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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Yifan Chen, Zilin Chen and Huoqing Tang

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an augmented high-order capital asset pricing model (AH-CAPM) as a new risk-based model to price stocks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an augmented high-order capital asset pricing model (AH-CAPM) as a new risk-based model to price stocks.

Design/methodology/approach

The AH-CAPM is defined as a linear model with high-order marginal moments and co-moments from the joint distributions of the sorted stock portfolio returns and the market return.

Findings

The performance of the AH-CAPM is tested in the Chinese and US stock markets. Empirical results show that the high-order marginal moments and co-moments from the joint distributions in AH-CAPM contain the risk and return information implied by the Fama–French factors, indicating it as a better risk measurement. Moreover, the AH-CAPM performs better than the Fama–French three-factor model and the Carhart four-factor model in both the Chinese and US stock markets.

Originality/value

Overall, this study introduces a new asset pricing model with better measurements to incorporate risk information in the stock market.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Mohamad Hafiz Hazny, Haslifah Mohamad Hasim and Aida Yuzy Yusof

The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is the most widely used asset pricing model that measures risk–return relationship. The CAPM is based on Markowitz’s mean variance…

Abstract

Purpose

The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is the most widely used asset pricing model that measures risk–return relationship. The CAPM is based on Markowitz’s mean variance analysis. The advancement of Islamic finance leads to the question whether or not the practice of modern investment theories and analyses such as the Markowitz’s mean variance analysis and CAPM are in accordance to shariah and could be used in pricing Islamic financial assets. Therefore, this paper aims to present a review of the CAPM and to discourse the set of assumptions underlying the model in terms of shariah compliance.

Design/methodology/approach

Although most of the assumptions are not contradictory to shariah principles, there are Islamic variables such as prohibition of short selling, purification and zakat that should be taken into consideration when pricing Islamic financial assets. We then develop a mathematical model which is a modification of the traditional CAPM that incorporates principles of Islamic finance and integrating zakat, purification of return and exclusion of short sales.

Findings

As a proof-of-concept, this paper presents the results of an empirical study on the proposed shariah-compliant CAPM in comparison to the traditional CAPM. The results show that the proposed Islamic CAPM is appropriate and applicable in examining the relationship between risk and return in the Islamic stock market.

Originality/value

This study contributes to existing body of knowledge by presenting an algorithm and mathematical derivation of the shariah-compliant CAPM which has been lacking in the literature of Islamic finance. The paper offers a novel approach in pricing Islamic financial assets in accordance to shariah, advocated by modern investment theories of Markowitz’s mean variance analysis and CAPM.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Mehmet Emin Yildiz, Yaman Omer Erzurumlu and Bora Kurtulus

The beta coefficient used for the cost of equity calculation is at the heart of the valuation process. This study conducts comparative analyses of the classical capital…

Abstract

Purpose

The beta coefficient used for the cost of equity calculation is at the heart of the valuation process. This study conducts comparative analyses of the classical capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and downside CAPM risk parameters to gain further insight into which risk parameter leads to better performing risk measures at explaining stock returns.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducts a comparative analysis of 16 risk measures at explaining the stock returns of 4531 companies of 20 developed and 25 emerging market index for 2000–2018. The analyses are conducted using both the global and local indices and both USD and local currency returns. Calculated risk measures are analyzed in a panel data setup using a univariate model. Results are investigated in country-specific and model-specific subsets.

Findings

The results show that (1) downside betas are better than CAPM betas at explaining the stock returns, (2) both risk measure groups perform better for emerging markets, (3) global downside beta model performs better than global beta model, implying the existence of the contagion effect, (4) high significance levels of total risk and unsystematic risk measures further support the shortfall of CAPM betas and (5) higher correlation of markets after negative shocks such as pandemics puts global CAPM based downside beta to a more reliable position.

Research limitations/implications

The data are limited to the index securities as beta could be time varying.

Practical implications

Results overall provide insight into the cost of equity calculation and emerging market assets valuation.

Originality/value

The framework and methodology enable us to compare and contrast CAPM and downside-CAPM risk measures at the firm level, at the global/local level and in terms of the level of market development.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2007

Don U.A. Galagedera

The main aspect of security analysis is its valuation through a relationship between the security return and the associated risk. The purpose of this paper is to review…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aspect of security analysis is its valuation through a relationship between the security return and the associated risk. The purpose of this paper is to review the traditional capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and its variants adopted in empirical investigations of asset pricing.

Design/methodology/approach

Pricing models are discussed under five categories: the single‐factor model, multifactor models, CAPM with higher order systematic co‐moments, CAPM conditional on market movements and time‐varying volatility models.

Findings

The paper finds that the last half‐century has witnessed the proliferation of empirical studies testing on the validity of the CAPM. A growing number of studies find that the cross‐asset variation in expected returns cannot be explained by the systematic risk alone. Therefore a variety of models have been developed to predict asset returns.

Research limitations/implications

There is no consensus in the literature as to what a suitable measure of risk is, and consequently, as to what is a suitable measure for evaluating risk‐adjusted performance. So the quest for robust asset pricing models continues.

Originality/value

From its beginning to its possible demise the paper reviews the history of the CAPM assuring that we are all up to speed with what has been done.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 33 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2017

Steven A. Dennis, Prodosh Simlai and Wm. Steven Smith

Previous studies have shown that stock returns bear a premium for downside risk versus upside potential. We develop a new risk measure which scales the traditional CAPM

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that stock returns bear a premium for downside risk versus upside potential. We develop a new risk measure which scales the traditional CAPM beta by the ratio of the upside beta to the downside beta, thereby incorporating the effects of both upside potential and downside risk. This “modified” beta has substantial explanatory power in standard asset pricing tests, outperforming existing measures, and it is robust to various alternative modeling and estimation techniques.

Details

Growing Presence of Real Options in Global Financial Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-838-3

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2012

William Coffie and Osita Chukwulobelu

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine whether or not the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) reasonably describes the return generating process on the…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine whether or not the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) reasonably describes the return generating process on the Ghanaian Stock Exchange using monthly return data of 19 individual companies listed on the Exchange during the period January 2000 to December 2009.

Methodology/approach – We follow a methodology similar to Jensen (1968) time series approach. Parameters are estimated using OLS. This study is designed to measure beta risk across different times by following the time series approach. The betas of the individual securities are estimated using time series data of the excess return version of the CAPM.

Findings – Our test results show that although market beta contributes to the variation in equity returns in Ghana, its contribution is not as significant as predicted by the CAPM, and in some cases very weak. Our results also reject the strictest form of the Sharpe–Lintner CAPM, but we found positive linear relationship between equity risk premium and market beta. Instead, our evidence uphold the Jensen (1968) and Jensen, Black, and Scholes (1972) versions of the CAPM.

Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to the single-factor CAPM. Future studies will extend the test to include both size and BE/ME fundamentals and factors relating to P/E ratio, momentum and liquidity.

Practical implications – Our results will make corporate managers to be cautious when using CAPM as a basis to determine cost of equity for investment appraisal purposes, and fund managers when evaluating asset and portfolio performance.

Originality/value – The CAPM is applied to individual securities instead of portfolios, since the model was developed using information on a single security.

Details

Finance and Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-225-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

E.R. Laubscher

The underlying principle of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is that there is a linear relationship between systematic risk, as measured by beta, and expected share…

Abstract

The underlying principle of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is that there is a linear relationship between systematic risk, as measured by beta, and expected share returns. The CAPM attempts to describe this relationship by using beta to explain the differences between the expected returns on various shares and share portfolios. The CAPM has been the subject of considerable theoretical investigation and empirical research. The aim of this article is to establish the current knowledge of the usefulness of the CAPM, i.e. whether it provides a reasonable description of reality and whether it is a useful tool for investment decision‐making. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that the CAPM is useful and that it does describe and explain the risk/return relationship. However, other risk factors (i.e. other than beta) may also be useful for explaining share returns. Investors should therefore be cautious when using the model to evaluate investment performance.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Tienyu Hwang, Simon Gao and Heather Owen

There has been considerable debate on the linear relationship between systematic risk and return. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether security return can…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been considerable debate on the linear relationship between systematic risk and return. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether security return can be explained by systematic risk.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs the market model to test the effect of excess return on portfolio returns. The paper divides total risk into systematic and idiosyncratic risk to examine whether the degree of inefficient portfolio diversification impairs the applicability of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). In the two‐pass cross‐sectional regressions, the paper assesses whether excess return on a security is directly proportional to the security's beta. The paper also incorporates the total variance of securities and the squared value of beta to capture idiosyncratic risk and the nonlinear risk‐return relationship.

Findings

The CAPM is rejected due to positive intercepts in most portfolios and there are large proportions of idiosyncratic risk in these portfolios. Two‐pass regressions show that the security market line theory is valid when additional variables are included in the equation. However, survivorship bias appears to be present in the selected sample.

Practical implications

Since large excess returns are present in the models, the traditional CAPM is rejected and incomplete portfolio diversification can be explained by high levels of idiosyncratic risk.

Originality/value

The authors find that inefficient portfolio diversification is due to the level of idiosyncratic risk in a portfolio. Evidence of the nonlinear beta‐return relationship suggests that the traditional CAPM is misspecified.

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Salman Ahmed Shaikh, Mohd Adib Ismail, Abdul Ghafar Ismail, Shahida Shahimi and Muhammad Hakimi Mohd. Shafiai

This paper aims to study the cross section of expected returns on Shari’ah-compliant stocks in Pakistan by using single- and multi-factor asset pricing models.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the cross section of expected returns on Shari’ah-compliant stocks in Pakistan by using single- and multi-factor asset pricing models.

Design/methodology/approach

To estimate cross section of expected returns of Shari’ah-compliant stocks, the study uses capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Fama-French three-factor model and Fama-French five-factor model. Data for the period 2001-2015 on 217 companies are used. For the market portfolio, PSX-100 and Dow Jones Islamic Index for Pakistan are used.

Findings

The study could not find empirical support for CAPM using Lintner (1965), Black et al. (1972) and Fama and Macbeth (1973) approach. Nonetheless, the relation between beta and returns is positive in up-market and negative in down-market. The results of Fama-French three-factor and five-factor models suggest that size premium is positive and significant for explaining the cross section of stock returns of small size stocks, whereas value premium is positive and significant for explaining the cross section of returns of high value stocks.

Practical implications

The results suggest that fund managers can use Shari’ah-compliant stocks for portfolio diversification and for offering specialized investments given the positive market excess returns and the existence of size and value premium on Shari’ah-compliant stocks.

Originality/value

This is the first study on Fama-French (2015) five-factor model for Islamic capital markets in Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Ben Ltaifa Monia

This study aims to explore empirically the determinants of stock return in a comparative context between Islamic and conventional banks.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore empirically the determinants of stock return in a comparative context between Islamic and conventional banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of the determinants of stock returns is carried out through a panel data model. This study covers 14 Islamic banks and 30 conventional banks in the MENA countries (Bahrain, Egypt, Kuwait, Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates) during 10 years, from 2004 to 2014.

Findings

The empirical results show that the market risk has a positive impact on market profitability of banks except for the small-medium (SM) and big-high (BH) portfolio for the capital asset pricing model and Fama and French models. The risk associated with the size (Small [market capitalization] Minus Big: SMB) has a positive impact on small banks and a negative impact on banks of big sizes. Finally, the risk related to the market value (High [book-to-market ratio] Minus Low: HML) has a positive impact on both small and large banks.

Originality/value

The answer to the question of explanatory factors for stock market returns allows managers to measure the cost of capital and thus choose the most appropriate form of financing and therefore evaluate the possibility of investing in a particular bank.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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