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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Christopher Ansell, Eva Sørensen and Jacob Torfing

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Co-Creation for Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-798-2

Abstract

Many jurisdictions fine illegal cartels using penalty guidelines that presume an arbitrary 10% overcharge. This article surveys more than 700 published economic studies and judicial decisions that contain 2,041 quantitative estimates of overcharges of hard-core cartels. The primary findings are: (1) the median average long-run overcharge for all types of cartels over all time periods is 23.0%; (2) the mean average is at least 49%; (3) overcharges reached their zenith in 1891–1945 and have trended downward ever since; (4) 6% of the cartel episodes are zero; (5) median overcharges of international-membership cartels are 38% higher than those of domestic cartels; (6) convicted cartels are on average 19% more effective at raising prices as unpunished cartels; (7) bid-rigging conduct displays 25% lower markups than price-fixing cartels; (8) contemporary cartels targeted by class actions have higher overcharges; and (9) when cartels operate at peak effectiveness, price changes are 60–80% higher than the whole episode. Historical penalty guidelines aimed at optimally deterring cartels are likely to be too low.

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The Law and Economics of Class Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-951-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1938

THIS is the month when librarians and library workers everywhere, their holidays over, turn to their winter plans. There are, however, some interesting events to take…

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THIS is the month when librarians and library workers everywhere, their holidays over, turn to their winter plans. There are, however, some interesting events to take place before the darker and more active months come. The first is the meeting at Oxford on September 21st and subsequent days of the Federation International de Documentation. This will be followed by and merge into the ASLIB Conference, and there is in prospect an attendance of over three hundred. Our readers know that this organization produces and advocates the International Decimal Classification. It is not primarily a “library” society but rather one of abstractors and indexers of material, but it is closely akin, and we hope that English librarianship will be well represented. Then there is a quite important joint‐conference at Lincoln of the Northern Branches of the Library Association on September 30th— October 3rd, which we see is to be opened by the President of the Library Association. Finally the London and Home Counties Branch are to confer at Folkestone from October 14th to 16th, and here, the programme includes Messrs. Jast, Savage, McColvin, Wilks, Carter, and the President will also attend. There are other meetings, and if the question is asked: do not librarians have too many meetings ? we suppose the answer to be that the Association is now so large that local conferences become desirable. One suggestion, that has frequently been made, we repeat. The Library Association should delegate a certain definite problem to each of its branches, asking for a report. These reports should form the basis of the Annual Conference. It is worthy of more consideration.

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New Library World, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

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Humanizing Higher Education through Innovative Approaches for Teaching and Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-861-1

Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Luis Velazquez

The U.N.’s perseverance in fostering sustainable industrialisation has not rendered the expected results in the long run. Despite that the scope of SDG9 is reasonably well…

Abstract

The U.N.’s perseverance in fostering sustainable industrialisation has not rendered the expected results in the long run. Despite that the scope of SDG9 is reasonably well defined and communicated, there is much more to be done to make it a reality. Achievements on SDG9 have not been as positive as they might have. It should be noted that there is no trustworthy source of information that indicates with certainty the progress towards the 2030 agenda. The purpose of this chapter is to examine factors involved in the SDG9 reporting and other critical issues necessary to understand the progress and how we are progressing towards SDG9. From this point on, data for our debate come from several sources. Still, the primary outcomes come from the 2017 High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, the Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020, the 2020 Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) independent assessment, and other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) reports as well as scientific literature. Unfortunately, there appears to be a lack of reliable SDG9 information available, and what exists is hard to find. In general, information sources often offer qualitative information, and quantitative data are scarce. This situation is especially the case for the documents presented in the chapter, which provided a few statistics disaggregate data, making it challenging to analyse in-depth. The debate here presented does not seek to be a fully comprehensive assessment of their content. The analysis is not designed to interpret or replace the referenced documents, either. Instead, it is intended to illustrate the difficult task of measuring the progress towards SDG9.

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SDG9 – Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-134-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1951

A Survey of the Development of Creep‐resisting Alloys: N. P. Allen (Superintendent of the Metallurgy Division of the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington). Official…

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A Survey of the Development of Creep‐resisting Alloys: N. P. Allen (Superintendent of the Metallurgy Division of the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington). Official summaries of the papers presented at the Symposium held by the Iron and Steel Institute at the Institution of Civil Engineers on February 21 and 22, 1951. The development of creep‐resisting alloys, both ferritic and austenitic, in the period between the two wars is briefly described, and a rather more detailed account is given of the general trend of the researches undertaken after 1939 in Great Britain, America, and Germany to provide improved materials for use in gas turbines. The properties of alloys that were relied upon in each country are described in terms of the stresses giving plastic deformations of the order of 0.1 per cent in 1,000 hr. (FIGS. 1, 2, 3).

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Tom Brijs and Ali Pirdavani

Purpose – Urban and suburban arterials carry a large share of urban traffic and contend with a relatively large proportion of transport network crashes. Road crashes and…

Abstract

Purpose – Urban and suburban arterials carry a large share of urban traffic and contend with a relatively large proportion of transport network crashes. Road crashes and their consequent societal costs diminish the sustainability of transportation systems, highlighting the need to identify road safety problems and their corresponding solutions. This chapter briefly outlines problems and solutions associated with crash risk on urban and suburban arterials. In addition, this chapter studies and discusses several safety countermeasures – ranging from local treatments to integral frameworks – and their effectiveness on improving traffic safety of urban and suburban arterials.

Approach – Crash occurrence on urban and suburban arterials is affected by numerous contributing factors. This chapter pays attention primarily to the effects of traffic characteristics and road design features. In this regard, several pertinent variables which have been extensively examined in the literature are reviewed and their contributions to the safety of urban and suburban arterials are discussed.

Findings – A review of the literature identifies a number of variables as influential factors of crashes on urban and suburban arterials. Although the associations of some variables (e.g., traffic volume) are consistent with expectations, others (e.g., lane width and speed) show mixed and sometimes counterintuitive results. These findings signify that additional research is needed to reveal the correct functional form and magnitude of these relationships.

Practical implications – The results show that while the general direction and magnitude of effects of some engineering and management-related treatments are known, additional research is needed to consolidate the impact and effectiveness of integrated approaches.

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Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

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Indicates books which are especially recommended.

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Further University of Wisconsin Materials: Further Documents of F. Taylor Ostrander
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-166-8

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Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Stefano Salata

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Ecologically-compatible Urban Planning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-783-7

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2017

Tammar B. Zilber

How can we take multimodalities (the discursive, material, spatial, visual, emotional, embodied, etc.) of institutions seriously? In contemplating the implications of the…

Abstract

How can we take multimodalities (the discursive, material, spatial, visual, emotional, embodied, etc.) of institutions seriously? In contemplating the implications of the “multimodal turn” (broadly defined) for institutional inquiry and theory, I first situate it within its intellectual current in the social sciences more broadly. I then use three ethnographic vignettes from Israeli high-tech conferences, all centering on “place” (as a – presumably first and foremost – geographical and material reality) to highlight the shortcomings of a “weak” multimodal approach and the promise of a “strong” one. Finally, I suggest ways to capture multiple modalities within an integrated account and discuss the challenges entailed in an institutional inquiry undertaken to acknowledge, and conceptualize, non-linguistic realities.

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Multimodality, Meaning, and Institutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-330-4

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