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Radha R. Sharma and Sir Cary Cooper
Discusses the paradox of the desire for petroleum products to resist degradation in use and yet be readily biodegradable as waste products. Offers four suggestions on how…
Discusses the paradox of the desire for petroleum products to resist degradation in use and yet be readily biodegradable as waste products. Offers four suggestions on how to reduce microbial susceptibility in use.
Robert J. Thornton and Judith A. McDonald
Using a unique data set from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), we estimate the gender starting-salary gap for college graduates from 2000 to 2010…
Using a unique data set from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), we estimate the gender starting-salary gap for college graduates from 2000 to 2010. Simulation techniques are used to estimate how the salary gap would change if women had selected the same majors or job types as men. We find that about 90% of the starting-salary gap is explainable by gender differences in majors and types of job offers – a higher percentage than found in most other studies. Duncan indexes of dissimilarity also indicate that the gender distributions of job offers by college major and type of first jobs have not become more similar over the past 10 years. Although differences in college major and types of first jobs explain most of the gender gap in starting salaries of college graduates, small but unexplained gender pay differences reveal themselves in the NACE statistics.
Yaw A. Debrah and Ian G. Smith
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of…
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of globalization on work and employment in contemporary organizations. Covers the human resource management implications of organizational responses to globalization. Examines the theoretical, methodological, empirical and comparative issues pertaining to competitiveness and the management of human resources, the impact of organisational strategies and international production on the workplace, the organization of labour markets, human resource development, cultural change in organisations, trade union responses, and trans‐national corporations. Cites many case studies showing how globalization has brought a lot of opportunities together with much change both to the employee and the employer. Considers the threats to existing cultures, structures and systems.
Catherine E. Ross, Terrence D. Hill and John Mirowsky
Despite mixed evidence, researchers often suggest that married adults tend to live generally healthier lifestyles than their unmarried counterparts. In this chapter, we…
Despite mixed evidence, researchers often suggest that married adults tend to live generally healthier lifestyles than their unmarried counterparts. In this chapter, we propose and test a reconceptualization of the health lifestyle that distinguishes between “homebody” risks and “hedonic” risks that may help to make sense of previous findings concerning marriage and health-related behavior.
Using data from the 2004 Survey of Adults (n = 1,385), we employ ordinary least squares regression to model indices of normative and conventional homebody risks (greater body mass, infrequent exercise, poorer diet, and abstinence from alcohol) and unconventional and potentially dangerous hedonic risks (smoking, heavy drinking, going out to bars, eating out, inadequate sleep, and driving without seatbelts) as a function of marital status.
Our key findings indicate that married adults tend to score higher on homebody risks and lower on hedonic risks than never married adults, net of controls for age, gender, race/ethnicity, citizenship, interview language, education, employment status, household income, and religious involvement.
Research limitations include cross-sectional data, restricted indicators of health-related behavior, and narrow external validity.
Contrary to previous research, we conclude that the lifestyle of married adults is not uniformly healthy.
Robert Caves and Geoffrey Gosling
C.D. DALGLIESH, P.A. BOWEN and R.C. HILL
Housing delivery systems have been classified as developmentally‐orientated or conventionally‐orientated. It has been claimed that a developmentally‐orientated approach to…
Housing delivery systems have been classified as developmentally‐orientated or conventionally‐orientated. It has been claimed that a developmentally‐orientated approach to building procurement would encompass the parameters of community empowerment and participation in design, job creation via the development process, and economically and environmentally‐sustainable procurement (Taylor & Norval 1995). New building procurement systems display an increasing awareness of sustainability, but concentrate on economic and social sustainability, as opposed to environmental sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to document and evaluate the extent to which issues of environmental sustainability have been incorporated in the delivery of affordable housing in South Africa. The paper elaborates on a range of relevant principles for sustainable construction, which incorporate: minimisation of resource use; maximisation of reuse of resources; maximisation of use of renewable and recycled resources; use of non‐toxic materials; protection of nature; achievement of quality criteria; and promotion of labour intensive methods, skills training and capacity enhancement of local people. The authors examine the extent to which the principles of environmental sustainability have been applied, both in practice and in the formulation of South African housing policy. Finally, recommendations are made for the application of criteria for environmental sustainability in the delivery process of affordable housing in South Africa.
Jay Weerawardena and Leonard Coote
For several decades, marketing researchers have stressed that firms can achieve competitive advantage by creating superior value for customers through innovation. However…
For several decades, marketing researchers have stressed that firms can achieve competitive advantage by creating superior value for customers through innovation. However the literature on entrepreneurship and innovation based competitive strategy is deficient in several important respects. First, entrepreneurship has been poorly measured in the past. Next, research on innovation is biased towards technological innovation and new product development. Finally, robust measures of sustained competitive advantage have yet to emerge in the literature. This paper examines the role of entrepreneurship in organizational innovation‐based competitive strategy. The study finds that entrepreneurial firms pursue both technological and non‐technological innovations, and all such innovations lead to sustained competitive advantage. The study contributes to the emerging marketing and entrepreneurship interface paradigm by examining the role of entrepreneurship in the innovation based competitive strategy and refining and testing measures of entrepreneurship, organizational innovation, and sustained competitive advantage.