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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2021

Aristofanis Soulikias, Carmela Cucuzzella, Firdous Nizar, Morteza Hazbei and Sherif Goubran

Highly sophisticated digital technologies have distanced architects and designers from intimate and immediate hand-drawing practices. Meanwhile the changes they rapidly…

Abstract

Purpose

Highly sophisticated digital technologies have distanced architects and designers from intimate and immediate hand-drawing practices. Meanwhile the changes they rapidly bring come with undetected changes in cultural and social norms regarding the built environment. The growing dependence on computers calls for a more holistic, socially inclusive and place-responsive design practice. This paper aims to shed light on what we are losing in the design process as we rapidly transition to communicate architecture using digital media. The authors contemplate the paradigms in which the human body and physical objects still play an important role in today's design environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper looks at current trends in developing and establishing “computer imaging” within architectural education, and the architectural profession through parametric design and the area of sustainability. In order to reveal novel and hybrid ways of architectural image-making, it also looks into art forms that already experiment with bodily practices in design by taking an artisanal animation project as a case study.

Findings

The renewed longing for craft, haptic environments, tactile experiences and hand-crafted artifacts and artworks that engage the senses can be exemplified with the success of the documentary Last Dance on the Main, an animated film on the endangered layers of human presence in one of Montreal's downtown neighborhoods. The open possibilities for creative hybridizations between the handmade and the digital in architecture practice and education are exposed.

Originality/value

The influence of film on the perception and consequent design of cities is well documented. There is little literature, however, on how the materiality and process of artisanal film animation can provide alternative, if not additional, insights on how to communicate various aspects of the built environment, particularly those rooted in the human body. Furthermore, handmade film explores a broader understanding of sustainability, which includes considerations for social and cultural contexts.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Şule Taşlı Pektaş

After more than four decades of its beginnings, Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has already reached a level of maturity in both the education and the…

Abstract

After more than four decades of its beginnings, Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has already reached a level of maturity in both the education and the profession. There is an ever-growing amount of literature on the subject; however, relatively few studies have taken a systematic approach to analyze CAAD education. Moreover, design institutions often view CAAD merely as a technical issue ignoring socio-cultural and theoretical aspects. In order to alleviate these problems, this paper presents a structured analysis of CAAD education based on Prof. Necdet Teymur's theory of architectural education. Prof. Teymur claims that the components of architectural education should be studied in terms of objectives (why), contents (what), methodology (how) and management (who) along with four different knowledge and disciplinary levels (viewpoints); namely, sociological, ideological, epistemological, and pedagogical. In this paper, current issues of CAAD education are addressed within this framework and several proposals are presented.

Details

Open House International, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Johan Verbeke

Digital images can play a crucial role in communication and the exploration of design concepts in distant learning environments. First described is the general context in…

Abstract

Digital images can play a crucial role in communication and the exploration of design concepts in distant learning environments. First described is the general context in which the authors are working: the ideas behind the AVOCAAD project, the AVOCAAD conferences and their E‐ducation system. Then the importance of digital image databases for architectural education is outlined. The roles of imaging in design and the concept of “information pumps” are explained. It is argued that different types of digital images are required at different stages of the design process.

Details

VINE, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1988

Charles Musès

A new and realistic approach to manageable natural sets of morphological and morphogenetic elements is discussed with a view to simplifying computer‐assisted design…

Abstract

A new and realistic approach to manageable natural sets of morphological and morphogenetic elements is discussed with a view to simplifying computer‐assisted design functions and rendering such capability more flexible, powerful, and innovative for future needs in CAAD (Computer Assisted Architectural Design). The author believes that despite the violent hubris of a small but shrill party of machine idolators, humanity remains more biological than mechanical, and the salubrious and salutary source of architectural design still rests in the non‐artifactual creativity in which nature abounds, providing the most perennial and enduring source of design for human life and living styles. Computers are said to provide assistance here, especially in human‐interactive feedback loops, as well as can three‐dimensional “sections” of figures in higher spatial dimensions, not necessarily integral.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

António Martins, Ana Dinis and Cidália Lopes

Autonomous taxation of expenses (ATE) is a special and contentious feature of corporate income taxation in Portugal. By taxing of an expanding set of corporate expenses…

Abstract

Purpose

Autonomous taxation of expenses (ATE) is a special and contentious feature of corporate income taxation in Portugal. By taxing of an expanding set of corporate expenses, it has caused many conflicts between the Portuguese tax authority and corporate taxpayers. Many of these conflicts emerged from the legal interpretation of ATE’s clauses, while others derived from frequent, and difficult to apply, legislative changes. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the following research question: does the recent evolution of the rules on ATE show an efficient process of making and interpreting tax law in Portugal? The authors intend to analyze the process of making and changing ATE’s rules, as well as to study how interpretative complexity increases conflicts between tax authorities (TA) and taxpayers.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used is a mix of the legal research method, namely, doctrinal methodology, with an analysis of jurisprudential and arbitration trends in litigation rulings, blended with the case study analysis of ATE in Portugal. Arbitration rulings will have a particular relevance to the analysis.

Findings

The main conclusion is that, urged by the need of revenues, and sensitive to the TA’ argument of ATE’s loopholes, the government hastened to close them. However, given the procedure adopted, new legal questions aroused, creating additional layers of complexity for companies, courts and tax auditors. Constitutional issues were highlighted by companies based on the prohibition of retroactive application of tax laws.

Research limitations/implications

The paper has a conceptual nature and its conclusions cannot be automatically extended to other tax controversies or processes of amending tax laws. However, for the legal and accounting professions it offers valuable lessons in law interpretation and political lobbying to change tax laws. Also, in the international tax scene, some countries also introduced ATE, with potential for similar problems.

Practical implications

Regarding ATE’s streamlining, the process recently observed in Portugal was not, in authors’ view, managed in the best way, leaving a significant number of difficulties to be solved by courts. The change in ATE’s legal framework could have been more carefully managed, avoiding costly and time consuming disputes, in order to minimize compliance costs.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature because this Portuguese experience, while highlighting the difficulties in making tax law, can be seen as a lesson on how to improve these processes, avoiding time and costs for business, TA and courts. Moreover, arbitration is a way of solving tax disputes that has been gaining ground in Portugal. In this respect, the paper also contributes to a better perception of the tax arbitration scenario in anEuropean Union country. It is also important for the accounting profession, whose members have often to deal with tax topics and the interpretative complexities they originate.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Roland Kaye and Stephen E. Little

Draws on a range of research into the problems of accommodating technical change in complex organizations to highlight the issue of cultural inter‐operability. Global…

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Abstract

Draws on a range of research into the problems of accommodating technical change in complex organizations to highlight the issue of cultural inter‐operability. Global economic integration is growing rapidly, facilitated in part by information and communication technologies. As an increasing proportion of organizations spans national and regional cultures significant cultural differences become intra‐organizational differences. Greater economic interaction implies a need for appropriate standards for technology and procedures, however; a number of significant new players in the world system are operating in a technical context and to sets of standards, official and de facto, which have been shaped by a predominantly Western model of business information technology. To gain the potential benefits of emerging technologies, the conflict between the needs of developers and users must be dealt with and the technical focus of information technology must be broadened to encompass cultural concerns at both organizational and social levels. Presents some case study material to indicate the key role of the balance between cultural and institutional constraints and technical capability within organizations.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Anthony Andrew, Michael Pitt, Ian Murning, Shona Harper and Stephen Jones

The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the work of the Scottish Government in modernising the Scottish compulsory purchase system by publishing two fresh…

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248

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the work of the Scottish Government in modernising the Scottish compulsory purchase system by publishing two fresh circulars to guide acquiring authorities and a number of other measures short of legislation. It is anticipated that this will be the first stage in a programme which will be followed by an examination of primary legislation by the Scottish Law Commission in its eighth programme of law reform.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explains the current Scottish system with a brief historical review, comments on the new circulars and the intentions and aspirations that lie behind them.

Findings

The Scottish compulsory purchase system has not had the revisions of 1965 and 2004 implemented by its English neighbour. It still relies on the original 1845 legislation and circulars issued in 1976 and 1992. The new circulars are helpful to acquiring authorities, particularly those who use the system infrequently and are a useful updating and reference source for professional practitioners.

Research limitations/implications

This is a professional paper designed to draw attention to two new circulars and the policy thinking and aspirations underpinning them.

Social implications

Compulsory purchase processes strike the delicate balance between the private property rights of individuals and corporations, and the needs of the community to obtain and use land that may lie in private ownership. The paper introduces two circulars that affect that balance.

Originality/value

The paper introduces the new compulsory purchase circulars to practitioners undertaking compulsory purchase work and to those academics involved in this discipline.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Jamal Al-Qawasmi

The influence of digital media and information technology on architectural design education and practice is increasingly evident. There has been an astonishing shift in…

Abstract

The influence of digital media and information technology on architectural design education and practice is increasingly evident. There has been an astonishing shift in the way architecture is being taught and produced. Networked virtual design environments such as the virtual design studio (VDS) have been introduced in many architectural schools as new ways of teaching and learning design. Applying virtual design education in developing countries such as the Arab states brings with it various opportunities and challenges. As a new phenomenon, little research has been done to study the cultural implications of the new virtual design environments (VDE). This paper examines the new paradigm of teaching and learning design virtually and the possible cultural implications of its implementation in developing countries such as the Arab world.

Details

Open House International, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Antonieta Angulo

The aim of this paper is to provide a structured collection of case studies organized around the core discussion of how to address the subject of digital media in schools…

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to provide a structured collection of case studies organized around the core discussion of how to address the subject of digital media in schools of design in general and architecture in particular. By means of these case studies it will be possible to understand the trajectory that we have followed in the Department of Architecture at Texas A&M University, having as main goal the incorporation of digital media instruction in design curricula and to assess whether our instructional methods and strategies are in tune with our present understanding of the role of digital media in design. The case studies have been organized following three main contextual themes, namely: shaping our understanding of the role of digital media in design, incorporating digital media in the design studio, and adapting to the availability of new technology. The paper includes the identification of critical issues, among them: polarization between traditional and digital media, solutions for continuous learning and update, and pervasive accessibility of digital means. The paper states conclusions and identifies the opportunities and challenges that we foresee in the near future based on the implementation of multidisciplinary integration and the development of multimodal and media-rich design environments.

Details

Open House International, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Marwah Osama

Mental health disorders, namely, anxiety and depression, have reached an unprecedented peak; recent research demonstrates that these disorders have increased by 70 per…

Abstract

Purpose

Mental health disorders, namely, anxiety and depression, have reached an unprecedented peak; recent research demonstrates that these disorders have increased by 70 per cent over the last 25 years. Additionally, developments in the field of environmental psychology have elicited that the built environment is a crucial factor affecting mental health. It is, therefore, necessary for architects to address the issue when designing, thereby using a holistic approach to promote general well-being. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The project, Asylum: A Place of Refuge, seeks to create a reinterpretation of the eighteenth century asylum, through which the intervention of nature – vast pastures and bucolic settings – believed it had the power to cure the human psyche while, simultaneously, offering redemption. This paper examines the project in relation to multiple books and readings conducted prior and while designing. These references, many of which are considered staples in the field, refer to the important role and impact architecture and landscape have on mental health. Additionally, it discusses the ways architects can consciously design to promote physiological well-being and ensure positive psychological experience through adoption of a comprehensive approach that bridges the gap between the body and mind. Finding sources related to environmental psychology was also crucial as the research conducted in this field provides scientific reasoning to support design decisions.

Findings

By employing strategies from the readings as well as creating a stimulating space that challenges the conception of architecture, the project: Asylum: A Place of Refuge, was born. The use of a powerful, specific and emotive language inherent to the setting as well as a constant relationship between nature and the built environment creates a safe haven for people to resort to, away from the pressures and stresses of everyday life amplified by bustling cities. The ethos of the project is essentially inspired upon Ebenezer Howard’s concept introduced in his book, Garden Cities of Tomorrow, where he states that “human society and the beauty of nature are meant to be enjoyed together. The two must be made one” (Howard, p. 48).

Research limitations/implications

The application and the validity of the project are limited to a conceptual proposal leading to speculative results. Although the research paper is based on architecture-related readings and research conducted in the field of environmental psychology, to verify how this project would function in a real-world setting, it is essential to build it.

Social implications

Applying these findings and this approach to architecture can enhance the quality of life. These ideas can be applied to many different building types including, but not limited to, living spaces, workplaces and recreational spaces.

Originality/value

This paper is based on an architecture project that was created by the author as part of their undergraduate thesis. As a result, this paper and proposal is fully original.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

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