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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

C. Fitzpatrick, P. Mavromatidis, E. Lewis, J. Lucas and A. Al‐Shamma'a

This paper investigates the feasibility of using the emission intensity of low‐pressure argon and nitrogen gas discharges as the sensing mechanism for a microwave electric…

Abstract

This paper investigates the feasibility of using the emission intensity of low‐pressure argon and nitrogen gas discharges as the sensing mechanism for a microwave electric field optical sensor probe in microwave resonant cavities. The emission is coupled to a photodiode for detection through an optical fibre due to the difficulty in using conventional optoelectronic devices in close proximity to microwave cavities. The discharge emission intensity is monitored at a range of different input powers to the cavity. The proposed designs for the electric field sensing probe are also included.

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Sensor Review, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

S. O'Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis and A.I. Al‐Shamma'a

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed review of radiation dosimetry techniques based on optical fibre dosimeters. It presents a comprehensive bibliography of…

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2688

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed review of radiation dosimetry techniques based on optical fibre dosimeters. It presents a comprehensive bibliography of the current research activities in the area.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of published work on optical fibre radiation dosimeters are presented, with the merits and limitations discussed. Each radiation dosimetry technique is discussed in turn, providing examples of dosimeters using such techniques reviewed. The main focus is on gamma radiation although other radiation dosimeters are considered.

Findings

This paper provides information on the wide range of research activity into radiation dosimeters. The dose ranges of these dosimeters are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of different dosimetry techniques.

Originality/value

A comprehensive review of published research in the area of solid radiation dosimetry is presented in this paper. It provides an individual with a review of the various techniques used and most recent research in that field.

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Sensor Review, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Jean D. Hallewell Haslwanter, Geraldine Fitzpatrick and Klaus Miesenberger

Digital systems for independent aging, support and care are not being adopted as hoped. The purpose of this paper is to examine the results of three studies to derive key…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital systems for independent aging, support and care are not being adopted as hoped. The purpose of this paper is to examine the results of three studies to derive key factors during the development and engineering process of care and support systems for older people that can impact acceptance and uptake to provide support to future projects.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzed the results of three qualitative studies, including two detailed case studies and a further study with 35 participants, to derive key factors. Methods for deriving factors are based on thematic analysis to identify common factors across cases and participants.

Findings

The findings point to a broad set of interconnected factors that give developers of these types of systems specific recommendations. These highlight what makes these projects complex and identify implications for the development process. Furthermore, they show way the needed user-centered and iterative methods may be in conflict with funding processes.

Originality/value

While others have reported on single projects or looked at acceptance, these studies were the first to explore aspects of the development process that may contribute to the lack of success to date of these types of systems. The results here support more successful outcomes in the future, both by helping people involved in the development of these systems to avoid some of the issues others face and providing input to improve the performance of the engineering process.

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Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Claire Fitzpatrick

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the neglect of girls in care who come into conflict with the law, arguing that a gender-neutral approach in this area risks…

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3256

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the neglect of girls in care who come into conflict with the law, arguing that a gender-neutral approach in this area risks further marginalising an already vulnerable population.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical review of the literature and current policy climate is undertaken to explore what is known about the experiences of females in the justice system, as well as knowledge gaps.

Findings

Evidence on the prevalence and nature of offending by girls in care is limited. However, as looked after children, girls may be more likely to have their own behaviour unnecessarily criminalised. Whilst females and males share some prior experiences of victimisation and trauma, girls also have distinct needs and may be assessed and managed by state care and control systems in very different ways.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is not based on primary research and does not present a systematic review of the literature.

Practical implications

The need to listen to girls and young women, and a far greater recognition of backgrounds of trauma must underpin future policy and practice. Diversion from the formal criminal justice system wherever possible is also a key goal to aspire to.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the specific experiences of females. It calls for a gender-sensitive, trauma-informed approach to working with girls and women from the care system who come into conflict with the law, and questions the value of criminalising those whom the state previously deemed to be in need of welfare and support.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Book part
Publication date: 2 November 2009

Sean T. Doherty

Health scientists and urban planners have long been interested in the influence that the built environment has on the physical activities in which we engage, the…

Abstract

Health scientists and urban planners have long been interested in the influence that the built environment has on the physical activities in which we engage, the environmental hazards we face, the kinds of amenities we enjoy, and the resulting impacts on our health. However, it is widely recognized that the extent of this influence, and the specific cause-and-effect relationships that exist, are still relatively unclear. Recent reviews highlight the need for more individual-level data on daily activities (especially physical activity) over long periods of time linked spatially to real-world characteristics of the built environment in diverse settings, along with a wide range of personal mediating variables. While capturing objective data on the built environment has benefited from wide-scale availability of detailed land use and transport network databases, the same cannot be said of human activity. A more diverse history of data collection methods exists for such activity and continues to evolve owing to a variety of quickly emerging wearable sensor technologies. At present, no “gold standard” method has emerged for assessing physical activity type and intensity under the real-world conditions of the built environment; in fact, most methods have barely been tested outside of the laboratory, and those that have tend to experience significant drops in accuracy and reliability. This paper provides a review of these diverse methods and emerging technologies, including biochemical, self-report, direct observation, passive motion detection, and integrated approaches. Based on this review and current needs, an integrated three-tiered methodology is proposed, including: (1) passive location tracking (e.g., using global positioning systems); (2) passive motion/biometric tracking (e.g., using accelerometers); and (3) limited self-reporting (e.g., using prompted recall diaries). Key development issues are highlighted, including the need for proper validation and automated activity-detection algorithms. The paper ends with a look at some of the key lessons learned and new opportunities that have emerged at the crossroads of urban studies and health sciences.

We do have a vision for a world in which people can walk to shops, school, friends' homes, or transit stations; in which they can mingle with their neighbors and admire trees, plants, and waterways; in which the air and water are clean; and in which there are parks and play areas for children, gathering spots for teens and the elderly, and convenient work and recreation places for the rest of us. (Frumkin, Frank, & Jackson, 2004, p. xvii)

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Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Sapam Ningthemba Singh, Vavilada Satya Swamy Venkatesh and Ashish Bhalchandra Deoghare

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the three-dimensional (3D) printing community is actively participating to address the supply chain gap of essential medical supplies such as…

Abstract

Purpose

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the three-dimensional (3D) printing community is actively participating to address the supply chain gap of essential medical supplies such as face masks, face shields, door adapters, test swabs and ventilator valves. This paper aims to present a comprehensive study on the role of 3D printing during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, its safety and its challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

This review paper focuses on the applications of 3D printing in the fight against COVID-19 along with the safety and challenges associated with 3D printing to fight COVID-19. The literature presented in this paper is collected from the journal indexing engines including Scopus, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, PubMed, Web of Science, etc. The main keywords used for searches were 3D printing COVID-19, Safety of 3D printed parts, Sustainability of 3D printing, etc. Further possible iterations of the keywords were used to collect the literature.

Findings

The applications of 3D printing in the fight against COVID-19 are 3D printed face masks, shields, ventilator valves, test swabs, drug deliveries and hands-free door adapters. As most of these measures are implemented hastily, the safety and reliability of these parts often lacked approval. The safety concerns include the safety of the printed parts, operators and secondary personnel such as the workers in material preparation and transportation. The future challenges include sustainability of the process, long term supply chain, intellectual property and royalty-free models, etc.

Originality/value

This paper presents a comprehensive study on the applications of 3D printing in the fight against COVID-19 with emphasis on the safety and challenges in it.

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Siew-Wei Yeong, Zhien-Hung Kon, Siew-Chin Ong and Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar

This study looked at the impact of a community-based public health campaign on hypertension and diabetes mellitus awareness and prevention, as well as student experiential…

Abstract

Purpose

This study looked at the impact of a community-based public health campaign on hypertension and diabetes mellitus awareness and prevention, as well as student experiential learning in a campaign conducted by pharmacy students.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sampling cross-sectional pre–post survey was done to assess disease awareness and knowledge among those who attended the health campaign. The data analysis includes a total of 230 participants with complete data. After the campaign, the pharmacy students used self-assessment to reflect their learning experience.

Findings

Most participants were unaware of their blood pressure and blood glucose readings, but they reported improved awareness of diseases and prevention of hypertension and diabetes after the health campaign. Although most participants correctly identified the common signs and symptoms of hypertension, few could associate it with overweight. Most participants were unaware of the 5 g per day salt intake limit for controlling hypertension before the campaign. Most participants were less aware that diabetes is associated with impaired vision, peripheral neuropathy, renal and heart diseases. Students expressed increased confidence in leadership, teamwork and communication abilities after the campaign based on self-assessment.

Practical implications

A health campaign enhances the disease knowledge of the general public. It has been suggested that experiential learning be encouraged in the pharmacy curriculum.

Originality/value

This study adds to the knowledge on the roles of community-based health campaigns and the value of pharmacy students’ involvement in experiential learning.

Details

Health Education, vol. 121 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

M. McSherry, C. Fitzpatrick and E. Lewis

There are various temperature measuring systems presented in the literature and on the market today. Over the past number of years a range of luminescent‐based optical…

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1345

Abstract

Purpose

There are various temperature measuring systems presented in the literature and on the market today. Over the past number of years a range of luminescent‐based optical fibre sensors have been reported and developed which include fluorescence and optical scattering. These temperature sensors incorporate materials that emit wavelength shifted light when excited by an optical source. The majority of commercially available systems are based on fluorescent properties.Design/methodology/approach – Many published journal articles and conference papers were investigated and existing temperature sensors in the market were examined.Findings – In optical thermometry, the light is used to carry temperature information. In many cases optical fibres are used to transmit and receive this light. Optical fibres are immune to electromagnetic interference and are small in size, which allows them to make very localized measurements. A temperature sensitive material forms a sensor and the subsequent optical data are transmitted via optical fibres to electronic detection systems. Two keys areas were investigated namely fluorescence based temperature sensors and temperature sensors involving optical scattering.Originality/value – An overview of optical fibre temperature sensors based on luminescence is presented. This review provides a summary of optical temperature sensors, old and new which exist in today's world of sensing.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2021

Amy Lynch, Hayley Alderson, Gary Kerridge, Rebecca Johnson, Ruth McGovern, Fiona Newlands, Deborah Smart, Carrie Harrop and Graeme Currie

Young people who are looked after by the state face challenges as they make the transition from care to adulthood, with variation in support available. In the past decade…

Abstract

Purpose

Young people who are looked after by the state face challenges as they make the transition from care to adulthood, with variation in support available. In the past decade, funding has been directed towards organisations to pilot innovations to support transition, with accompanying evaluations often conducted with a single disciplinary focus, in a context of short timescales and small budgets. Recognising the value and weight of the challenge involved in evaluation of innovations that aim to support the transitions of young people leaving care, this paper aims to provide a review of evaluation approaches and suggestions regarding how these might be developed.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of a wider research programme to improve understanding of the innovation process for young people leaving care, the authors conducted a scoping review of grey literature (publications which are not peer reviewed) focusing on evaluation of innovations in the UK over the past 10 years. The authors critiqued the evaluation approaches in each of the 22 reports they identified with an inter-disciplinary perspective, representing social care, public health and organisation science.

Findings

The authors identified challenges and opportunities for the development of evaluation approaches in three areas. Firstly, informed by social care, the authors suggest increased priority should be granted to participatory approaches to evaluation, within which involvement of young people leaving care should be central. Secondly, drawing on public health, there is potential for developing a common outcomes’ framework, including methods of data collection, analysis and reporting, which aid comparative analysis. Thirdly, application of theoretical frameworks from organisation science regarding the process of innovation can drive transferable lessons from local innovations to aid its spread.

Originality/value

By adopting the unique perspective of their multiple positions, the authors’ goal is to contribute to the development of evaluation approaches. Further, the authors hope to help identify innovations that work, enhance their spread, leverage resources and influence policy to support care leavers in their transitions to adulthood.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Nick Gould and Joanna Richardson

This article reports on the first health technology appraisal conducted jointly between the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Social Care…

Abstract

This article reports on the first health technology appraisal conducted jointly between the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE). The appraisal systematically reviewed evidence for the clinical effectiveness of parent‐training/education programmes in the management of children with conduct disorders. This appraisal is highly topical in the light of cross‐cutting policy agendas concerned with increasing parenting capacity. It is also methodologically innovative in its approach to synthesising the meta‐analysis of trial evidence on outcomes of programmes with qualitative evidence on process and implementation. The appraisal found parent‐training/education programmes to be effective in the management of children with conduct disorders, and it identifies the generic characteristics of effective programmes. It is concluded that this approach offers an exemplar for the development of systematic reviewing of complex psychosocial interventions that are relevant to integrated children's services.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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