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G. T. Lumpkin and Robert J. Pidduck

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to…

Abstract

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to conceptualize and measure it. This chapter makes the case that EO has grown beyond its roots as a firm-level unidimensional strategy construct and that a new multidimensional version of EO is needed to capture the diverse manifestations and venues for entrepreneurial activity that are now evident around the world – global entrepreneurial orientation (GEO). Building on the five-dimension multidimensional view of EO set forth when Lumpkin and Dess (1996) extended the work of Miller (1983) and Covin and Slevin (1989, 1991), the chapter offers an updated definition of EO and a fresh interpretation of why EO matters theoretically. Despite earnest efforts to reconcile the different approaches to EO, in order to move the study of EO and the theoretical conversation about it forward, we maintain that as a group of scholars and a field, we need to acknowledge that two different versions of EO have emerged. Given that, we consider original approaches to measuring EO, evaluate formative measurement models, consider multiple levels of analysis, call for renewed attention to EO configurations, and discuss whether there is a theory of EO.

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Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article

Joanne Hughes

The role of macro‐level processes in determining the effectiveness or otherwise of micro‐level initiatives is a theme that is developed in this paper. Based on efforts to…

Abstract

The role of macro‐level processes in determining the effectiveness or otherwise of micro‐level initiatives is a theme that is developed in this paper. Based on efforts to tackle division between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland through cross‐community contact, the paper will argue that the structural context within which contact occurs has important implications for the extent to which achievements of particular encounters are extrapolated to the wider community.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Wenan Wu and Hong Zheng

This study aims to introduce the hybrid finite element (FE) – meshfree method and multiscale variational principle into the traditional mixed FE formulation, leading to a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to introduce the hybrid finite element (FE) – meshfree method and multiscale variational principle into the traditional mixed FE formulation, leading to a stable mixed formulation for incompressible linear elasticity which circumvents the need to satisfy inf-sup condition.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the hybrid FE–meshfree method, the displacement and pressure are interpolated conveniently with the same order so that a continuous pressure field can be obtained with low-order elements. The multiscale variational principle is then introduced into the Galerkin form to obtain stable and convergent results.

Findings

The present method is capable of overcoming volume locking and does not exhibit unphysical oscillations near the incompressible limit. Moreover, there are no extra unknowns introduced in the present method because the fine-scale unknowns are eliminated using the static condensation technique, and there is no need to evaluate any user-defined stability parameter as the classical stabilization methods do. The shape functions constructed in the present model possess continuous derivatives at nodes, which gives a continuous and more precise stress field with no need of an additional smooth process. The shape functions in the present model also possess the Kronecker delta property, so that it is convenient to impose essential boundary conditions.

Originality/value

The proposed model can be implemented easily. Its convergence rates and accuracy in displacement, energy and pressure are even comparable to those of second-order mixed elements.

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The Marketisation of English Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-856-9

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Book part

Jennifer Kurth, Alison Zagona, Amanda Miller and Michael Wehmeyer

This chapter provides “viewpoints” on the education of learners with extensive and pervasive support needs. That is, students who require the most support to learn, often…

Abstract

This chapter provides “viewpoints” on the education of learners with extensive and pervasive support needs. That is, students who require the most support to learn, often categorized as having intellectual disability, multiple disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, or related disabilities. The lenses through which we provide these viewpoints are historical and future-oriented; we begin with historic perspectives on the education of students with extensive and pervasive support needs, and then provide 21st century viewpoints for these learners. We interpret the notion of viewpoints in two ways: first, consistent with a viewpoint as indicating an examination of objects (in this case, practices and interventions) from a distance so as to be able to compare and judge; and, second, viewpoint as indicating our perspective on said interventions and practice.

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Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

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Book part

Russell Spiker, Lawrence Stacey and Corinne Reczek

Purpose: We review theory and research to suggest how research on sexual and gender minority (SGM) population health could more completely account for social class.…

Abstract

Purpose: We review theory and research to suggest how research on sexual and gender minority (SGM) population health could more completely account for social class.

Approach: First, we review theory on social class, gender, and sexuality, especially pertaining to health. Next, we review research on social class among SGM populations. Then, we review 42 studies of SGM population health that accounted for one or more components of social class. Finally, we suggest future directions for investigating social class as a fundamental driver of SGM health.

Findings: Social class and SGM stigma are both theorized as “fundamental causes” of health, yet most studies of SGM health do not rigorously theorize social class. A few studies control socioeconomic characteristics as mediators of SGM health disparities, but that approach obscures class disparities within SGM populations. Only two of 42 studies we reviewed examined SGM population health at the intersections of social class, gender, and sexuality.

Research implications: Researchers interested in SGM population health would benefit from explicitly stating their chosen theory and operationalization of social class. Techniques such as splitting samples by social class and statistical interactions can help illuminate how social class and SGM status intertwine to influence health.

Originality: We synthesize theory and research on social class, sexuality, and gender pertaining to health. In doing so, we hope to help future research more thoroughly account for social class as a factor shaping the lives and health of SGM people.

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Article

David V. O’Sullivan, Corinna F. Grindle and J. Carl Hughes

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility, and effectiveness, of using Headsprout Early Reading (HER), an online computer program, to teach basic reading…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility, and effectiveness, of using Headsprout Early Reading (HER), an online computer program, to teach basic reading skills to adult offenders with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs) in a secure hospital.

Design/methodology/approach

A single subject pre-post-test design replicated across two participants was used. Two standardized literacy tests were completed at baseline, half way through the intervention, and at the end of the intervention period. A measure of reading self-concept was also completed. An additional component to this research design was the inclusion of two “treatment as usual” (TAU) control participants who did not complete the program.

Findings

Results are positive in terms of the feasibility of running the program, improved reading skills, and self-concept scores for both “intervention” participants compared to the “TAU” participants.

Originality/value

HER was originally developed for typically developing children, and has been found to be effective for children with IDs and developmental disabilities. This is the first study to evaluate this program with an adult population.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article

Louise D. Denne, Nick J. Gore, J. Carl Hughes, Sandy Toogood, Edwin Jones and Freddy Jackson Brown

There is an apparent disconnect between the understanding of best practice and service delivery in the support of people with learning disabilities at risk of behaviours…

Abstract

Purpose

There is an apparent disconnect between the understanding of best practice and service delivery in the support of people with learning disabilities at risk of behaviours that challenge. We suggest, is a problem of implementation. The purpose of this paper is to explore reasons why this might be the case: a failure to recognise the collective works of successive generations of research and practice; and a failure to address the macro-systems involved and systems changes needed to support implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the consensus that exists in respect of best practice. Drawing upon ideas from implementation science the paper highlights the complexities involved in the implementation of all evidence-based practices and uses this as a framework to propose ways in which an infrastructure that facilitates the delivery of services in the learning disabilities field might be built.

Findings

This paper highlights core recommended practices that have been consistent over time and across sources and identifies the systems involved in the implementation process. This paper demonstrates that many of the necessary building blocks of implementation already exist and suggests areas that are yet to be addressed. Critically, the paper highlights the importance of, and the part that all systems need to play in the process.

Originality/value

In the absence of any generalised implementation frameworks of evidence-based practice in the learning disabilities field, the paper suggests that the findings may provide the basis for understanding how the gap that exists between best practice and service delivery in the support of people with a learning disability at risk of behaviours that challenge might be closed.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article

Erwin Stein and Gautam Sagar

The purpose of this paper is to examine quadratic convergence of finite element analysis for hyperelastic material at finite strains via Abaqus‐UMAT as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine quadratic convergence of finite element analysis for hyperelastic material at finite strains via Abaqus‐UMAT as well as classification of the rates of convergence for iterative solutions in regular cases.

Design/methodology/approach

Different formulations for stiffness – Hessian form of the free energy functionals – are systematically given for getting the rate‐independent analytical tangent and the numerical tangent as well as rate‐dependent tangents using the objective Jaumann rate of Kirchoff stress tensor as used in Abaqus. The convergence rates for available element types in Abaqus are computed and compared for simple but significant nonlinear elastic problems, such as using the 8‐node linear brick (B‐bar) element – also with hybrid pressure formulation and with incompatible modes – further the 20‐node quadratic brick element with corresponding modifications as well as the 6‐node linear triangular prism element and 4‐node linear tetrahedral element with modifications.

Findings

By using the Jaumann rate of Kirchoff stress tensor for both, rate dependent and rate independent problems, quadratic or nearly quadratic convergence is achieved for most of the used elements using Abaqus‐UMAT interface. But in case of using rate independent analytical tangent for rate independent problems, even convergence at all is not assured for all elements and the considered problems.

Originality/value

First time the convergence properties of 3D finite elements available in Abaqus sre systematically treated for elastic material at finite strain via Abaqus‐UMAT.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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