.

Although most of the warming observed during the 20th century is attributed to increased greenhouse gas concentrations, because of the high heat capacity of the world's oceans, further warming will lag added greenhouse gas concentrations by decades to centuries. Thus, today's enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations have already “wired in” a certain amount of future warming in the climate system, independent of human actions. Furthermore, as atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase, the world's natural CO2 “sinks” will begin to saturate, diminishing their ability to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Future warming will also eventually cause melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, which will contribute substantially to sea level rise, but only over hundreds to thousands of years. As a result, current generations have, in effect, decided to make future generations pay most of the direct and indirect costs of this major global problem. The longer the delay in reducing CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, the greater the burden of climate change will be for future life on earth.

Collectively, these phenomena comprise a “global warming dilemma.” On the one hand, the current level of global warming to date appears to be comparatively benign, about 0.6°C. This seemingly small warming to date has thus hardly been sufficient to spur the world to pursue aggressive CO2 emissions reduction policies. On the other hand, the decision to delay global emissions reductions in the absence of a current crisis is essentially a commitment to accept large levels of climate warming and sea level rise for many centuries. This dilemma is a difficult obstacle for policy makers to overcome, although better education of policy makers regarding the long-term consequences of climate change may assist in policy development.

The policy challenge is further exacerbated by factors that lie outside the realm of science. There are a host of values conflicts that conspire to prevent meaningful preventative actions on the global scale. These values conflicts are deeply rooted in our very globally diverse lifestyles and our national, cultural, religious, political, economic, environmental, and personal belief systems. This vast diversity of values and priorities inevitably leads to equally diverse opinions on who or what should pay for preventing or experiencing climate change, how much they should pay, when, and in what form. Ultimately, the challenge to all is to determine the extent to which we will be able to contribute to limiting the magnitude of this problem so as to preserve the quality of life for many future generations of life on earth.

Details

Perspectives on Climate Change: Science, Economics, Politics, Ethics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-271-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 May 2020

Aries Susanty, Nia Budi Puspitasari, Singgih Saptadi and Shinta Devi Siregar

This study aims to create the causal relationship between transportation behavior to Karimunjawa, the number of tourists and the amount of CO2 produced; calculate the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to create the causal relationship between transportation behavior to Karimunjawa, the number of tourists and the amount of CO2 produced; calculate the reduction of CO2 emissions from the transportation to Karimunjawa based on several proposed policy scenarios; and formulate the managerial implication and recommendation to support the implementation of several proposed policy scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops a system dynamics‐based model by using three sub-systems, i.e. “the number of tourist sub-system,” “the switching behavior of tourist travel sub-system” and “the CO2 emission sub-system.”

Findings

The simulation results have shown that, under the current situation, tourist travel behavior should be changed to maximum condition to get the minimum CO2 emission. Improvement of the behavior of tourist in selecting the mode of transportation and the departure point of mini-tour bus and ferry are an effective way to reduce the CO2 emission.

Research limitations/implications

This study only considers limited variables as the driver of the level of change of the capacity of Karimunjawa and the road as well as the variables as the driver of tourism growth. This study only focuses on CO2 emission from the direct impacts of tourist travel; this study does not consider the indirect impact of tourism activity on CO2 emissions. International air travel is not included in the present study.

Practical implications

From a managerial perspective, this study demonstrates that change in the tourist travel behavior is generally not effective in triggering CO2 emission reduction, unless it is accompanied by the strict restriction policy related to the tourist route.

Social implications

This study has the potential to raise societal awareness that the causality of tourist growth and CO2 emissions should be seen as the impact of tourist travel behavior. In this case, to modify the travel behavior, tourist needs to change their mode of transportation to more sustainable transportation.

Originality/value

This paper intends to fill the literature gap of the effect of tourism growth from two perspectives, namely, tourist travel behavior and environmental. The modeling of tourist transport and CO2 emission will provide an overview of the selection of the problem-solving mode for tourist transport that can give a significant contribution to the greenhouse gas emissions reduction to the environmental.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Robin Hickman and David Banister

Purpose – To consider the potential for transport CO2 reductions in Oxfordshire. It examines the CO2 baseline within the county and elsewhere in the United Kingdom…

Abstract

Purpose – To consider the potential for transport CO2 reductions in Oxfordshire. It examines the CO2 baseline within the county and elsewhere in the United Kingdom, assessing the high and low emitters in terms of relative transport CO2 emissions. A target for the county is developed at 1.2 tCO2 per capita by 2030, and ultimately 0.5 tCO2 per capita by 2050, and scenario analysis is used to assess the potential interventions, policy packages and different pathways available for CO2 emission reduction.

Methodology/approach – The central Oxfordshire transport model (COTOM) is used to quantify the likely impacts of different policy areas over the long term to 2030. It is illustrated how the strategic policy direction can be set within transport, and attempts are made to quantify the scale of likely impacts from the options available.

Findings – Current interventions and levels of funding for sustainable transport are not strong enough to significantly reduce transport CO2 emissions in line with the national UK targets and there is a significant underestimation of the scales of change required. There is a major discontinuity between the ‘greenwash’ of the conjecture at the national governmental level and the level of funding necessary to actually implement effective actions at the local level.

Originality/value – The chapter is original in illustrating how the strategic policy direction can be set within transport at the regional level and also in attempting to quantify the scale of likely impacts.

Details

Transport and Climate Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-440-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 16 January 2012

Kenji DOI and Masanobu KII

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to propose a cross-assessment model as an analytical tool for developing sustainable urban transport and land-use strategies for a…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to propose a cross-assessment model as an analytical tool for developing sustainable urban transport and land-use strategies for a low-carbon society.

Methodology – A cross-assessment model is developed based on demand and supply models of transport services. The model is able to generate a set of the optimal service levels in public transport reflecting selected target strategies. It is applied to an impact analysis of public transport and land-use strategies in 2030 for all of Japan's 269 urban areas,with outcomes – including the financial balance of public transport operation, user benefits and CO2 emissions reduction – compared among strategies and urban areas.

Findings – The analytical results show that three value factors of efficiency, equity and the environment do not necessarily conflict with each other. In particular, it is clarified that CO2-emission reduction targets can contribute to the improvement of both financial balance and user benefits at the national level. In addition, the results of comparative analysis among the land-use and transport integration (LUTI) scenarios demonstrate that a combination of urban transport strategies and land-use control in the form of ‘corridors and multi-centres’ provides greater emission reduction and increased user benefits.

Implications – The cross-assessment model developed in this chapter could serve as an analytical tool for strategic transport planning. The results in this chapter underlinethe benefit of LUTI strategies particularly in China.

Details

Sustainable Transport for Chinese Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-476-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Gobinda Chowdhury

The purpose of this paper is to produce figures showing the carbon footprint of the knowledge industry – from creation to distribution and use of knowledge, and to provide…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to produce figures showing the carbon footprint of the knowledge industry – from creation to distribution and use of knowledge, and to provide comparative figures for digital distribution and access.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature search and environmental scan was conducted to produce data relating to the CO2 emissions from various industries and activities such as book and journal production, photocopying activities, information technology and the internet. Other sources such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA ), Copyright Licensing Agency, UK (CLA), Copyright Agency Limited, Australia (CAL), etc., have been used to generate emission figures for production and distribution of print knowledge products versus digital distribution and access.

Findings

The current practices for production and distribution of printed knowledge products generate an enormous amount of CO2. It is estimated that the book industry in the UK and USA alone produces about 1.8 million tonnes and about 11.27 million tonnes of CO2 respectively. CO2 emission for the worldwide journal publishing industry is estimated to be about 12 million tonnes. It is shown that the production and distribution costs of digital knowledge products are negligible compared to the environmental costs of production and distribution of printed knowledge products.

Practical implications

Given the astounding emission figures for production and distribution of printed knowledge products, and the associated activities for access and distribution of these products, for example, emissions from photocopying activities permitted within the provisions of statutory licenses provided by agencies like CLA, CAL, etc., it is proposed that a digital distribution and access model is the way forward, and that such a system will be environmentally sustainable.

Originality/value

It is expected that the findings of this study will pave the way for further research and this paper will be extremely helpful for design and development of the future knowledge distribution and access systems.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 66 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Margery Stapleton, Helena Lenihan, Sheila Killian, Breda O'Sullivan and Kemmy Business

Under the Kyoto Protocol Ireland is committed to ensuring that its greenhouse gas emission levels are at or below 113 per cent of 1990 levels for the years 2008–2012…

Abstract

Under the Kyoto Protocol Ireland is committed to ensuring that its greenhouse gas emission levels are at or below 113 per cent of 1990 levels for the years 2008–2012. Irish emissions have already exceeded this limit by approximately 10 to 15 per cent and must be reduced if the Kyoto Protocol targets are to be met. In this context, and drawing on relevant theory and research, this paper discusses the rationale for, and the potential impact of, government intervention in the market for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The use of a Carbon Tax as a policy tool in reducing CO2 emissions is examined from both economic and taxation perspectives. Particular attention is paid to the Irish National Climate Change Strategy formulated in 2000 and the consultation process on implementing a Carbon Tax initiated by the Department of Finance in 2003. In September 2004 the Irish Government decided not to implement the proposed Carbon Tax. Submissions from interested parties on the carbon tax consultation process are reviewed against the rationale for implementation of such a tax. The body of evidence presented in this paper supports the implementation of a Carbon Tax—suggesting that the decision not to implement such a tax may have been a lost opportunity. The paper argues that a well‐designed Carbon Tax for Ireland, a simple levy on a close proxy for emissions, would be effective in influencing taxpayer behaviour bringing about a reduction in Ireland's CO2 emissions and supporting the polluter pays principle. In the absence of a carbon tax Ireland's Kyoto target is unlikely to be met and the consequent financial penalties will fall on all taxpayers. The paper concludes that the Irish Government should revisit this decision.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Abigail L. Bristow and Alberto M. Zanni

Purpose – To examine the cost-effectiveness of UK government policy with respect to the mitigation of carbon emissions from the transport sector.Methodology/approach …

Abstract

Purpose – To examine the cost-effectiveness of UK government policy with respect to the mitigation of carbon emissions from the transport sector.

Methodology/approach – Existing policy as set out by the Department for Transport in Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future is examined. This document elaborates a Low Carbon Transport Strategy intended to achieve annual emissions savings of 17.7 MtCO2 by 2020. A wide range of policy areas where further action could be taken to reduce carbon emissions are examined and their cost-effectiveness considered.

Findings – Measures that influence behaviour including smarter choices, eco-driving across modes, freight best practice and modest price increases are highly cost-effective. More cost-effective routes to saving 17.7 MtCO2 are identified, as are further cost-effective savings.

Originality/value – It appears that government targets could be delivered and indeed exceeded at lower cost than the Low Carbon Transport Strategy. However, policy development is influenced by a wide range of factors which help to explain why cost-effective measures are not always fully exploited.

Details

Transport and Climate Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-440-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2007

Li-Ju Chen and Joseph S. Chen

This research aims to assess the energy use and CO2 contribution and depict the international visitors’ environmental impacts of flight transportation in Taiwan. Two…

Abstract

This research aims to assess the energy use and CO2 contribution and depict the international visitors’ environmental impacts of flight transportation in Taiwan. Two elements entailing the energy consumption and CO2 contribution of flight transportation of international travelers of Taiwan revealed the environmental impact caused by international travelers in 2004. The number of outbound visitors of Taiwan was over twice the number of inbound visitors of Taiwan in 2004. The total energy use of international visitors of Taiwan for one-way trip is 74.44PJ. The total CO2 contribution of international visitors for one-way trip is 5136.54kilotons. The results show that distance is the key determinant of energy consumption and CO2 contribution by international tourists.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-506-2

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Hasan Ağan Karaduman, Arzu Karaman-Akgül, Mehmet Çağlar and Halil Emre Akbaş

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of logistics performance on the carbon (CO2) emissions of Balkan countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of logistics performance on the carbon (CO2) emissions of Balkan countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Fixed-effects panel regression analysis is used to estimate the causal relationship between CO2 emissions and logistic performances of Balkan countries. Logistics performance is measured by logistics performance index (LPI) which was published by the World Bank in 2007, 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016 and used for ranking countries by means of their logistics performance. LPI is based on six main indicators: customs procedures, logistics costs and the quality of the infrastructure for overland and maritime transport. As a measure of carbon emissions of sampled countries, the natural logarithm of carbon dioxide emission per capita is used in this study.

Findings

The results obtained reveal that there is a positive and significant relationship between logistics performance and CO2 performances of the sampled Balkan countries.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on only 11 Balkan countries. In this sense, the data used in the analysis is limited.

Originality/value

Considering the important geostrategic position of the Balkan region, logistics sector has an important role for the development of the countries in that region. In this sense, the findings of this study may provide useful insights for policymakers to achieve sustainable economic development. Furthermore, as far as the authors know, this is the first study that focuses on the relationship between logistics performance and carbon emissions of Balkan countries.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000