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Many managers and scholars agree that diversity is a positive factor that leads to competitive economic advantage for organisations. However, this assertion remains…
Many managers and scholars agree that diversity is a positive factor that leads to competitive economic advantage for organisations. However, this assertion remains largely untested. To examine the implied relationship between firm performance and diversity, performance at minority‐friendly organisations was compared to that at other organisations within the same industry. Results indicated that minority friendly firms significantly outperformed the market, indicating that diversity in organisations may be related to economic success. This finding has significant strategic implications.
The purpose of the present study is to understand the diversity management concept in Taiwan setting by providing a closer look into local companies’ practices. Rational…
The purpose of the present study is to understand the diversity management concept in Taiwan setting by providing a closer look into local companies’ practices. Rational and focus for this research exploration is based on three areas related to diversity management in organizations: external and internal pressures for diversity in Taiwanese companies; companies’ approaches and senior leadership attitude toward diversity; companies’ diversity management practices.
The authors have collected secondary and primary data, including 15 interviews with management, at three large Taiwan semiconductor companies and build a case study of diversity management in Taiwan.
Taiwan companies’ diversity management is motivated mainly by business case and social responsibility goals. They experience a need for diversity management and proactively introduce diversity management policies.
Further studies should look into diversity management practices of smaller private/family-owned companies in Taiwan to get a deeper understanding of the concept in the country using quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Originality and Value
Taiwan is historically culturally homogeneous society, which undergoes massive demographic changes under the influence of low birth rate and high rate of immigration. Taiwan situation creates specific economic, cultural, and political context for diversity management that differs from other Asian, European or Western societies.
The Fair Labor Standards Act (here in after referred to as the FLSA or Act, 1938) requires that most employees in the U.S. be paid at least the federal minimum wage for all hours worked and receive overtime pay at one and one‐half times the regular rate for all hours worked over 40 hours in a work‐week. Defined within the Act are certain types of employees who are exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay, i.e., if a worker is employed as a bonafide executive, administrative, professional, outside sales, or computer employee. These exempt categories are cumulatively referred to as the white collar exemption and the workers are called white collar employees. To qualify for such exemptions the job description and/or employment contract must meet certain salary and job duties tests. The past thirty years have seen these tests become outdated resulting in uncertainty and ambiguity in their application. On April 24, 2004 the Wage and Hour Division of the U. S. Department of Labor responded to these decades‐old exemption descriptions with new regulations relating to white collar exemptions of the Act called the FairPay Over time Initiative (here in after referred to asFPOI). The purpose of the new FLSA regulations was to modernize, update, and clarify the criteria for these exemptions and to eliminate legal problems that the prior regulations caused.
This book offers theoretical frameworks and results of hundreds of empirical studies designed to investigate aspects of social identity dimensions of difference. Part I provides a foundation for examining social identity by defining it in terms of systems of power and hegemony, offering discussion of relationships between researchers and their participants (or, employees), and focusing on an ever-expanding literature which addresses the many ways that social identity dimensions overlap and intersect for individuals. Part II offers in-depth looks at specific social identity dimensions of culture, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, social class, physical and psychological ability, and faith/spirituality. As the final installment, Chapter 12 summarizes the book’s major themes. The message speaks to human resources and diversity managers in organizations as well as researchers; encouraging them to actively disassemble homogeneity at the top of organizations and to support enabling of all humans to reach their full human potential across organizations and in all social realms. Promoting and enabling social identity difference throughout organizations is no easy task due to multiple challenges. Indeed, incremental gains and small wins mean moving forward; the right direction.
The purpose of this paper was to address one of Spotswood et al.’s (2012) “uncomfortable questions”. The paper applies negative option marketing, the use of defaults as a…
The purpose of this paper was to address one of Spotswood et al.’s (2012) “uncomfortable questions”. The paper applies negative option marketing, the use of defaults as a behavioral engineering tool to shape choice, to social marketing and then uses the Hunt-Vitell (1986, 1993, 2006) Theory of Marketing Ethics to evaluate it against President Kennedy’s (1962) Consumer Bill of Rights and the American Marketing Association’s (2014) statement of marketing ethics.
A conceptual assessment of the ethics of negative option social marketing (NOSM) using the Hunt-Vitell (1986, 1993, 2006) Theory of Marketing Ethics as the evaluative framework.
When assessed using the Hunt-Vitell (1986, 1993, 2006) Theory of Marketing Ethics, NOSM possesses neither ethically sound means nor socially desirable ends.
This paper contributes to the emerging debate on the use of nudges in a social marketing context and is a partial response to Spotswood et al. (2012).
Identification of dominant approaches and applied practices in the field of diversity and diversity management (DM) in Polish companies in the context of trends on labor market. Although there is not much diversity in Poland now, it is expected that there will be more age related and ethnic diversity in future.
Semi-structured interviews with HR specialist in 50 innovative companies (medium and large companies) were conducted. A synthesis of the current achievements of Polish research in this area was also carried out.
The concept of DM is not popular yet in Polish organizations. There are mostly observed declarative activities concentrating on image-related benefits and focusing on the equal employment opportunity. Findings are consistent with the results of other authors.
The study was limited by research methodology which presented one-sided, HR managers, view of the problem. Further studies examining other perspectives are required.
Observed trends on labor market require changes in attitudes toward diversity on organizations. A major challenge is to overcome the traditional approach. Potential benefits and threats ought to be documented, legal regulations adjusted to changes on labor market developed. The regulations ought to take the growing number of immigrants and problems associated with retirement age being lowered into consideration. Further studies are required.
The assessment of the state of DM implementation in Polish organizations in the context of labor market changes and associated challenges constitutes an original character of the present study.
Valuing diversity emphasizes the awareness, recognition, and appreciation of human differences and revolves around creating an inclusive environment in which everyone…
Valuing diversity emphasizes the awareness, recognition, and appreciation of human differences and revolves around creating an inclusive environment in which everyone feels esteemed. This generally takes place through a series of training programs that attempt to improve interpersonal relationships among workers by asking participants to become more tolerant—generally understood today as an approval and acceptance of others' practices and beliefs. Because tolerance is such a highly desirable quality in many Western societies, and seemingly one of its few non‐controversial values, rarely is its significance questioned. Nevertheless, contemporary interpretations of tolerance can be problematic for multicultural programs, and tolerance understood as respect and civility toward others may be a more appropriate tool to easing hostile tensions between individuals and groups and to helping communities move past intractable conflict. The purpose of this paper is to offer a reinterpretation of tolerance.
This literature review suggests that contemporary interpretations of tolerance often used in multicultural workshops as the recognition, appreciation, acceptance, and celebration of differences may be problematic.
An understanding of tolerance involving civility and respect for others, not their beliefs or conduct, may lead to greater effectiveness of diversity training efforts. This new interpretation of tolerance may also help counter the belief among a number of leaders, particularly in Europe, that multiculturalism has failed.
Given the resistance and backlash that sometimes emerge in response to terms such as “diversity,” “inclusion,” and “discrimination,” it is possible that focusing on civility instead could improve the efficacy of existing multicultural training programs.
Ting‐Toomey's (1988) face‐negotiation theory of conflict predicts that choice of conflict style is closely associated with face‐negotiation needs, which vary across…
Ting‐Toomey's (1988) face‐negotiation theory of conflict predicts that choice of conflict style is closely associated with face‐negotiation needs, which vary across cultures. This study investigated this prediction in a workplace setting involving status and face‐concern with a sample of 163 Anglo‐Australian and 133 Chinese university students who were working full or part‐time. The association of type of communication (direct or cautious) according to type of face‐threat (self or other) and work status (subordinate, co‐worker or superior) with preferences for three conflict management styles (control, solution‐oriented, non‐confrontational) was examined for the two cultural groups. The results showed that: (1) as predicted by the individualist‐collectivist dimension, Anglo respondents rated assertive conflict styles higher and the non‐confrontational style lower than their Chinese counterparts; (2) overall, both Anglo and Chinese respondents preferred more direct communication strategies when self‐face was threatened compared with other‐face threat; (3) status moderated responses to self and other‐face threat for both Anglos and Chinese; (4) face‐threat was related to assertive and diplomatic conflict styles for Anglos and passive and solution‐oriented styles for Chinese. Support was shown for Ting‐Toomey's theory; however the results indicated that, in applied settings, simple predictions based on only cultural dichotomies might have reduced power due to workplace role perceptions having some influence. The findings were discussed in relation to areas of convergence and the two cultural groups; widening the definition of “face”; and providing a more flexible model of conflict management incorporating both Eastern and Western perspectives.