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The objective of this chapter is to outline an integrating picture of the situation, representativeness, contradictions, and challenges that the treatment of diversity assumes in Brazilian society and in its organizations. The aim is to reply to the research question: “How are public policies and organizational practices constructing ways of inserting and valuing the diversity of Brazilians?” We provide a brief background of the changes in the global and Brazilian contexts over the last few decades and analyze the demographic data presented in the 2010 Census and in studies on diversity that were published in the main periodicals in the Administration area in Brazil, between 2000 and 2014 with regard to the segments most widely studied in the academic literature: Afro-descendants, homosexuals, the elderly, Indians, women, and people with a disability. The conclusion reached is that, in a short period of time, Brazil has made great strides in constructing the mechanisms and legal devices for recognizing the rights of its diverse population and that private companies are in the initial stages of introducing diversity programs.
The semi‐loof element is probably one of the most efficient for the solution of thin shells of arbitrary geometry. It was originally published by Irons and since then it…
The semi‐loof element is probably one of the most efficient for the solution of thin shells of arbitrary geometry. It was originally published by Irons and since then it has been the object of much research with respect to its philosophy and performance in various structural situations.
According to Figure 1, semi‐loof shell, plate and beam elements are implemented in such a way that three independent blocks are formed to obtain the stiffness, mass, load…
According to Figure 1, semi‐loof shell, plate and beam elements are implemented in such a way that three independent blocks are formed to obtain the stiffness, mass, load and stress matrices. These three blocks are controlled by subroutine MSTIF, which is directly called from a standard FE program.
The Semiloof shell element stiffness and mass matrices are analysed. Various integration rules for the stiffness matrix are used, and the influence of these rules on the…
The Semiloof shell element stiffness and mass matrices are analysed. Various integration rules for the stiffness matrix are used, and the influence of these rules on the existence of mechanisms and on the element spectra is studied. Some methods for lumping the mass matrix are attempted with special reference to a method imposing a given behaviour of the spectra of eigenvalues.
The native species from western Mato Grosso do Sul provide fruits with unique sensory characteristics and high nutrient concentrations. Tropical fruit consumption is…
The native species from western Mato Grosso do Sul provide fruits with unique sensory characteristics and high nutrient concentrations. Tropical fruit consumption is increasing due to the growing recognition of the nutritional value. These fruits play important roles through the marketing of their products and nutritionally through their consumption. All fruits are edible and are used in the food industry and well sensory accepted. The purpose of this paper is to verify the physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in fruits collected in the Cerrado and Pantanal biomes from western Mato Grosso do Sul.
The fruits of baru, bocaiuva, jatobá, jenipapo and pequi were collected. To characterize them, longitudinal diameter, transverse diameter, total soluble solids, acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, total sugar, glucose and macro and micronutrient contents analysis were performed in triplicate.
Jatobá presented the highest values of vitamin C. For phenolics, baru and jatobá stood out; bocaiuva presented the highest results for sugars, while jatobá was superior for glucose. The fruits with the highest antioxidant capacity, DPPH, were pequi and baru, while via ABTS the jatobá was the highest. Baru presented higher levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. The bocaiuva presented the highest results for potassium and sulfur, the jatobá calcium and manganese. Jenipapo stood out with its boron content. Magnesium presented superior results in the baru, jenipapo and bocaiuva. The results reinforce the diversity of physicochemical characteristics.
The increase of the flow of available information, together with the growth of multicultural influences, the search for wholesome diet and the diversity of flavors and colors make these fruits important regional development tools. Their characteristics encompass national and international exploration potential that arouse consumer interest and contribute to the pursuit of innovations. In addition, the native species mentioned above provide fruits with unique sensory characteristics. Their consumption is increasing in the markets due to the growing recognition of their nutritional value. Therefore, these fruits play important roles, economically, through the marketing of their products and nutritionally through their consumption.
This chapter proposes a hybrid heuristic method combining a clustering search (CS) metaheuristic with an exact algorithm to solve a two-stage capacitated facility location…
This chapter proposes a hybrid heuristic method combining a clustering search (CS) metaheuristic with an exact algorithm to solve a two-stage capacitated facility location problem (TSCFLP). The TSCFLP consists of defining the optimal locations of plants and depots and the product flow from plants to depots (first stage) and from depots to customers (second stage). The problem deals commonly with cargo transportation in which products must be transported from a set of plants to meet customers’ demands passing out by intermediate depots. The main decisions to be made are related to define which plants and depots must be opened from a given set of potential locations, which customer to assign to each one of the opened depots, and the amount of product flow from the plants to the depots and from the depots to the customers. The objective is to minimize costs satisfying demand and capacity constraints. Computational results demonstrate that our method was able to find good solutions when comparing it directly with a commercial solver and a genetic algorithm (GA) reported in a recent chapter found in the literature, requiring less than 1.5% and 41% of the computational time performed by these methods, respectively. Thus, our hybrid method combining CS with an exact algorithm can be considered as a new matheuristic to solve the TSCFLP.
The continent of Antarctica consists of 14 million km2, roughly equivalent to the whole of South America, and is of immense interest to humanity, in particular to the…
The continent of Antarctica consists of 14 million km2, roughly equivalent to the whole of South America, and is of immense interest to humanity, in particular to the countries of the Antarctic Treaty. The Antarctic continent is the continent of superlatives: it is almost isolated from the rest of the continents, and is severely cold, windy, and dry. In winter, the Antarctic area increases to nearly 32 million km2, because of formation of a 1,000km wide ice‐belt. The average depth of ice on the continent is in the order of 2,000m, and in the transantarctic region this depth is 4,800 meters. Antarctica is the biggest sweet water reservoir of the planet earth. Icebergs are common and huge ones (190km in length and 130km wide) have also been observed. The minimum temperature recorded (–89.2°C) at Vostok (Russian base) on 21 July 1983 is also the minimum recorded environmental temperature on the planet earth. Because of extreme temperature variations the Antarctic winds have high velocity. The environment is very dry and at the center of the continent the dryness is of the same magnitude as in the driest desert anywhere on the planet. This is the only uninhabited continent of the planet, except for some 50 research bases which cover an insignificant area located on the continent and the Antarctica Peninsula. Because of its economic, strategic, geopolitical, scientific, meteorological, and oceanographic importance and possible exploitation in the future, Antarctica has been attracting greater attention every day. Antarctica is basically concentrated around the South Pole and it touches the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Brazil, in common with many other nations, has geopolitical interests and in untapped mineral deposits (considerable deposits of coal, petroleum, gas). In the south, where the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans meet, the cold water of Antarctica is the habitat housing hundreds of species of sea life. Unrestricted and unbalanced exploitation of Antarctica could cause changes in the meteorological and oceanographic balance. In the present paper, the Brazilian Antarctic Program, and summarized results of studies of Antarctic soil, rocks, and sediments are reported.
The present study evaluates the principal forms of socioenvironmental damage suffered by local traditional populations and indigenous communities as a result of the…
The present study evaluates the principal forms of socioenvironmental damage suffered by local traditional populations and indigenous communities as a result of the installation and operation of the Pecém Industrial and Shipping Complex. The main problem being pollution in the municipalities of São Gonçalo do Amarante and Caucaia, which is in the Brazilian state of Ceará. As a theoretical framework, we use the concept of “environmental justice,” and “environmental racism.” The latter were used to understand the process of “deterritorialization” of these communities that resulted in extensive impacts on the natural environment, as well as the way of life and productive practices of these communities. Our analyses confirm the destruction of the means that allow noncapitalist exploitation of natural resources, such as artisanal fisheries, subsistence farming, and the use of commons. We show how all these processes are constitutive of environmental injustice and environmental racism. These may contribute to the organization of the resistance and struggle of the affected populations, namely indigenous peoples and traditional communities.
This study aims to deal with the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extracts of red peppers in natura. Furthermore, preference was…
This study aims to deal with the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extracts of red peppers in natura. Furthermore, preference was evaluated for the taste and color of soybean oil added red pepper extracts.
The antioxidant capacity was determined by four methods. The content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and ascorbic acid in the extracts was determined by chromatographic, spectrophotometric and titration methods, respectively.
The results showed that the highest antioxidant capacity was found in Malagueta pepper extract through reducing power (FRAP) method. In this same extract, high amount of phenolic compounds was found. However, the extracts of Bode and Dedo-de-moça peppers had higher amounts of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, respectively. Sensorially, the oil added extracts were preferred.
Red peppers are very popular and consumed worldwide, besides being constituted of important phytochemicals. Results showed high antioxidant activity in the extracts of peppers, and high content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and ascorbic acid mainly in chili. This study highlights the importance of the extracts of red peppers, genus Capsicum, as a source of antioxidants, in addition to vegetable oils.
It is important to check the acceptance of the application of extract in vegetable oil, so it can be marketed as a natural antioxidant. This study provides valuable information about the antioxidant capacity of extracts of red peppers and its acceptance.
Describes a hybrid formulation solution based on variational techniques, where unknown functions are combined with a set of Fourier trigonometric expansions. The unknown…
Describes a hybrid formulation solution based on variational techniques, where unknown functions are combined with a set of Fourier trigonometric expansions. The unknown functions refer to the toroidal shell distortion in the longitudinal direction when the shell is submitted to generalised in‐plane forces in the linear‐elastic stress field. This set of functions is solved from a system of differential equations, having calculated the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors in the complex field from the system equations matrix. For this purpose the MAPLE® mathematical solver was used. This module led to an analytical solution, which is exact for each Fourier term used in the global solution. The final results agree very well with finite element method or other solutions obtained using a total expansion of trigonometric functions in the longitudinal and meridional directions.