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Article

C.A. Webb

The 38th Annual Report of the Executive Committee for the year 1953–54 is of especial interest, as it may be considered together with a simultaneous publication, dated…

Abstract

The 38th Annual Report of the Executive Committee for the year 1953–54 is of especial interest, as it may be considered together with a simultaneous publication, dated June, 1954, entitled Recommendations on library co‐operation. (Copies may be had from the Librarian, The National Central Library, Malet Place, London, W.C.1.) The Recommendations are put forward jointly by the N.C.L. and by the National Committee on Regional Library Co‐operation and are the result of the findings of a Joint Working Party set up by the Executive Committee of the N.C.L. on 24th October, 1949. These Recommendations, based largely on a report of a survey undertaken for the Joint Working Party by Mr. R. F. Vollans of Westminster Public Library, will be considered later.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article

Aarhus Kommunes Biblioteker (Teknisk Bibliotek), Ingerslevs Plads 7, Aarhus, Denmark. Representative: V. NEDERGAARD PEDERSEN (Librarian).

Abstract

Aarhus Kommunes Biblioteker (Teknisk Bibliotek), Ingerslevs Plads 7, Aarhus, Denmark. Representative: V. NEDERGAARD PEDERSEN (Librarian).

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Aslib Proceedings, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article

Colin C Williams and Ioana Alexandra Horodnic

The purpose of this paper is to advance a new explanation for cross-country variations in the participation of small businesses in the informal economy. Drawing upon…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advance a new explanation for cross-country variations in the participation of small businesses in the informal economy. Drawing upon institutional theory, it proposes that the greater the asymmetry between the codified laws and regulations of formal institutions (state morality) and the unwritten socially shared rules of informal institutions (civic morality), the greater is the propensity of small businesses to participate in the informal economy. To analyse this, the extent to which small businesses evade payroll taxes by paying employees an undeclared (envelope) wage in addition to their official declared salary is analysed.

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate this, data are reported from a 2013 Eurobarometer survey involving 5,174 face-to-face interviews with employees in small businesses across the 28 member states of the European Union (EU-28).

Findings

The finding is that small businesses display a greater propensity to engage in this informal wage practice in countries where there is a higher degree of asymmetry between the codified laws and regulations of formal institutions (state morality) and the unwritten socially shared rules of informal institutions (civic morality). A multi-level logistic regression analysis reveals these to be countries which have lower qualities of governance, lower levels of taxation and intervention in the labour market and less effective social transfer systems.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study is that it has only examined whether employees in small businesses receive informal wages. Future cross-country surveys should analyse a wider range of ways in which small businesses participate in the informal economy such as under-reporting turnover.

Originality/value

This is the first known analysis of cross-country variations in the participation of small businesses in the informal economy.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Ian Barron and Keith Topping

This narrative review explored the efficacy of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programmes between 1990 and 2002. There were 22 efficacy studies that met clear…

Abstract

Purpose

This narrative review explored the efficacy of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programmes between 1990 and 2002. There were 22 efficacy studies that met clear inclusion criteria. Results covered both methodological design and the range of outcome measures. Methodology was analysed through four dimensions (target population, prevention programme implementation, evaluation methodology and cost-effectiveness). Outcomes for children covered nine categories (knowledge, skills, emotion, perception of risk, touch discrimination, reported response to actual threat/abuse, disclosure, negative effects and maintenance of gains). The studies had many methodological limitations. Prevention programmes had a measure of effectiveness in increasing children ' s awareness of child sexual abuse as well as self-protective skills. Beyond minimal disclosure rates, there was no evidence to demonstrate that programmes protected children from intra-familial sexual abuse. For a small number of children prevention programmes produced minimal negative emotional effects. Recommendations for future research, policy and practice, include realistic outcomes for child participants and locating programmes within wider abuse prevention measures.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part

Dana L. Ott and Snejina Michailova

The International Human Resource Management literature has paid less attention to the selection of expatriates and the decision-making criteria with regard to such…

Abstract

Purpose

The International Human Resource Management literature has paid less attention to the selection of expatriates and the decision-making criteria with regard to such selection, than to issues relating to expatriates’ role, performance, adjustment, success, and failure. Yet, before expatriates commence their assignments, they need to be selected. The purpose of this book chapter is to provide an overview of issues related specifically to expatriate selection. In particular, the chapter traces the chronological development of selection over the last five decades or so, from prior to 1970 until present. The chapter subsequently identifies five expatriate selection criteria that have been applied in regard to traditional international assignments, but are also relevant to alternative assignments.

Methodology/approach

We begin by reviewing expatriate selection historically and its position within expatriate management based on changing business environments. Then, drawing from over five decades of literature on international assignments, we identify and discuss five organizational, individual, and contextual level criteria for selecting expatriates.

Findings

Emphasis on different issues tends to characterize expatriate selection during the various decades since the literature has taken up the topic. The chapter describes those issues, following a chronological perspective. In addition, the chapter organizes the various selection criteria in five clusters: organization philosophy, technical competence, relational abilities, personal characteristics, and spouse and family situation.

Research limitations and practical implications

While there are studies on expatriate selection, there is more to be understood with regard to the topic. Provided all other expatriation phases are subsequent, if selection is not understood in detail, the foundations of studying phases and processes that take place once expatriates are selected may not be sound. While the scholarly conversations of other expatriate-related issues should continue, the international human resource management literature can absorb more analyses on selection. A better understanding of expatriate selection will assist its better management. The chapter provides a basis for human resource management professionals to be able to map the various criteria for selection, and decide, under particular circumstances, which ones to prioritize and why.

Originality/value

The chapter brings clarity to a topic that has remained less researched when compared to other areas of interest related to expatriates and their international assignments by tracing the historical development of this important phase of the expatriation process. In addition, the chapter organizes a number of selection criteria along five core areas and discusses each of them to gain insights that help explain expatriate selection in greater detail.

Details

Global Talent Management and Staffing in MNEs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-353-5

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Book part

Michael Stevens, Allan Bird, Mark E. Mendenhall and Gary Oddou

Based on a review of multiple literatures, a comprehensive content domain of essential intercultural competencies for effective global leaders is presented. This domain is…

Abstract

Based on a review of multiple literatures, a comprehensive content domain of essential intercultural competencies for effective global leaders is presented. This domain is then used to guide the development of the Global Competencies Inventory (GCI), a 160-item self-report measure that assesses the degree to which individuals possess the intercultural competencies that are associated with global leader effectiveness. Using sample sizes ranging from several hundred to nearly 9,000 subjects, evidence from several studies is presented showing the GCI to have convergent validity, predictive validity, and freedom from demographic and ethnic subgroup biases. Implications for theory and future research are also discussed.

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Article

Signs are not wanting that the policy we have so often urged in these pages, that the present is the appropriate time for all public libraries to pay strict and systematic…

Abstract

Signs are not wanting that the policy we have so often urged in these pages, that the present is the appropriate time for all public libraries to pay strict and systematic attention to their collections upon science and its technological and industrial applications, is being adopted by several libraries. An interesting example is that of Richmond, where a special “trades” section is to be formed having as its purpose the collecting and segregating of industrial literature, and Aberdeen has formed a sub‐committee to revise its collections similarly. No librarian believes there is anything novel in either case, since the competent librarian is continually reviewing his collections with the object of replacing obsolete works; but the public particularising of the technology sections is at the moment a policy the wisdom of which cannot be gainsaid. Moreover, numbers of books on important, but little understood, industries are coming from the press at present, and an unusual alertness is necessary to prevent them passing out of notice. Further, definite advertising of the books was never more desirable. In this connexion we have not seen any recent lists more calculated to serve the purpose than those issued by the Coventry Public Libraries, and not their least virtue is their unpretentious character— they are single leaflets with brief library information, a carefully selected set of titles, and an invitation to manufacturers, artisans and other readers to use the telephone in their search for information. We do not suppose that a very great number will avail themselves of the privileges these collections and bulletins offer; but it is all‐important that they should exist. A keen publicity spirit, which is not ashamed of or deterred by lack of visible results, is required now in order to reach the employer and the young worker in particular. Many methods suggest themselves: Lists posted at workshops, special catalogues such as that issued by Gateshead, bulletins such as those at Coventry, even visits from the librarian to the various factories, workshops, business houses and schools. Some of these have been tried, we know, but the circumstances of two years ago are not those of to‐day; and, if results were discouraging in the past, they need not be so now; and, in any case, new efforts should be made.

Details

New Library World, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article

Colin C Williams, Alvaro Martinez-Perez and Abbi Kedir

Reflecting the moral theorisation of bribery as a negative phenomenon, bribery has been widely shown to have a deleterious impact at the national level on economic…

Abstract

Purpose

Reflecting the moral theorisation of bribery as a negative phenomenon, bribery has been widely shown to have a deleterious impact at the national level on economic development and growth. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether it is also the case at the firm level that bribery has negative impacts on firm performance. Until now, the few studies conducted in individual nations and regions have produced mixed results. Here, therefore, a more comprehensive evaluation of the relationship between bribery and firm performance is undertaken across the developing world.

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, World Bank Enterprise Survey data on 106,805 enterprises across 132 developing countries is used to provide a firm-level analysis of the relationship between bribery and firm performance.

Findings

The finding is that bribery enhances firm performance. Firms asserting that it is necessary for enterprises like theirs to give gifts or payments to public officials in order to get things done have 13.9 per cent higher average annual sales growth rates and 48 per cent higher annual productivity growth rates, after controlling for other determinants of firm performance.

Practical implications

Given that engaging in bribery at the firm level results in higher firm performance, despite bribery having an overall detrimental negative impact at the country level, public authorities will need to develop measures to alter not only the cost-benefit ratio confronting individual enterprises but also the institutional deficiencies that result in the prevalence of bribery.

Originality/value

This is the first firm-level evaluation of the relationship between bribery and firm performance across the developing world.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article

BOURNEMOUTH lies in one of the most beautiful parts of South‐west England; and all the world knows how this region has been immortalised by Thomas Hardy, who by his…

Abstract

BOURNEMOUTH lies in one of the most beautiful parts of South‐west England; and all the world knows how this region has been immortalised by Thomas Hardy, who by his romances and poems has introduced to the public of England and America the ancient land of Wessex.

Details

New Library World, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article

Colin Charles Williams and Slavko Bezeredi

To transcend the long-standing debate regarding whether workers are driven into the informal economy by either their involuntary “exclusion” or voluntary “exit” from the…

Abstract

Purpose

To transcend the long-standing debate regarding whether workers are driven into the informal economy by either their involuntary “exclusion” or voluntary “exit” from the formal economy, the purpose of this paper is to propose and evaluate the existence of a dual informal labour market composed of an exit-driven “upper tier” and an exclusion-driven “lower-tier” of informal workers, and to explore its policy implications.

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, data are reported from a 2015 survey of the informal economy conducted in South-East Europe involving 6,019 face-to-face interviews in Bulgaria, Croatia and FYR Macedonia.

Findings

Identifying a dual informal labour market with three exit-driven informal workers for every exclusion-driven informal worker, a multinomial logit regression analysis reveals that, compared to the exclusion-driven “lower tier”, the exit-driven “upper tier” is significantly more likely to be populated by the formally employed, retired and those not struggling financially. Participation is not affected by the perceived severity of penalties and likely risks of detection, but relative to those in the exclusion-driven “lower tier”, there is a significant correlation between those doing so for exit rationales and their lack of both horizontal trust and vertical trust in formal institutions.

Practical implications

The outcome is a call to transcend the conventional deterrence approach of increasing the penalties and risks of detection. Instead, to tackle those driven by exit rationales, tackling both the lack of horizontal trust that other citizens are operating in a compliant manner and the lack of vertical trust in formal institutions is advocated. To tackle exclusion-driven informal workers, meanwhile, a focus upon the macro-level economic and social conditions which lead to their participation is required.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to empirically evaluate the existence of a dual informal labour market and to evaluate its policy implications.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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