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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the innovation process of organizations representing the main sectors of Brazilian economic activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review focuses on analyzing the innovation process characteristics regarding the innovation types. The authors carried out interviews with executives and managers in charge of innovation at the leading large companies in the respective sectors analyzed. The data analysis of this qualitative research was structured in three steps. The first step is the analysis of data collected for encoding, the second step, the summarization of the common points presented by the companies in each sector and, finally, the interpretation of these data, aided by triangulation from secondary data that support the analysis of the collected primary data.

Findings

The main contribution of this study is to characterize the innovation process of organizations representing the main sectors of the Brazilian economy, with a classification regarding the sectoral innovation standard.

Practical implications

The authors’ intent is that the paper can contribute with a comparative analysis among companies of the same sector and, subsequently, among companies of the different surveyed sectors. Thus, the characterization aims to present the companies’ innovation process and the comparative analysis aims to verify the innovation sectoral patterns. In addition, as implications for management practice, some strategies for better knowledge management in the organization are suggested for each type of innovation.

Originality/value

The main theoretical contribution focuses on the development of a conceptual model that structures the analyzed variables of the constructs “innovation process” and “innovation sectoral patterns”, allowing not only the characterization but also the comparative analysis of the representative organizations present in the sample.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Sirirat Somapa, Martine Cools and Wout Dullaert

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review that aims to provide insight into the characteristics and effectiveness of supply chain visibility (SCV), as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review that aims to provide insight into the characteristics and effectiveness of supply chain visibility (SCV), as well as to identify metrics that capture these aspects in business processes.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of the supply chain literature is conducted to identify the characteristics and the effectiveness of SCV. The synthesis of SCV effectiveness and its metrics are based on the process-oriented approach which relates the effectiveness of SCV to improved business performance.

Findings

This study reveals that the characteristics of SCV can be captured in terms of the accessibility, quality, and usefulness of information. The benefits of SCV are found to extend beyond improvements to operational efficiency of business processes or to the strategic competencies of an organization.

Practical implications

This study underlines that clear agreements between all players involved in the SC can help to solve problems caused by information completeness (type and amount of information), and unlock the full potential of SCV projects.

Originality/value

By using a process-oriented approach, this review provides a comprehensive explanation of the functions of SCV, as well as its first-order effects, in terms of automational, informational, and transformational characteristics.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2019

Sandra Milena Santamaria-Alvarez, Maria Angélica Sarmiento-González and Luis Carlos Arango-Vieira

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of Colombian migrants’ transnational businesses (TBs) and their operations. To this end, the characteristics of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of Colombian migrants’ transnational businesses (TBs) and their operations. To this end, the characteristics of the entrepreneurs, their businesses and the patterns of their international operations are discussed and compared.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses 14 cases developed from data from in-depth interviews with the same number of Colombian entrepreneurs who migrated to the USA. Similarly, the analysis includes secondary data sources.

Findings

TBs created by Colombian transnational entrepreneurs (TEs) aim to be successful through the best use of the resources of each market, allowing them to produce with lower costs and better quality in their country of origin while selling in more developed countries, such as the USA (their country of destination). The operations of those businesses are limited by their financial resources, small and fragmented networks, and their organic growth. The personal characteristics of the TE and their business comprise a nexus that helps to overcome business shortcomings.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to entrepreneurship, migration and international business literature by illuminating the nexus between the personal characteristics of the TE and the unique characteristics of their business, including the analysis of their international operations. Likewise, considering the characteristics of the context under study, the paper presents findings that are interesting for countries with similar social and economic difficulties.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Made Andriani, T.M.A. Ari Samadhi, Joko Siswanto and Kadarsah Suryadi

The purpose of this paper is to formulate a knowledge management strategy model that aligns with the organisational growth stage and the characteristics of the business

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to formulate a knowledge management strategy model that aligns with the organisational growth stage and the characteristics of the business processes at every growth stage. The difference in characteristics at each growth stage has an impact on the characteristics of business processes, such as decision making and the period of process execution.

Design/methodology/approach

This research focussed on three fashion companies in Indonesia, and data were collected using a historical case-study method. Data collection was performed through in-depth interviews with the business owners, directors and managers, by direct observation, and through the collection of secondary data from the companies’ documents.

Findings

Through this research, a knowledge management strategy based on organisational growth stages was produced. It was found that when an organisation is at the entrepreneurial stage, the knowledge management strategy focussed on humans with tacit knowledge as well as explicit knowledge. At the growth stage, a transformation of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, especially at the individual level, is required, whereas at the expansion stage, the focus of the knowledge management strategy is on a system usage at the organisation level.

Research limitations/implications

Research using the case studies method has a limitation in the generalisation of the model. The knowledge management strategy generated in this study is unique to the fashion industry, where if the research were performed in other industries, there is a possibility for different results. Moreover, the characteristics of the business processes that are examined in this study are limited to the period of implementation and level of interaction. Other more detailed dimensions such as task variety and task analysability can be used to obtain more detailed characteristics of business processes.

Practical implications

Using the knowledge management strategies model formulated at every growth stage, the company owner can specify a knowledge management strategy that suits the organisation’s goal. Also, the results of this research can provide information on the priority for developing a knowledge management system aligned with the company’s growth.

Originality/value

The knowledge management strategy formulation from the organisational development point of view has not been investigated previously. In fact, the needs of the organisation, along with its growth, will change. Therefore, this research provides a new perspective which is more dynamic and can be integrated into formulating the knowledge management strategy.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Pairin Katerattanakul, James J. Lee and Soongoo Hong

This study is an exploratory study aiming to explore whether different groups of manufacturing firms with similar business characteristics and enterprise resource planning…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is an exploratory study aiming to explore whether different groups of manufacturing firms with similar business characteristics and enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation approaches would experience different business outcomes from ERP implementation. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Cluster analysis with data collected from 256 Korean manufacturing firms was employed to identify groups of manufacturing companies having similar business characteristics and adopting similar ERP implementation approaches. Then, the differences in business outcomes from implementing ERP systems among these groups of companies were examined.

Findings

Company size and production approaches are useful variables for grouping manufacturing firms into clusters of companies with similar characteristics. Additionally, large manufacturing firms with make-to-order production approach have significantly higher perceived benefits from implementing ERP systems regarding external coordination and competitive impact than other firms do.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in only one industry of one country and used the data collected by self-reporting instrument. Thus, further studies conducted in other industries and/or other countries and using more objective measures would allow more generalizability of the findings of this study. It would also be interesting to investigate the effects of the logistics practices adopted by small manufacturing firms even though these practices may be more suitable for large manufacturing firms.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literatures on benefits obtained from implementing ERP systems as none of the previous studies has focused on the relationship among business characteristics, ERP implementation approaches, and business outcomes from ERP implementation.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Dafna Kariv and Susan Coleman

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of small loans on new firm performance using data from the second Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, a large…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of small loans on new firm performance using data from the second Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, a large longitudinal data set of new firms in the USA. Contrary to prior research which suggests that small or microloans primarily benefit entrepreneurs who experience disadvantages in the marketplace, the findings revealed no significant differences in loan source or loan amount by gender, ethnicity, or employment status during the early years of the firm. The findings did reveal, however, that the motivations (push vs pull) of the entrepreneur were a determinant of loan source. From this, the authors begin to develop a theory of financial bricolage based on the premise that small loans secured at key points in time can make a significant difference on firm performance for all types of entrepreneurs, not just those who have traditionally be classified as “disadvantaged.”

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study was taken from the Panel Study on Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED II). The authors focussed on business performance measures over the six years of that study to reassess existing findings on relationships between microfinance and underperformance, especially among women, ethnic and unemployed entrepreneurs, from a financial bricolage perspective. Specifically, the authors will assess the impact of small or microloans on business performance over time by tracking the role of financial sources, amount of money borrowed, background characteristics, and motivation to start a business (i.e. push or pull).

Findings

The results also revealed no significant difference by gender, ethnicity, or employment status in the source of amounts of small loans secured during the first two years of the businesses. Thus, consistent with the theory of financial bricolage, all types of entrepreneurs engaged in seeking out small loans during the early years of their businesses’ existence.

Research limitations/implications

Although using the PSED II has many advantages, it is not protected from methodological pitfalls. One such potential disadvantage is the fact that this database allows the authors to understand the development of US-based nascent entrepreneurs, but overlooks other countries. Future research efforts should be focussed on surveying nascent entrepreneurs from other countries and cultures to expand the understanding of the relations between small loans and financial sources on business performance worldwide. This could be most useful for intensifying research in regions that generate more push and/or pull entrepreneurs. A second disadvantage inherent in the PSED is that interviews in follow-up surveys may have become impossible over time, resulting in missing data. In addition, the reasons for being unable to reach interviewees are not always clear. In the entrepreneurial realm, these reasons have a great impact on the understanding of the development of new businesses. Interviewees’ businesses may have gone bankrupt, merged with other firms and thus changed contact details, gone global and therefore left the country, etc. (Delmar and Shane, 2003); these could bias the results. A final potential weakness in the PSED is that the data are based on entrepreneurs’ self-reports which are known to be prone to many kinds of response bias.

Practical implications

By offering practical education aimed at enhancing the financial performance of entrepreneurs, the authors believe that they can meet the challenges posed by the research (e.g. Du Rietz and Henrekson, 2000; Parker, 2004; Pfeiffer and Reize, 2000; Reynolds et al., 2002) on performance gaps between entrepreneurs with different background characteristics and those embarking on entrepreneurship with different motivations (push vs pull). In line with the financial bricolage theory, the results may aid governmental bodies, educational and academic institutions oriented toward entrepreneurs, and small businesses, in constructing programs that will train entrepreneurs to be attentive to the diverse range of potentially available resources, including small loans and different financial sources.

Originality/value

The research challenges the necessity-opportunity simplistic categorization and builds upon prior work in the field of bricolage, or the practice of “making do with whatever is at hand,” to begin developing a theory of “financial bricolage.” It is the contention that all new businesses are resource-constrained due to challenges posed by asymmetric information. Thus, new businesses, in general, do not have access to a full range of funding alternatives. In light of this, small loans may be critical for the survival and success of not only necessity-based businesses but opportunity-based businesses as well. The results and findings bear this out.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Robert A. Blackburn, Mark Hart and Thomas Wainwright

This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the factors that influence small to medium‐sized enterprise (SME) performance and particularly, growth.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the factors that influence small to medium‐sized enterprise (SME) performance and particularly, growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilises an original data set of 360 SMEs employing 5‐249 people to run logit regression models of employment growth, turnover growth and profitability. The models include characteristics of the businesses, the owner‐managers and their strategies.

Findings

The results suggest that size and age of enterprise dominate performance and are more important than strategy and the entrepreneurial characteristics of the owner. Having a business plan was also found to be important.

Research limitations/implications

The results contribute to the development of theoretical and knowledge bases, as well as offering results that will be of interest to research and policy communities. The results are limited to a single survey, using cross‐sectional data.

Practical implications

The findings have a bearing on business growth strategy for policy makers. The results suggest that policy measures that promote the take‐up of business plans and are targeted at younger, larger‐sized businesses may have the greatest impact in terms of helping to facilitate business growth.

Originality/value

A novel feature of the models is the incorporation of entrepreneurial traits and whether there were any collaborative joint venture arrangements.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Ian Laird, Kirsten Olsen, Leigh‐Ann Harris, Stephen Legg and Melissa J. Perry

The aim of this paper is to present the literature which identifies the characteristics of small enterprises and outlines the opportunities to utilise them in working with…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present the literature which identifies the characteristics of small enterprises and outlines the opportunities to utilise them in working with small businesses to prevent and reduce exposures to hazardous substances.

Design/methodology/approach

A search of a variety of data sources, including Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, was conducted which combined the keyword search terms “small business”, “small enterprise”, “management”, “health and safety management”, “hazardous substances”, “hazardous chemicals”, “management of hazardous substances”. High quality studies were selected and combined with studies known to the authors.

Findings

A strong body of evidence exists which shows that the management of OSH in small enterprises has been extensively reviewed and the most recurring theme is the identification of problems and challenges. A growing body of literature also confirms that models for chemical risk management and social responsibility issues can play a key role in managing hazardous chemical exposures in small enterprises. Furthermore, studies have shown that there are certain characteristics of small business that potentially provide positive opportunities for the implementation of preventive interventions.

Originality/value

The paper identifies these characteristics and features and suggests these can be effectively utilised in the design and development of interventions to prevent and reduce exposures to hazardous substances in small enterprises. Few interventions, however, have been developed utilising these positive characteristics.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2006

Andre Beaujanot Q, Larry Lockshin and Pascale Quester

The concept of market orientation has attracted attention from both academics and managers and it has been widely used in the marketing discipline to explain marketing…

Abstract

The concept of market orientation has attracted attention from both academics and managers and it has been widely used in the marketing discipline to explain marketing phenomena in business and consumer markets (Deshpande, Farley, & Webster, 1993; Jaworski & Kohli, 1993; Kohli & Jaworski, 1990; Steinman, Deshpande, & Farley, 2000). The most common output or effect attributed by the literature to the market orientation concept has been the firm's achievement of good or superior financial performance by delivering superior value to customers (Deshpande et al., 1993; Hunt & Lambe, 2000; Kohli & Jaworski, 1990; Narver & Slater, 1990). The market orientation concept has also generated a stream of research in both domestic and international markets (Breman & Dalgic, 2001; Cadogan & Diamantopoulos, 1995; Cadogan, Diamantopoulos, & de Mortanges, 1999; Dalgic, 1994; Siguaw, Simpson, & Baker, 1998).

Details

Relationship Between Exporters and Their Foreign Sales and Marketing Intermediaries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-397-6

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