FOR most of the uses to which timber is put, reasonably good resistance to impact is an advantage; for many uses, such as aircraft construction, sports goods, or tool…
FOR most of the uses to which timber is put, reasonably good resistance to impact is an advantage; for many uses, such as aircraft construction, sports goods, or tool handles, it is an overriding requisite. Its measurement is, therefore, an important part of the routine testing of timber. Since conditions of service as regards this property are seldom, if ever, known with exactitude, and since, moreover, the size and shape of the member receiving the impact bear an important but undefined relationship to its resistance, the laboratory tests for the property are essentially empirical. The resulting figures from such tests in themselves mean little; they cannot be translated into design figures as are, for instance, modulus of elasticity or maximum compressive strength; and their value lies almost entirely in their use for comparisons. As with most empirical tests, one of the essentials is that the character of the test, i.e. test‐piece and testing conditions, shall be rigidly defined and adhered to. Unfortunately there are in more or less common use in the various timber testing laboratories several different methods of measuring impact resistance and the lack of a universal standard impact test is a serious drawback to the usefulness of the results, since one of the greatest advantages of the standardized test, viz., the interchange‐ability of results between one laboratory and another, is at once nullified. It is hoped that when circumstances permit the interested research institutions will take up the study of impact testing and agree upon a uniform standard test.
COMPRESSED laminated (“ improved ”) wood is generally counted among the hardening laminated plastics; it is built up from a large number of very thin veneers (0.0–1.005…
COMPRESSED laminated (“ improved ”) wood is generally counted among the hardening laminated plastics; it is built up from a large number of very thin veneers (0.0–1.005 in.) which are arranged with parallel grain directions. With the use of thermosetting synthetic resins, the veneers are highly compressed between hot platens. The adhesive, normally of the Bakelite type, is also a strengthening agent, or, with material of high resin content and high density, the wood may be considered as more or less a carrier for the resin, the latter being in this case the main strength‐producing agent.
The present crisis in the global economy is more serious than anything that we have witnessed since the 1930s, yet policies designed to tackle it are limited and…
The present crisis in the global economy is more serious than anything that we have witnessed since the 1930s, yet policies designed to tackle it are limited and inadequate. Those that have been proposed, in terms of fiscal stimulus, rely on an outmoded view of the economy, where money can be used to force economic growth. Since the recognition of planetary limits such a strategy is no longer admissible. Instead, we need a global system where countries agree to limit their carbon dioxide emissions: this chapter outlines the Contraction and Convergence model (C&C), which proposes that countries do this within a framework of equal per capita emissions for all global citizens. However, within the existing financial architecture such a policy would do nothing to prevent the United States from continuing to print dollars and to use these to gain an unfair share of world production. Other countries controlling reserve currencies would also be able to avoid strict limits. The policy answer proposed is that of the Ebcu (environment-backed currency unit) – a neutral global trading currency to be used by countries that have also signed up to the C&C model.
In this unashamedly polemical piece it is argued that we should not jump into bed with virtue too quickly. It is suggested that the concept of virtue is dangerously ill…
In this unashamedly polemical piece it is argued that we should not jump into bed with virtue too quickly. It is suggested that the concept of virtue is dangerously ill defined, so it becomes what those in power hegemonically define it to be; that virtue’s rise may serve factional political purposes within social science; that system implications are frequently missed, side-lined or minimised so that virtue niavely becomes a purely individual construct; that aspirational codes, which expect a-contextual demonstration of ‘virtue’ from practitioners, need to be tempered with a dose of reality; and that the achievable ‘good enough’ is better than the unrealisable and idealised virtuously ‘perfect’. It is suggested that the implied centrality of ‘virtue’ in research is problematic, that being ‘critically virtuous’ has limits, and that better education will not necessarily lead to morality and integrity in research – any more than it does in the general population. Finally it is argued that ethics committees should focus on (probable) behaviours, rather than rather than imagined motives or vague character traits. Locating virtue in an individual is dangerous because it allows the system to blame and punish an individual, rather than acknowledge the collective responsibility of the whole system. It is suggested that we need to move from a purist pursuit of virtue to a more realistic and nuanced appreciation of the real world consequences of its adoption. Whilst the present emphasis on sound research ethics and responsibility is a positive development, we need to slow down.
Parental illness can affect child and adolescent psychosocial well‐being. Mental health effects of parental bereavement generally and HIV‐related bereavement specifically…
Parental illness can affect child and adolescent psychosocial well‐being. Mental health effects of parental bereavement generally and HIV‐related bereavement specifically have been poorly explored in children. HIV‐related illness has a number of specific features that may directly affect mental health considerations. Infection is clustered in families. Bereavement is often multiple. Death is often preceded by severe illness and multiple opportunistic infections. AIDS is stigmatised, which may impede disclosure, social support and adjustment. In low‐income countries where HIV infection is concentrated, access to palliative care as well as medical care may be limited. This review systematically identifies studies on HIV and bereavement in children. Searches of electronic databases for relevant articles revealed 14 studies examining bereavement with sufficient measurement and controlled methodology providing standardised behavioural and emotional outcome measures. Scrutiny of the results revealed the majority (12: 86%) recorded an adverse behavioural or emotional impact on the child. A detailed analysis of the studies provides insights to risks as well as protective factors that may inform future interventions. Only one systematic intervention was identified whereby a coping skills intervention had positive and long‐lasting effects. This paper examines urgent future needs and the requirement for evidence‐based policy and provision.
Refurbishing houses is considered a key measure to improve the energy efficiency of the built environment. However, little is known about the implementation and outcome of…
Refurbishing houses is considered a key measure to improve the energy efficiency of the built environment. However, little is known about the implementation and outcome of housing renovation for energy upgrades in the Vietnamese practice. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy performance of the current housing stock in Vietnam and the potential to reduce energy use in households.
The paper is based on a survey with 153 respondents in three major climatic regions of Vietnam. The survey focusses on building characteristics, environmental performance, energy performance and refurbishment activities. Data collected from the survey were statistically analysed to give insight into the current performance of the housing stock and its energy saving potential.
This paper concludes that building design and construction, particularly the building envelope, have a significant influence on the occupants’ comfort. However, the energy consumption in houses is not statistically associated with building design and indoor environment. It is suggested that financial status and occupants’ behaviour currently have a strong influence on the household energy use. The survey also showed that refurbishment improves the housing performance, especially if improving the indoor environment was one of the drivers.
There are very few studies on energy use in households in Vietnam, especially with regards to actual energy consumption. This paper brings insights into the actual energy consumption and reveals the “performance gap” in Vietnamese housing stock.