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Research abounds highlighting the differences between males and females when they travel. Even in business travel, these differences have been acknowledged, with suppliers…
Research abounds highlighting the differences between males and females when they travel. Even in business travel, these differences have been acknowledged, with suppliers and marketers spending significant money to develop and market products to accommodate them. The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether differences exist in terms of mobile application usage between male and female business travellers.
A mixed method approach is followed. An internet-based survey is distributed and in-depth interviews conducted with South African business travellers. The Mann–Whitney U-test is used to test the differences between males and females and their mobile application usage. Content analysis is used to analyse the interviews.
The results show that mobile applications are perceived as more important by females than males in all the phases of the travel cycle, although most of these differences in perceived importance were not significant.
Owing to the online data-collection method and the self-selective process, the findings cannot be generalised to the global population of business travellers who use mobile applications.
The results should caution corporate organisations, travel management companies and their application developers not to spend unnecessary technological and financial resources on developing applications to accommodate differences between males and females, which might not exist. Companies should rather spend money on developing applications that will enhance and add convenience to the business traveller’s experience.
The main contribution of this study lies in investigating the applications market, particularly in the context of business travel. Applications focussed on specific sectors of the tourism industry, such as business travel applications, serve business travellers differently from generic travel applications. This research examines business travel-specific applications and expands the scale and scope of the enquiry, concentrating on the travellers’ view.
本论文主要研究男人和女人在旅游中的行为区别。特别是在商务旅游中, 男女差别确实存在, 这也验证了供应商和营销商在开发营销产品中的针对性和区别性。本论文旨在验证是否男女商务旅游者对使用移动APP存在区别。
本论文采用混合采样方法。采样方式通过网络问卷和深度访谈, 采样群体为南非商务游客。本论文采取Mann–Whitney U检验来测试男女在移动APP使用上的区别。本论文还采取文本分析法来分析访问数据。
移动设备， 性别， 商务旅行， 商务旅行周期， 商务旅客， 移动商务旅行应用
This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial…
This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network approach (see, e.g., Axelsson & Easton, 1992; Håkansson & Snehota, 1995a). The study describes how adaptations initiate, how they progress, and what the outcomes of these adaptations are. Furthermore, the framework takes into account how adaptations spread in triadic relationship settings. The empirical context is corporate travel management, which is a chain of activities where an industrial enterprise, and its preferred travel agency and service supplier partners combine their resources. The scientific philosophy, on which the knowledge creation is based, is realist ontology. Epistemologically, the study relies on constructionist processes and interpretation. Case studies with in-depth interviews are the main source of data.
International experience (IE) has been acknowledged to be the most useful method for developing global leaders. However, not everyone benefits equally from IE. During the…
International experience (IE) has been acknowledged to be the most useful method for developing global leaders. However, not everyone benefits equally from IE. During the last two decades, our understanding of why this is the case and how global leaders learn from IE has rapidly increased. Several individual and organizational enablers facilitating global leader learning from IE have been identified in the literature, as have learning mechanisms that make such learning possible. However, the literature remains fragmented, and there is a great need to integrate the findings in the field. Therefore, the present paper systematically examines peer-reviewed studies on global leaders' learning from IE published between 1998 and 2019. The study contributes to the extant literature by identifying and integrating individual enablers, organizational enablers, and key learning mechanisms from global leaders' IE and by suggesting topics for future research.
To achieve a full understanding of the role ofmarketing from plan to profit requires a knowledgeof the basic building blocks. This textbookintroduces the key concepts in…
To achieve a full understanding of the role of marketing from plan to profit requires a knowledge of the basic building blocks. This textbook introduces the key concepts in the art or science of marketing to practising managers. Understanding your customers and consumers, the 4 Ps (Product, Place, Price and Promotion) provides the basic tools for effective marketing. Deploying your resources and informing your managerial decision making is dealt with in Unit VII introducing marketing intelligence, competition, budgeting and organisational issues. The logical conclusion of this effort is achieving sales and the particular techniques involved are explored in the final section.
This paper deals with an issue that has been identified in many markets where there are large numbers of package tourists. In Australia, there have been a number of…
This paper deals with an issue that has been identified in many markets where there are large numbers of package tourists. In Australia, there have been a number of studies undertaken into the use of a range of dubious business practices employed by Inbound Tour Operators (ITOs), particularly in the Korean market. The cause for this problem is identified as the minimization of the retail price of package tour by transferring part of the cost of the tour to ITOs in the destination country. Under this system, ITOs are paid a daily tour rate below their real costs and are forced to recover losses by employing a range of dubious business practices including forced shopping and kickbacks from shops. The paper models the normal operation of the package tour cycle where no business practices are used and compares this to the Korean package inbound market in Australia where the use of business practices of this nature is widespread.
Scientific investigations into the influence of fluctuations in the economic cycle on tourism have revealed that demand in this sector is indeed dependent on such…
Scientific investigations into the influence of fluctuations in the economic cycle on tourism have revealed that demand in this sector is indeed dependent on such fluctuations 1). The diagram shows prima vista the close relationship between the fluctuations in the economic cycle and tourism demand in West Germany. However, in some cases there is a typical time‐lag effect on tourism demand in response to fluctuations in the economic situation, which makes it more difficult to accurately diagnose the underlying correlation between the economic cycle and tourism. For example, tourism demand re‐acted with a time‐lag of one year upon the 1968 up‐swing which followed the recession of 1967. The second post‐war recession reached the bottom in 1975, the decline of tourism demand induced by fluctuations of the business cycle however first manifested itself with a time‐lag in the year 1976. The “un‐typical” development of tourism demand in 1975 may be explained validly by economic and psychological factors 2). In the course of the years 1981 and 1982 the dependence of tourism on fluctuations of the business cycle is evident from the diagram. The main causes of this sensitivity on the part of tourism demand to changes in the economic situation can be attributed to economic and psychological factors. The demand by private households for a vacation and for recreational travel depends to a very large extent on the growth of the real income available to the private households. The comparatively high rates of growth of private households' real incomes — accompanied by a large increase in leisure time — during the sixties and early seventies prevented heavy recessions of tourism demand in cyclical downswing phases. Any stagnation or decline in real income of private households, registered for the first time in the post‐war period during the recession‐years 1981 and 1982 in West Germany, has a negative effect on tourism demand. Increased numbers of unemployed during a recession encourages uncertainty and pessimism regarding future economic development, leading many households to increase the amount of money they hold in the form of savings. It is true that consumers sooner show reluctance to buy durable consumer goods (for example cars, household appliances etc.) than to buy vacation travel. The annual vacation journey has changed — in general opinion — from a “luxury good” to a necessity or has today become for many people a “status symbol” nobody likes to give up. It should also be pointed out that such fluctuations in tourism demand resulting from the economic situation are not as pronounced as fluctuations in demand that can be observed in other sectors such as in the construction industry, in the automobile sector or in the furniture industry.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of consumer shopping travel behaviour with a focus on its environmental effects. In particular, the paper aims to…
The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of consumer shopping travel behaviour with a focus on its environmental effects. In particular, the paper aims to contribute a deeper understanding of the drivers of consumer travel behaviour and their interrelations.
Based on a literature review, relevant influencing factors of shopping travel behaviour are identified and a theoretical model is deducted. Qualitative interviews were conducted to analyse the model, with interviewees chosen from five life cycles and three residential areas.
The influencing factors of shopping travel behaviour differ among life cycles. There are two main aspects hindering environmentally friendly behaviour: the perceived necessity of mobility during the various life cycles (by which parents are particularly affected) and the negative evaluation of public transport in terms of flexibility and comfort. The life cycles are linked with a shopper typology, characterizing shopper types by shopping trip planning and the needs the transport modes should address.
The theoretical framework and the shopper typology can serve as a basis for future research.
Retailers, transport service providers and policy makers should encourage environmentally friendly travel behaviour (e.g. delivery services offered by retailers would make public transport use more comfortable).
While previous studies have analysed single influencing factors of shopping travel behaviour, we provide a comprehensive theoretical framework, synthesising several influencing factors. A qualitative study based on the model derived analyses interrelations among these factors.
We examined how Conservation of Resources (COR) theory has been applied to work and stress in organizational settings. COR theory has drawn increasing interest in the…
We examined how Conservation of Resources (COR) theory has been applied to work and stress in organizational settings. COR theory has drawn increasing interest in the organizational literature. It is both a stress and motivational theory that outlines how individuals and organizations are likely to be impacted by stressful circumstances, what those stressful circumstances are likely to be, and how individuals and organizations act in order to garner and protect their resources. To date, individual studies and meta-analyses have found COR theory to be a major explanatory model for understanding the stress process at work. Applications of COR theory to burnout, respite, and preventive intervention were detailed. Studies have shown that resource loss is a critical component of the stress process in organizations and that limiting resource loss is a key to successful prevention and post-stress intervention. Applications for future work, moving COR theory to the study of the acquisition, maintenance, fostering, and protection of key resources was discussed.
Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.
Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.