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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Luiz Fernando de Carvalho Botega and Jonny Carlos da Silva

Creativity is an important skill for design teams to reach new and useful solutions. Designers often use one or more of creativity and innovation techniques (CITs) to…

Abstract

Purpose

Creativity is an important skill for design teams to reach new and useful solutions. Designers often use one or more of creativity and innovation techniques (CITs) to achieve the desired creative potential during new product development (NPD). The selection of adequate CITs requires considerable expertise, given the multiple application contexts and the extensive number of techniques available. The purpose of this study is to present a creativity support system able to manage this amount of information and provide valuable knowledge to improve NPD.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a knowledge-based system prototype using artificial intelligence (AI) to support knowledge management on the selection of CITs for design. CITs assertion is modelled through a double inference process using five categories, correlating over 500 different entry scenarios to 24 implemented CITs. The techniques are classified according to: design stage, innovation focus, team relationship, execution method and difficult of use. Prototype outputs explanations on the inference process and chosen techniques information.

Findings

To demonstrate the system scope, two opposite design cases are presented. The system was validated by experts in knowledge management and mechanical engineering design. The validation process demonstrates relevance of the approach and improvement directions for future developments.

Originality/value

Though literature contains toolkits and taxonomy for CITs, no work applies AI to identify design scenarios, select best CITs and instruct about their use. Validators reported to know less than half of the available techniques, showing a clear knowledge gap among design experts.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

J.G. de Wilt, P.J.M. Diederen, M. Butter and A. Tukker

With rising public concern over animal welfare, food safety and GM crops, Europe’s farmers, breeders and food processors are caught in the eye of a storm. While some are…

Abstract

With rising public concern over animal welfare, food safety and GM crops, Europe’s farmers, breeders and food processors are caught in the eye of a storm. While some are “returning to the soil” with traditional organic methods, others are breeding crops and animals using biotechnology, for markets as diverse as power generation and pharmaceuticals. For Europe’s policymakers social and ecological sustainability are paramount, but public information is also a prerequisite for meaningful debate.

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Foresight, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2003

Diane Ryland

Aims to trace the legal bases for the protection of fundamental rights in the European Community and the European Union, but looks here at internal policy only. Though…

Abstract

Aims to trace the legal bases for the protection of fundamental rights in the European Community and the European Union, but looks here at internal policy only. Though there was no basis in the Treaty of Rome (1957) for human rights, the European Court of Justice has declared that fundamental human rights are enshrined in the general principles of Community law and thereby protected by the Court. Investigates the Charter, in full, herein

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1982

SUE STONE

The literature of the information needs and uses of humanities scholars in universities is reviewed, using, in the main, material published from 1970 onwards. The areas…

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1579

Abstract

The literature of the information needs and uses of humanities scholars in universities is reviewed, using, in the main, material published from 1970 onwards. The areas covered include definitions of humanities, the way humanities scholars work and the materials of their research; secondary services; computers and new technology; the role of libraries and library services and comparisons between humanities and other disciplines. The review ends with a brief assessment of the state of the art; an outline of some unanswered questions and some consideration of the future of humanities. The main conclusions drawn are that the literature is piecemeal, at times confusing, and that progress in providing guidelines to librarians on the basis of systematic enquiry is slow.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Melissa Schaefer Morabito, Amy Watson and Jeffrey Draine

The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of officer attitudes toward Crisis Intervention Teams, a new innovation designed to improve police response to…

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1136

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of officer attitudes toward Crisis Intervention Teams, a new innovation designed to improve police response to people with mental illnesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study uses data from a larger study of the Chicago Police Department (CPD) Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program. CIT and Non‐CIT officers were surveyed in four districts. To examine the predictors of officer perceptions of crisis intervention teams, OLS regression is used.

Findings

Neither CIT nor non‐CIT officers seem to show the kinds of negative views of CIT that have undercut other social welfare based police innovations. Among CIT trained officers, those who had the opportunity to practice their new skills by responding to mental health related calls for service had more positive attitudes toward the program than those who did not.

Originality/value

This paper adds to both the Crisis Intervention Team and innovation literatures by examining an important aspect of the CIT implementation process. A model is developed that explores the correlates of officer support for the innovation and the conditions necessary for its successful implementation.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Kingsley O. Olibe and Zabihollah Rezaee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cross‐sectional relation between the value of cross‐border intrafirm transfers (CITs) and three dependent variables: return on…

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2169

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cross‐sectional relation between the value of cross‐border intrafirm transfers (CITs) and three dependent variables: return on investment (ROI), the US effective tax rate (ETRUS), and the global effective tax rate (ETRGL) to assess the existence or nonexistence of cross‐jurisdictional income shifting.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression analysis is used to test the relationship between CIT and accounting performance and effective tax rates.

Findings

The results indicate that ROI and ETRUS increase whereas ETRGL decreases with the extent of CITs after we control for variables that impact earnings and taxes (e.g. size, industry classification, internationalization, tax shelter, and growth). This suggests that firms earn income, on average, in jurisdictions with tax rates greater than the USA, such that diverting income from overseas to the USA is a tax‐saving action. The tax results are consistent with Jacob and Mills and Newberry's findings that firms shifted income into the USA. The results also reveal that companies that engage in CITs are those that are large, relatively more profitable, and pay more US taxes.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not differentiate between transfer pricing schemes for tax minimization reasons from those done for earnings management purposes, which should be addressed by future research.

Practical implications

Results have public policy implications as an understanding of how CITs affect accounting performance and taxes is important for the craft of tax policy and transfer price regulation.

Originality/value

This study furthers our understanding of the impact of CITs on earnings and taxes, an important component of accounting research which has not been properly addressed by prior studies.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Kristie R. Blevins, Vivian Lord and Beth Bjerregaard

Extant literature resoundingly praises Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs for the multitude of benefits they provide for law enforcement agencies and individuals with…

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1265

Abstract

Purpose

Extant literature resoundingly praises Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs for the multitude of benefits they provide for law enforcement agencies and individuals with mental illnesses. The majority of CIT research is based on perceived benefits of this approach. Most of the goals of CIT programs are readily amenable to empirical study, yet there are few outcome evaluations of the programs. The purpose of this paper is to examine why empirical studies examining the effectiveness of CIT programs are nominal.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural and practical impediments to the collection of empirical data for CIT programs were identified through including examinations of the types of data routinely collected, interviews with CIT participants, and the researchers’ own observations of hindrances to the data collection processes. By triangulating these methods, the authors were able to observe a number of impediments to the collection of empirical data on this topic.

Findings

The multi-jurisdictional CIT program under review had several data problems. First, there was a lack of official data concerning CIT calls. Second, it was virtually impossible to follow a person with mental illness throughout the system from first contact to final disposition. Third, data sharing was hindered by a lack of memorandums of understanding. Fourth, important information was not being properly recorded.

Originality/value

This manuscript provides recommendations to address data concerns for CIT evaluations. Suggestions are intended to help facilitate more robust data for analysis and evaluation purposes, helping to grow the literature on the effectiveness and efficiency of CIT programs.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

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1326

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

P.W. Turnbull and A. Meenaghan

Declares that diffusion (a term employed to describe the process whereby an innovation or a new idea or practice spreads through a social system over time) is a summary…

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2624

Abstract

Declares that diffusion (a term employed to describe the process whereby an innovation or a new idea or practice spreads through a social system over time) is a summary term used to embrace studies which trace the process of diffusion, the process of adoption and the patterns of influence involved. Acknowledges that even allowing for low involvement of marketing research in diffusion, marketing management's interest in this area can be guided and controlled. States that information is diffused through some form of communication channel – these may be one of two types: vertical channels, which exist if ‘there is a meaningful difference in the interests, social status, demographic or economic characteristics of the communication units’; and horizontal channels, which occur where communications flows among members of groups with similar interests and characteristics – these groups may be work groups, social groups, etc. Investigates sources of information and influence – in particular the two basic ones of: impersonal sources via the mass media; and personal sources involving the opinion leader in a two‐step flow of communication. Closes by discussing the implications of the two‐step flow for marketing in depth, with recommendations.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2011

Samuel L. Browning, Vincent B. Van Hasselt, Abigail S. Tucker and Gregory M. Vecchi

The current paper seeks to outline the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) and review extant research regarding its efficacy in reducing criminalization of people with mental…

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592

Abstract

Purpose

The current paper seeks to outline the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) and review extant research regarding its efficacy in reducing criminalization of people with mental illness, as well as improving interactions between this population and law enforcement officers.

Design/methodology/approach

The CIT model and theoretical underpinnings are discussed and an evaluative review of the current literature is presented.

Findings

Research on the CIT model has generally shown improved officer and community safety; better mental healthcare for those in need; and decreased criminalization of those with mental illness. Methodologies have included the use of records reviews and officer surveys, primarily.

Practical implications

Implications in the practice of law enforcement and psychology include decreasing criminalization of those with mental illness; reducing the frequency of police use of force; minimizing injury to consumers and law enforcement officers; and connecting people with mental illness to needed psychological/psychiatric resources.

Social implications

Success of CIT has wider social implications, such as decreasing stigma regarding mental illness and fear of involving police in mental health related crises.

Originality/value

The authors provide a summary of the CIT model in the context of law enforcement's response to people with mental illness; highlight important research to date; discuss implications of the programme; and suggest directions for future research in the area of CIT.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

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