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The case for the employer′s right to test for substance abuse is set out. Abuse is an ever‐present and expensive problem, and screening should be seen as comparable to medical assessments for suitability of employment in particular categories of work or hazardous environments. Prevention of abuse requires early recognition of those at risk and appropriate assistance. Guidelines are offered on when and how to test.
The present study sets out to compare women (N=24) and men (N=613) working on Norwegian oil rigs in the North Sea on work experiences, work satisfaction, perception of…
The present study sets out to compare women (N=24) and men (N=613) working on Norwegian oil rigs in the North Sea on work experiences, work satisfaction, perception of safety attitudes and safety climate, and psychological health.
Data were collected using questionnaires from 1,022 women and men, a 59 percent response rate. Only those respondents working in traditionally male‐dominated jobs were considered.
Few differences were observed, suggesting that those women that continue in this occupation compare favorably with their male colleagues.
The findings should be considered tentative, given the small number of women taking part in the study.
For the past three decades, women were encouraged and supported to enter non‐traditional occupations (NTOs). NTOs were occupations that have traditionally been male‐dominated. Only modest inroads have been made by females during this time. Women in NTOs typically report work experiences reflecting unique challenges, most resulting from the gender culture of their workplace and findings show that women that survive in these jobs report similar experiences to those of their male colleagues.
The paper adds to one's knowledge of women's experiences in non‐traditional jobs.
Vinegar, vin aigre or soured wine is a name that suggests the nature and origin of the substance which is the subject of this note. In France the name is applied to the substance that results from the acetous fermentation of wine. The name has at least the merit of accuracy. The term vinegar has, however, been extended in this country to denote the product obtained by the acetous fermentation of a malt liquor and in the United States of America to mean the substance resulting from the acetous fermentation of cider. In general it may be said that certain kinds of vegetable matter may be made to yield a vinegar by this process. The Census of Production under the common heading “ vinegar and acetic acid ” states that in 1924 the output of these substances, in this country, was 14,200,000 gallons of a value of a little over a million pounds sterling; in 1930 the corresponding figures were 14,600,000 gallons and £950,000; in 1935, 17,100,000 gallons and £790,000. It may be observed that vinegar and acetic acid are not by any means the same thing. Vinegar made by acetous fermentation contains about six per cent. or slightly under that amount of acetic acid as a main and essential constituent, but other substances are present that give it a characteristic bouquet. But whether vinegar be made from malt, wine, cider, or similar substances it is a palatable and wholesome condiment and preservative. It is the result of a biological as distinguished from a chemical process, and we suggest that the term vinegar be limited to the product resulting from the former and not from the latter if it be intended for use in the household as an element in the food supply. The Food Inspectors Handbook, VI Edition, 1913, p. 300, tells us that commercial vinegar is a more or less impure acetic acid. The different varieties according to their source being malt, wine, cider, beet, sugar, and wood vinegars. We cannot think that “ impure acetic acid ” is a particularly happy definition of the term vinegar. It is surely the “ impurities ” the result of secondary reactions that give the characteristic flavour and palatability to vinegar that serve to distinguish it from a merely dilute solution of acetic acid. In the same way whisky might be defined as impure alcohol, but no one, as far as we know; has ever seriously suggested that a dilute solution of absolute alcohol would be a satisfactory substitute for whisky. similarly we suggest that wood vinegar—derived as it is from the distillation of various kinds of wood—is in its origin a purely chemical product and in no sense a biological product. It would follow that if the term vinegar be restricted, as we suggest it ought to be, to the product of biological action the term wood vinegar though well known and often used is really meaningless. The Food Industries' Manual, 1945, written for the guidance of food manufacturers, describes artificial vinegar—made by diluting acetic acid with water and colouring the solution with caramel—as a very poor substitute for the genuine product. “ Artificial vinegar ” it says “is raw in taste and completely lacking in the fine bouquet of characteristic brewed vinegar.” The Extra Pharmacopœia says that vinegar is “also made by diluting acetic acid and colouring with burnt sugar.” The reference however, presumably refers to the use of this kind of “ vinegar ” in pharmacy—vinegar and brown paper for instance—and not as an ingredient in foods.
The unjustifiable claims made by manufacturers of a certain class with regard to their products are frequently of a startling character, such claims often being so utterly absurd that in the case of educated persons they serve not to recommend the puffed goods, but rather to hold up the manufacturer who makes such statements to ridicule. False claims and false allegations are always made with one object in view, namely, to obtain money by taking advantage of public ignorance. There are two distinct kinds of false claims and allegations: they may either be unfair and unjustifiable with regard to the properties, uses, and value of the article, or, what is far worse, they may be entirely false allegations as to the purity and genuineness of the product. With regard to the latter practice it is difficult to find words of condemnation sufficiently strong. The manufacturer not only sells an adulterated and inferior article, but boldly makes a statement to the public to the effect that the article is pure and genuine. It is unpardonable that men who claim to be honourable men of commerce should make such statements, knowing full well that the manufacture of the article consists in a process of adulteration. The effect of these malpractices is not only to gull the public, but to cause the manufacturer of products which are really genuine and of good quality to suffer severely. To any reasonable mind it is quite evident that really good and genuine products cannot be sold to compete in price with articles which, despite the strong claims that may be made for them, are inferior and often worthless. The unscrupulous manufacturer is putting money into his own pocket to which he has no right, and which in reality belongs to those who have suffered as the result of dishonest competition.
The Final Report of the Departmental Committee appointed to enquire into the use of Preservatives and Colouring Matters in Food has at last been issued and will be read and studied with interest by all concerned.
The purpose of this study is three fold: to provide a preliminary exploration of meeting planners' use and perceived usefulness of the different types of social media; to…
The purpose of this study is three fold: to provide a preliminary exploration of meeting planners' use and perceived usefulness of the different types of social media; to examine why meeting planners use social media and; to investigate the perception of adopting the social media, especially as perceived critical mass impacts the adoption of social networking media.
Data were collected from the members of a professional association for meeting professionals in the Southwest US using an online self‐administered questionnaire. A total of 510 members received an invitation to take the survey and 120 responses were received, representing a 23.5 percent response rate. Descriptive analysis, discriminant validity, reliability and path analysis were used to estimate the relationships between the five constructs: perceived critical mass, usefulness, ease of use, attitudes and intention to use social network media in the future.
The most commonly preferred social network sites were Facebook (29 percent), LinkedIn (15 percent), YouTube (13 percent), Twitters (11 percent) and My Space (11 percent) and the social networking media rated most useful were Facebook (mean=3.7), LinkedIn (mean=3.1), YouTube (mean=3.0), Blogs (mean=2.7), Webinars (mean=2.6) and Twitter (mean=2.5), The top three reasons for using social media were: to communicate with other planners easily and quickly through chat or discussion boards (80.4 percent), to share queries, problems, solutions and opinions with other meeting planners (70.1 percent) and to get feedback from attendees after meeting/event/convention (69.9 percent). Additionally, the path model used in the analysis indicated that perceived critical mass not only directly influences intention to use social network media but also indirectly affects attitude toward using social media and intention to use social media simultaneously through perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness.
Even though the social networking media has previously been used by many meeting planners to find information, few research studies have explored the meeting planners' perception of social networking media and what factors may have an effect on meeting planners' adoption of using social network media. This study provides a preliminary empirical analysis of meeting planners' perception of these tools and the factors that influence their utilization.