Search results

1 – 10 of 47
Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

Farzad Taheripour and Wallace E. Tyner

The purpose of this chapter is to ask and answer the question of what would happen if Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) plant materials were banned. We report on two…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to ask and answer the question of what would happen if Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) plant materials were banned. We report on two studies – one with United States only ban and one with a global ban. We used a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP), for the analysis. This model has been used in hundreds of published papers on trade, energy, land use, and environmental issues. Our use of the model was to estimate the crop yield benefits for the major GMO crops, and then to convert this to a loss if the GMO traits were banned. We then shocked the GTAP model with the yield losses and estimate economic, land use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts. We found that losing the GM technology would cause commodity and food prices to increase and also bring about a significant increase in GHG emissions. The increase in emissions is caused by the need to convert forest and pasture to compensate for the lost production. Another interesting conclusion of the global ban study is that economic well-being for the United States, the world’s largest GMO user, actually increases with a ban. Many regions that ban or use little GMO varieties like the European Union, India, China, and Japan all see economic well-being decrease. These counterintuitive results are driven mainly by trade patterns. Therefore GMO technology helps agriculture reduce its carbon footprint. Without this technology, agricultural land-use GHG emissions increase as do food prices. Some groups would like to see GMOs banned and also see GHG emissions fall. You cannot have it both ways.

Details

World Agricultural Resources and Food Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-515-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 May 2016

Mikio Takebayashi

This chapter examines the airline performance effect arising from collaboration between airlines and high speed railway (HSR). The analysis presents scenario simulations…

Abstract

This chapter examines the airline performance effect arising from collaboration between airlines and high speed railway (HSR). The analysis presents scenario simulations using a bi-level model, which takes into account the effect of competition among airlines and HSR. Using real data, we examine the Japanese domestic market and the Japan-based international market: the markets consist of Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Osaka Metropolitan Area, Seoul/Korea, Frankfurt/Germany, Paris/France, London/United Kingdom, and Los Angeles/United States. Analysis of the domestic market assumes airlines and HSR compete against each other, and analysis of the international market assumes airlines only compete with each other. Initially, we conduct performance analysis using a simulation that mimics the current relationship between airlines and HSR. Then we present three scenarios for different combinations of collaboration between airline and HSR based on airline alliances. The results from this exercise are then used to examine the impact of the collaboration on the profits of airlines and HSR, passenger’s utility, and the network design of airlines. Last, we show the potential benefit to airlines – profitability, market share, and demand growth – from the airline-HSR collaboration. Our model shows that in Japan: (1) Airlines can improve their profitability in international operations by the collaboration with HSR when airlines set their hubs so they can connect to HSR; (2) The airline which has a lower unit operating cost than rivals and sets its hubs to connect to HSR can improve its joint profit with HSR through collaboration; (3) Airlines that don’t operate domestic flights and don’t set their hubs to connect to HSR encourage increased fare competition by coordinating with HSR, but their profit decreases. Whether these results are generalizable to other regions should be the subject of future study.

Details

Airline Efficiency
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-940-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2014

Philip Z. Maymin

Economic models based on simple rules can result in complex and unpredictable deterministic dynamics with emergent features similar to those of actual economies. I present…

Abstract

Economic models based on simple rules can result in complex and unpredictable deterministic dynamics with emergent features similar to those of actual economies. I present several such models ranging from cellular automaton and register machines to quantum computation. The additional benefit of such models is displayed by extending them to model political entanglement to determine the impact of allowing majority redistributive voting. In general, the insights obtained from simulating the computations of simple rules can serve as an additional way to study economics, complementing equilibrium, literary, experimental, and empirical approaches. I culminate by presenting a minimal model of economic complexity that generates complex economic growth and diminishing poverty without any parameter fitting, and which, when modified to incorporate political entanglement, generates volatile stagnation and greater poverty.

Details

Entangled Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-102-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2022

Priti Rani Rajvanshi, Taranjeet Singh, Deepa Gupta and Mukul Gupta

Introduction: The frequency and complexity of cyber assaults have grown in recent years. Consequently, organisations have increased their expenditures in more robust…

Abstract

Introduction: The frequency and complexity of cyber assaults have grown in recent years. Consequently, organisations have increased their expenditures in more robust infrastructure to protect themselves from these cyber assaults. These organisations’ assets, data, and reputations are at risk due to rapidly increasing cybercrimes. However, complete protection from these many and ever-changing threats is very challenging as a result. To deal with them, companies are taking steps to reduce risks and limit company losses in their occurrence.

Purpose: Progressively, the insurance sector organisations are including digital protection as a component of the board’s general danger technique. Protection enterprises, then again, depend on accurately expecting risks, while a significant number of them depend on normalised approaches. Because of the exceptional attributes of the digital assaults, transporters now and again depend on subjective strategies dependent on master decisions. There is an unmistakeable absence of observational information on digital protection, specifically subjective examinations planning to comprehend and depict necessities, impediments, and cycles applicable for digital protection.

Methodology: There are various unanswered inquiries and worries about the oversight and legitimate and administrative assessment of network safety weaknesses in the protection business. In the wake-up of looking over all these worries and issues, steps to alleviate them are laid out after an extensive literature survey and secondary data sources. In this study, the authors have principally viewed the executive parts of the associations as the danger. While considering network protection, their insight of needs was taken as one among a few dangerous treatment systems, just as the necessities of the organisations’ protection in assessing the danger level of likely customers.

Findings: This section analyses past research in network safety and information security in the protection market. The danger of the executives’ strategies, the numerical models, and the forecasts of digital occassions are illustrated in this section. Lastly, the future headings are likewise expressed momentarily.

Practical implications: This review might be valuable for additional examination and logical discussion, yet additionally for down-to-earth applications. Moreover, it could be gainful to organisations as a supportive instrument for better agreement on what digital protection is and how to get ready to take on network safety and information security procedures in the association.

Significance: These associations’ resources, information, and notoriety are in danger because of quickly expanding cybercrimes. Cybercriminals are utilising more refined approaches to start digital assaults. Digital protection was anticipated to affect security conduct before any proof was gathered. Progressively, organisations are including digital protection as a feature of their general danger to the executive system. Because of the exceptional attributes of the digital assaults, transporters as often as possible depend on subjective methods dependent on master decisions. Thus, this space of network safety and information security is vital uniquely in the protection market.

Details

Big Data Analytics in the Insurance Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-638-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Alexey Ponomarenko

This study aims to examine a potential case of interdependence in loan and deposit interest rate setting.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine a potential case of interdependence in loan and deposit interest rate setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors set up a theoretical microsimulation model with endogenous loan interest rate determination via a learning algorithm.

Findings

The authors show that in certain environments, it may be beneficial for large banks to incorporate information on retail funding costs into the lending rate setting decision.

Originality/value

The author’s model is based on the realistic money creation mechanism.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Thanh Ha Le and Nigel Finch

This paper analyzes variations in the effects of monetary and fiscal shocks on responses of macroeconomic variables, determinacy region, and welfare costs due to changes…

1064

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes variations in the effects of monetary and fiscal shocks on responses of macroeconomic variables, determinacy region, and welfare costs due to changes in trend inflation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop the New-Keynesian model, in which the central banks can employ either nominal interest rate (IR rule) or money supply (MS rule) to conduct monetary policies. They also use their capital and recurrent spending budgets to conduct fiscal policies. By using the simulated method of moment (SMM) for parameter estimation, the authors characterize Vietnam's economy during 1996Q1–2015Q1.

Findings

The results report that consequences of monetary policy and fiscal policy shocks become more serious if there is a rise in trend inflation. Furthermore, the money supply might not be an effective instrument, and using the government budget for recurrent spending produces severe consequences in the high-trend inflation economy.

Practical implications

This paper's findings are critical for economists and monetary and fiscal authorities in effectively designing both the monetary and fiscal policies in confronting the shift in the inflation targets.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that examines the effects of trend inflation on the monetary and fiscal policy implementation in the case of Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Irfan Ahmed and Ali Mohammad Medabesh

This study quantifies empirically the induced impact of income distribution and consumption expenditure on the structures of agriculture production of Nigerian economy.

Abstract

Purpose

This study quantifies empirically the induced impact of income distribution and consumption expenditure on the structures of agriculture production of Nigerian economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The study calibrates an extended input-output model on a social accounting matrix (SAM) for Nigeria for the year 2010. Moreover, the study conducts a dispersion analysis to identify the key agriculture sectors/subsectors both in exogenous and endogenous setup.

Findings

This study presents an empirical analysis of propagation in the structure of production particularly in the structure of agriculture sector. It combines the aggregate and the disaggregated levels of analysis and identifies the key sectors/subsectors both in the exogenous and endogenous setup. The comparison of both findings confirms that the composition of income distribution and consumption expenditure significantly influences the composition and the aggregated and disaggregated order of structure of agriculture production.

Originality/value

Knowledge of interindustry connections is vital in policy implications since the policy makers prefer strongly interconnected sectors to the sectors with poor industry linkages. These connections are estimated as forward and backward linkages, which provide indices to set the criteria for key sectors identification. This study presents an empirical analysis of propagation in the structure of production particularly in the structure of agriculture sector. It combines the aggregate and the disaggregated levels of analysis and identifies the key sectors/subsectors both in the exogenous and endogenous setup.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Guglielmo Maria Caporale and Alex Plastun

The purpose of this paper is to examine price overreactions in the case of the following cryptocurrencies: bitcoin, litecoin, ripple and dash.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine price overreactions in the case of the following cryptocurrencies: bitcoin, litecoin, ripple and dash.

Design/methodology/approach

A number of parametric (t-test, ANOVA, regression analysis with dummy variables) and non-parametric (Mann–Whitney U-test) tests confirm the presence of price patterns after overreactions: the next day price changes in both directions are bigger than after “normal” days. A trading robot approach is then used to establish whether these statistical anomalies can be exploited to generate profits.

Findings

The results suggest that a strategy based on counter-movements after overreactions is not profitable, whilst one based on inertia appears to be profitable but produces outcomes not statistically different from the random ones. Therefore, the overreactions detected in the cryptocurrency market do not give rise to exploitable profit opportunities (possibly because of transaction costs) and cannot be seen as evidence against the efficient market hypothesis (EMH).

Originality/value

The overreactions detected in the cryptocurrency market do not give rise to exploitable profit opportunities (possibly because of transaction costs) and cannot be seen as evidence against the EMH.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Guglielmo Maria Caporale, Luis Alberiko Gil-Alana and Alex Plastun

The purpose of this paper is to provide some new empirical evidence on the weekend effect (one of the best known anomalies in financial markets) in Ukrainian futures…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide some new empirical evidence on the weekend effect (one of the best known anomalies in financial markets) in Ukrainian futures prices. The analysis uses various statistical techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis uses various statistical techniques (average analysis, Student’s t-test, dummy variables, and fractional integration) to test for the presence of this anomaly, and then a trading simulation approach to establish whether it can be exploited to make extra profits.

Findings

The statistical evidence points to abnormal positive returns on Fridays, and a trading strategy based on this anomaly is shown to generate annual profits of up to 25 per cent. The implication is that the Ukrainian stock market is inefficient.

Originality/value

This paper provides some new empirical evidence on the weekend effect (one of the best known anomalies in financial markets) in Ukrainian futures prices. The analysis uses various statistical techniques (average analysis, Student’s t-test, dummy variables, and fractional integration) to test for the presence of this anomaly, and then a trading simulation approach to establish whether it can be exploited to make extra profits. The statistical evidence points to abnormal positive returns on Fridays, and a trading strategy based on this anomaly is shown to generate annual profits of up to 25 per cent. The implication is that the Ukrainian stock market is inefficient.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 September 2020

Guglielmo Maria Caporale and Alex Plastun

This paper explores abnormal price changes in the FOREX by using both daily and intraday data on the EURUSD, USDJPY, USDCAD, AUDUSD and EURJPY exchange rates over the…

2433

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores abnormal price changes in the FOREX by using both daily and intraday data on the EURUSD, USDJPY, USDCAD, AUDUSD and EURJPY exchange rates over the period 01.01.2008–31.12.2018.

Design/methodology/approach

It applies a dynamic trigger approach to detect abnormal price changes and then various statistical methods, including cumulative abnormal returns analysis, to test the following hypotheses: the intraday behaviour of hourly returns on overreaction days is different from that on normal days (H1), there are detectable patterns in intraday price dynamics on days with abnormal price changes (H2) and on the following days (H3).

Findings

The results suggest that there are statistically significant differences between intraday dynamics on days with abnormal price changes and normal days respectively; also, prices tend to change in the direction of the abnormal change during that day, but move in the opposite direction on the following day. Finally, there exist trading strategies that generate abnormal profits by exploiting the detected anomalies, which can be seen as evidence of market inefficiency.

Originality/value

New evidence on abnormal price changes and related trading strategies in the FOREX.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

1 – 10 of 47