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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1948

A.D. Baxter and C. Kell

IT is well known that aircraft designers and operators are never satisfied for very long with the power available from the engines installed in their aeroplanes. They arc…

Abstract

IT is well known that aircraft designers and operators are never satisfied for very long with the power available from the engines installed in their aeroplanes. They arc always demanding overload power or some form of boosting for special conditions such as take‐off on elevated or tropical airfields or for interceptor aircraft during climbs. In the case of turbo‐jet engines, one way of achieving this is by ‘reheating’ or, perhaps less ambiguously, ‘after‐burning’. There have been many references to this form of boosting which would lead one to assume that it is a very recent idea; in fact, a Meteor aircraft was flying with an experimental reheat power boosting system as long ago as 1944. While the system suffered from a number of troubles, it is of more than historical interest and some account of its performance may be useful in assessing the potential value of reheat.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 20 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

PAUL KUPIEC

Risk capital is an important input for management functions. Capital structure decisions, capital budgeting, and ex post performance measurement require different measures…

Abstract

Risk capital is an important input for management functions. Capital structure decisions, capital budgeting, and ex post performance measurement require different measures of risk capital. While it has become common to estimate risk capital using VaR models, it is not clear that VaR‐based capital estimates are optimal for applications to management functions (e.g. risk management, capital budgeting, performance measurement, or regulation). This article considers three typical problems that require an estimate of credit risk capital: an optimal equity capital allocation; an optimal capital allocation for capital budgeting decisions; and an optimal capital allocation to remove moral hazard incentives from a compensation contract based on ex post performance. The optimal credit risk capital allocation is different for each problem and is never consistent with a credit VaR estimate of unexpected loss. The results demonstrate that the optimal risk capital allocation depends on the objective.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2011

Darrell D. Irwin

This chapter describes the shortfalls in local police budgets following the economic woes experienced by police departments during the Great Recession. Providing a…

Abstract

This chapter describes the shortfalls in local police budgets following the economic woes experienced by police departments during the Great Recession. Providing a timeline of external events impacting police budgets, in particular, the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the Great Recession, this chapter places these events since 2000 in an economic context. In addition, multiple sources, that is, interviews with police administrators, survey data, and news media content, are used to analyze police budget cuts. Most police administrators have already cut their budgets and report their jurisdictions anticipate more effects from the economic crisis. Significant reductions in police budgets, personnel and training are discussed. Both a police administrator and academic perspective of policing in an economic crisis are included in this chapter to better understand how recent budgets cuts affect the quality of policing.

Details

Economic Crisis and Crime
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-801-5

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

Lancashire Constabulary

The Tilley Awards for Problem‐Oriented Policing ‘recognise and reward the most intelligent, courageous and effective approaches to dealing with the problems police…

Abstract

The Tilley Awards for Problem‐Oriented Policing ‘recognise and reward the most intelligent, courageous and effective approaches to dealing with the problems police encounter on the streets’ (Home Office website). They are open to the police and crime and disorder reduction partnerships. Entrants have to submit a description of their project and its achievements. This issue features an edited version of a winner's submission.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Open Access

Abstract

Details

Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-5504

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Satu Salmi, Martti Grönroos and Esko Keskinen

This article presents a model for police visibility and people's fear of crime. Survey data were collected from 3,245 adults and 977 teenagers in two typical Finnish…

2656

Abstract

This article presents a model for police visibility and people's fear of crime. Survey data were collected from 3,245 adults and 977 teenagers in two typical Finnish neighborhoods. A four‐factor model including two visibility factors (patrol‐car‐related activities and police‐on‐foot activities) and two fear of crime factors (crimes against property and crimes against persons) was constructed by structural equation modeling. Respondents who perceived the police more often in on‐foot activities were less fearful of crimes against property. In the teenagers' group, the same effect was found in relation to crimes against persons. In both groups, seeing the police more in patrol‐car‐related activities resulted in increased fear of crimes against persons and property. Our results indicate that a simple act for the police, such as stepping out of the car every now and then, i.e. not only in crime‐related situations, has a positive impact on the fear of crime as expressed by the public.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Kate Moss

In December 2001 the then Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions (DTLR but now currently the Office for the Deputy Prime Minister, hereafter referred to…

Abstract

In December 2001 the then Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions (DTLR but now currently the Office for the Deputy Prime Minister, hereafter referred to as ODPM) issued the tender document it had promised for the review and update of 5/94 Planning Out Crime (Home Office, 1994) The specification was for good practice guidance on planning out crime to be written within 6 months. Notwithstanding this exercise, the writer contends that in the face of the research, literature, legislation and expertise in relation to designing out crime, papers issued by ODPM and the form of the tender document itself demonstrate that it remains uncommitted to many of the accepted principles of design‐against‐crime and to the cross‐cutting crime reduction obligations of the police and local authorities under the 1998 Crime and Disorder Act. The author anticipates that this lack of commitment may be evident in the forthcoming revised planning out crime guidance and suggests possible approaches to this potentially influential document.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2012

Davis Royal Judson

The neighborhoods north and northwest of downtown St Louis are blighted by their abundance of substandard, abandoned, and demolished housing. Crime, poverty, and…

Abstract

The neighborhoods north and northwest of downtown St Louis are blighted by their abundance of substandard, abandoned, and demolished housing. Crime, poverty, and unemployment are high while family stability, educational achievement, and health outcomes are low. These conditions are not unique to St Louis, but can be found in neighborhoods in every city in America. How did this happen? What factors led to the demise of these neighborhoods? This chapter examines the history of St Louis along with theories of neighborhood succession to identify possible explanations for the city's collapse.

Details

Living on the Boundaries: Urban Marginality in National and International Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-032-2

Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2009

Steve Herbert and Katherine Beckett

In Seattle and other cities, recent expansions of trespass law make the regulation of public space easier and more extensive. A range of new tools allow police officials…

Abstract

In Seattle and other cities, recent expansions of trespass law make the regulation of public space easier and more extensive. A range of new tools allow police officials to clear spaces of those deemed undesirable; they define zones of exclusion and increase the police's power to make arrests. The use of these tools extends contemporary practices of using criminal law to address instances of urban “disorder.” We draw on data from Seattle to catalog some of these new tools, the capabilities they create, and the implications they generate. One important such implication is that they work to push undesirables so far to the margins – spatially, socially, politically, legally – as to render them far outside the body politic. The use of these techniques thus raises important questions about the advisability of addressing social problems by increasing the power of the criminal law.

Details

Special Issue New Perspectives on Crime and Criminal Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-653-9

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Hasan Al‐Basteki

The main purpose of this study is to gain insight into Bahraini auditors' perceptions of the importance of 17 variables in the assessment of inherent risk of various audit…

Abstract

The main purpose of this study is to gain insight into Bahraini auditors' perceptions of the importance of 17 variables in the assessment of inherent risk of various audit assignments. The study also seeks to examine whether differences exist in the evaluation of variables, influencing the assessment of inherent risk between auditors working for the Big‐Six accounting firms and those working for local or regional firms and between auditors practicing in Bahrain and those practicing in the UK. A questionnaire was distributed and responses from 58 auditors were received. The study found that auditors practicing in Bahrain have difficulties in identifying variables associated with the assessment of inherent risk. Of the 17 variables examined in this study, only six variables were identified by the majority of Bahraini auditors as inherent risk factors. The results also suggest that statistically significant differences exist between auditors working with “Big Six” firms and those working for local/regional firms with respect to identification of selected variables as inherent risk factors and their importance in the assessment of inherent risk. Finally, the findings suggest that UK auditors appear to be better trained than their Bahraini counterparts at identifying factors affecting inherent risk.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

1 – 10 of 678