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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1991

John E. Tyworth

Trade‐offs among logistics cost and service elements often maketransport selection analysis difficult, especially when demand isuncertain and carriers offer different…

Abstract

Trade‐offs among logistics cost and service elements often make transport selection analysis difficult, especially when demand is uncertain and carriers offer different rates and services. The spreadsheet environment offers a powerful, manager‐friendly medium for analysing these trade‐offs. This microcomputer application exploits some of the recent advances in spreadsheet technology to provide transport buyers with a tool for evaluating such complex logistical trade‐offs. This tool demonstrates how the emerging spreadsheet technology makes it relatively easy to develop a computer‐based model that can capture a rich level of detail that is beyond the scope of the current transport selection models using analytical approaches.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Li Cui

Although sustainability is a popular topic in the past decade, there is a lack of research to identify the driving factors for developing countries. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Although sustainability is a popular topic in the past decade, there is a lack of research to identify the driving factors for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the driving factors for achieving eco-innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth case study is employed to address the objective outlined above. A Chinese company with more than 1,200 employees was selected to address the research question.

Findings

By fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory and interpretive structural modelling analysis, the driving factors for eco-innovation are identified, and the priority of different factors has also been extracted.

Originality/value

This is among the first studies to carry similar analysis regarding eco-innovation. More specifically, this is perhaps the first study to take this approach and to analyse this topic in a developing country.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 117 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2014

Esfandiar Maasoumi, Melinda Pitts and Ke Wu

We examine the cardinal gap between wage distributions of the incumbents and newly hired workers based on entropic distances which are well-defined welfare theoretic…

Abstract

We examine the cardinal gap between wage distributions of the incumbents and newly hired workers based on entropic distances which are well-defined welfare theoretic measures. Decomposition of several effects is achieved by identifying several counterfactual distributions of different groups. These go beyond the usual Oaxaca–Blinder decompositions at the (linear) conditional means. Much like quantiles, these entropic distances are well-defined inferential objects and functions whose statistical properties have recently been developed. Going beyond these strong rankings and distances, we consider weak uniform ranking of these wage outcomes based on statistical tests for stochastic dominance. The empirical analysis is focused on employees with at least 35 hours of work in the 1996–2012 monthly Current Population Survey (CPS). Among others, we find incumbent workers enjoy a better distribution of wages, but the attribution of the gap to wage inequality and human capital characteristics varies between quantiles. For instance, highly paid new workers are mainly due to human capital components, and in some years, even better wage structure.

Details

Essays in Honor of Peter C. B. Phillips
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-183-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Kim Abildgren

Empirical studies on household-level inflation inequality have so far only focused on periods with positive inflation rates. However, the major concern on the policy…

Abstract

Empirical studies on household-level inflation inequality have so far only focused on periods with positive inflation rates. However, the major concern on the policy agenda since the most recent financial crisis has been deflation rather than inflation. This naturally raises the question regarding the effect of deflation on the distribution of real income when households spend their budget on different consumption bundles. This chapter compiles annual household-level inflation rates in Denmark from 1930 to 1935 based on microdata from the Expenditure and Saving Survey of 1931 and price data from the official Retail Price Index. The results indicate that lower-income households faced a larger decline in prices on their consumption of goods and services during the deflation years 1930–1932 than higher-income households did. The deflation thus contributed to narrowing the difference in real incomes between the top and bottom parts of the income distribution during the recession. In the years 1933–1935 with positive inflation rates, the lower-income households experienced higher inflation rates than higher-income households. Over the period 1930–1935 seen as a whole, the price development contributed slightly to reducing real income inequality. The low degree of medium-term persistence of differences in household-specific inflation rates is consistent with previous findings in various time periods from the 1960s to the 2000s without any persistent deflation events. The chapter at hand is the first empirical study of the direct distributional effects of price developments at the household level in a period with persistent deflation.

Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Do Tien Sy, Zwe Man Aung and Nguyen Thanh Viet

Claims and disputes are often unavoidable in the construction industry due to its unique and complex characteristics involving the massive investment of capital, lengthy

Abstract

Claims and disputes are often unavoidable in the construction industry due to its unique and complex characteristics involving the massive investment of capital, lengthy project duration, and multiple project stakeholders. This chapter intends to identify the critical construction claims attributes, compare the perceptions of major stakeholders on different claim attributes, and investigate the contrast of the top five claim attributes between this study and previous ones. The literature review resulted in 48 claim attributes responsible for the construction project schedule delays. These attributes were then presented to Vietnam construction industry (VCI) practitioners in the form of a questionnaire survey. Data analysis was done based on the collected 113 qualified samples. Relative importance index (RII) was applied to determine the ranking of claim attributes. The results were that the top five causes of claims, that is, payment delays, mistakes by contractor during construction stage, delays in work progress by the contractor, financial failure of the contractor, and frequently changing requirements by the owner, lead to the schedule delays in VCI. These findings can assist the local industry practitioners and foreign companies seeking a share in the VCI market in understanding the causes of construction claims comprehensively and formulating the countermeasures to minimise their impacts and hence reduce the unnecessary losses and raise the likelihood of success as well as maintain sustainable relationships among stakeholders.

Details

Sustainability Management Strategies and Impact in Developing Countries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-450-2

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Matteo Foglia and Peng-Fei Dai

The purpose of this paper is to extend the literature on the spillovers across economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and cryptocurrency uncertainty indices.

1381

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the literature on the spillovers across economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and cryptocurrency uncertainty indices.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses cross-country economic policy uncertainty indices and the novel data measuring the cryptocurrency price uncertainties over the period 2013–2021 to construct a sample of 946 observations and applies the time-varying parameter vector autoregression (TVP-VAR) model to do an empirical study.

Findings

The findings suggest that there are cross-country spillovers of economic policy uncertainty. In addition, the total uncertainty spillover between economic policies and cryptocurrency peaked in 2015 before gradually decreasing in the following periods. Concomitantly, the cryptocurrency uncertainty has acted as the “receiver.” More importantly, the authors found the predictive power of economic policy uncertainty to predict the cryptocurrency uncertainty index. This paper’s results hold robust when using alternative measurement of cryptocurrency policy uncertainty.

Originality/value

This study is the first research that deeply investigates the association between two uncertainty indicators, namely economic policy uncertainty and the cryptocurrency uncertainty index. We provide fresh evidence about the dynamic connectedness between country-level economic policy uncertainty and the cryptocurrency index. Our work contributes a new channel driving the variants of uncertainties in the cryptocurrency market.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Henry Lau, Yung Po Tsang, Dilupa Nakandala and Carman K.M. Lee

In the cold supply chain (SC), effective risk management is regarded as an essential component to address the risky and uncertain SC environment in handling time- and…

Abstract

Purpose

In the cold supply chain (SC), effective risk management is regarded as an essential component to address the risky and uncertain SC environment in handling time- and temperature-sensitive products. However, existing multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approaches greatly rely on expert opinions for pairwise comparisons. Despite the fact that machine learning models can be customised to conduct pairwise comparisons, it is difficult for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to intelligently measure the ratings between risk criteria without sufficiently large datasets. Therefore, this paper aims at developing an enterprise-wide solution to identify and assess cold chain risks.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel federated learning (FL)-enabled multi-criteria risk evaluation system (FMRES) is proposed, which integrates FL and the best–worst method (BWM) to measure firm-level cold chain risks under the suggested risk hierarchical structure. The factors of technologies and equipment, operations, external environment, and personnel and organisation are considered. Furthermore, a case analysis of an e-grocery SC in Australia is conducted to examine the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Findings

Throughout this study, it is found that embedding the FL mechanism into the MCDM process is effective in acquiring knowledge of pairwise comparisons from experts. A trusted federation in a cold chain network is therefore formulated to identify and assess cold SC risks in a systematic manner.

Originality/value

A novel hybridisation between horizontal FL and MCDM process is explored, which enhances the autonomy of the MCDM approaches to evaluate cold chain risks under the structured hierarchy.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 121 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Md Shamimul Hasan, Normah Omar, Paul Barnes and Morrison Handley-Schachler

The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to detect trends in financial statement manipulation; second, to measure the level of manipulation and to measure the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to detect trends in financial statement manipulation; second, to measure the level of manipulation and to measure the variation in manipulation between countries; and, third, to identify widely used techniques in financial statements manipulation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses financial data of listed companies from Asia, namely, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Hong Kong and China. The study adopts financial ratios, financial forensic tool, dichotomous approach and statistical tools to analyze the data (84,000 observations) over a period of four years from 2010 to 2013.

Findings

The results show that 34 per cent of sample companies in selected Asian countries are involved in the manipulation of financial statements; the average level of manipulation (overall manipulation index) is 72 per cent; and there is a significant difference between countries at 5 per cent level. The study also identifies four most commonly used techniques, namely: days’ sales in receivable (DSRI), depreciation (DEPI), assets quality (AQI) and total accruals to total assets (TATA).

Research limitations/implications

Although this study found a significant national difference between countries in terms of practicing manipulation in financial statements, it did not address the issue of why some countries have higher level of manipulation and greater fluctuations in manipulation than others. Further study could be conducted to look for the reasons on these issues.

Practical implications

Investors and other stakeholders are advised to judge the manipulation in financial statements before fixing up for investment. At least they should examine Sales, Accounts Receivable, Depreciation, Value of Fixed Assets and Accruals data before accepting the financial statement in good faith.

Social implications

The trend of manipulation in financial statements is increasing day by day and that is why it needs to prevent to protect our society from white collar crime. The cost of white collar crime is much higher and key executives are making money at the expense of investors and other stakeholders. This kind of study creates awareness among stakeholders about the manipulation as well as provides techniques to examine the faithfulness of financial statements. Then, managers will not overstate or understate either revenues or expenses easily, as it can damage the goodwill.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind addressing measurement of manipulation score, overall manipulation index (OMI) and identification of widely used variables of manipulation in financial statements are new contributions towards existing literature of earnings manipulation.

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Brian Micallef

The purpose of this paper is to compute an aggregate misalignment index using a multiple indicator approach to identify under- or over-valuation of house prices in Malta…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compute an aggregate misalignment index using a multiple indicator approach to identify under- or over-valuation of house prices in Malta based on fundamentals.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of six indicators are used that capture households, investors and system-wide factors: the house price-to-Retail Price Index ratio, the price-to-hypothetical borrowing volume ratio, price-to-construction costs ratio, price-to-rent ratio, dwelling investment-to-GDP ratio and the loan bearing capacity. The weights are derived using principal component analysis. The analysis is performed using both the house price indices of the National Statistics Office (NSO) and the Central Bank of Malta (CBM), which are based on contract and advertised prices, respectively.

Findings

House prices in Malta were overvalued by around 20 to 25 per cent in the pre-crisis boom. This disequilibrium started to be corrected following the decline in house prices, with the CBM and NSO house price cycles reaching a trough in 2013 and 2014, respectively. At the trough, house prices were undervalued by around 10 to 15 per cent. Since then, house prices started to recover although the recovery in advertised prices was more pronounced compared to that based on contract prices. In mid-2017, advertised house prices were slightly overvalued, while contract prices still have to reach their equilibrium level. The dynamics from the misalignment index, including its peaks and troughs, are remarkably similar to the range derived from statistical filters.

Practical implications

Estimates of house price misalignment have both economic and financial stability implications.

Originality/value

This paper allows for a decomposition of the house price cycle, tailored for the particular characteristics of the Maltese housing market. It also takes into account the relationship between house prices and private sector rents, which in recent years have been buoyed, among other factors, by the high inflow of foreign workers and changing patterns in the tourism industry.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Md Shamimul Hasan, Normah Omar and ABM Rashedul Hassan

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between financial strength or condition and managerial practices in preparing financial statements of public…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between financial strength or condition and managerial practices in preparing financial statements of public limited companies. The objectives of this study are threefold – to measure the financial strength, to measure integrity index and to examine the relationship between management practices and financial strength.

Design/methodology/approach

Financial ratios, Altman’s Z-Score, integrity index, ranking approach and chi-square test are used to achieve the objectives. A multi-year cross-country analysis is done by considering sample of seven Asian countries, namely, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Hong Kong, China and Japan.

Findings

The study catches the relationship between management practices and financial strength across sample countries. Management practices is one of the responsible factors for this relationship. They use discretionary power in preparing financial statements to control the trading results. The principles of accounting do not support the alteration of financial data to look the company better on paper. The cost of financial statement fraud is higher than other occupational fraud.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not cover factors other than management practices and further study could be conducted to look for the other reasons that may also responsible for the deviations.

Practical implications

Conflict of interest between shareholders and board of directors is not a new phenomenon. Auditing system is introduced to minimize this conflict of interest, but they failed to uphold their position in reality. Management also needs to prove their integrity in financial statements. Ethical consideration is the highest priority.

Social implications

Stakeholders, especially regulators, professional bodies and academics, should concentrate on the issue on ‘how to reduce the manipulation in financial statements’ to create a safe investments avenue for the nation.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidences regarding the influence of management practices on financial statements and financial strength of listed companies across countries. The culture, attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, etc., are different from country to country. The aim is to contribute empirical evidence about the relationship between management practices and financial health in different settings. This study is first of its kind.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

1 – 10 of 89