Business Aviation (BA) is an important segment of nonscheduled air transport, providing personalized solutions for business trips by air. Unlike scheduled air transport or…
Business Aviation (BA) is an important segment of nonscheduled air transport, providing personalized solutions for business trips by air. Unlike scheduled air transport or holiday charters, BA has hardly been dealt with in the academic literature. This chapter gives insight into the structure and key economic effects of the European (EU28 + EFTA) BA sector. Hereby, we differentiate between the sector’s macroeconomic footprint, in terms of jobs or gross value added (GVA), and the generation of business efficiencies and connectivity benefits for the users. Based on our own data collection and input-output analyses using data from the World Input-Output Database and Eurostat, we find that the effect of BA over the EU28 GVA is almost 0.2%. Also, some 374,000 European jobs are directly or indirectly dependent on the sector’s activities, which is more than the total number of jobs in, e.g., Cyprus. More than half of these jobs stem from the operation of business aircraft and from closely related operational services like maintenance (“MRO”) and handling (“FBO”), while the remaining employment occurs in the production of business aircraft and parts. Comparing actual European BA flights against their fastest commercial travel alternatives, key efficiencies came to light, such as average travel time savings of 127 minutes per flight, annual savings of about € 15 million in overnight hotel costs and an average 150% increase in productive work time for the travelers. Furthermore, we find that BA can significantly improve connectivity, as it serves about 25,000 city pairs not connected by nonstop scheduled air services.
This case followed Todd Duncan, Chairman of Duncan Aviation, as he considered which international locations Europe, Latin America, or Asia were most important in…
This case followed Todd Duncan, Chairman of Duncan Aviation, as he considered which international locations Europe, Latin America, or Asia were most important in positioning Duncan to benefit from continued internationalization of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry. The company had the option to hire Regional Managers to actively manage these areas, recruiting new customers and building relationships with existing ones. The case provides students with an opportunity to identify the core competencies of a company, and to recognize ways in which employee engagement contributes to Duncan's core competencies. Optionally, the case may be used to introduce students to Dunning's eclectic paradigm.
The research for this case was obtained from a combination of primary research, secondary research, and personal experiences. One of the research assistants for this case was employed at the company for over two years, and reflections thus obtained, supported with supplementary research, enriched and deepened the paper. Duncan's Debrief magazine and news releases were important secondary sources, in addition to industry web sites, industry journal articles, reference books, and newspaper articles.
Relevant courses and levels
This case is intended to be taught in undergraduate international business or marketing courses.
This case is an illustration of the complexity, and strategic importance, of considering whether, and how, to build customer relationships outside the firm's home country. Such decisions confront many companies facing increasingly global industry environments. The eclectic paradigm, developed by John Dunning, explains why companies expand and participate in international markets.
Purpose – The purpose of the chapter is to sketch the historical and evolutionary development of the Wichita Aircraft Manufacturing Cluster from inception to present and…
Purpose – The purpose of the chapter is to sketch the historical and evolutionary development of the Wichita Aircraft Manufacturing Cluster from inception to present and provide a descriptive narrative of aircraft industry knowledge spillovers currently driving effort to establish a Medical Device Manufacturing Cluster. The chapter illustrates how carbon-fiber composite materials knowledge and technology developed for use in the aviation industry is facilitating the creation and growth of medical device manufacturing.
Methodology/approach – We use an historical case study approach to trace the development of the aircraft cluster in the Wichita, KS metropolitan area. A number of technologies are identified that had initially been adopted by one firm but eventually diffused through other firms in the local cluster and ultimately throughout the industry.
Findings – In addition to providing examples of within industry knowledge spillovers, we provide an example of technology-based knowledge that is diffusing through the aircraft manufacturing industry and is now being used as the basis for establishing an unrelated industry manufacturing cluster. The use of carbon-fiber composites in aircraft manufacturing has diffused from one manufacturer to many in the industry. Subsequently, the knowledge base surrounding carbon-fiber composite materials is being used in a local R&D effort to create a second manufacturing cluster producing medical devices ranging from surgical instruments to joint-replacement implants.
Originality/value of paper – The chapter illustrates a unique example of a manufacturing cluster, intra-industry knowledge spillovers, and inter-industry knowledge spillovers to create a new manufacturing cluster.
The use of corporate aircraft has increased as businesses place more value on ease of mobility. The bonus depreciation incentives of 2002 and 2003 provided growth…
The use of corporate aircraft has increased as businesses place more value on ease of mobility. The bonus depreciation incentives of 2002 and 2003 provided growth opportunities for the general aviation market by allowing accelerated depreciation deductions for the purchase of new corporate aircraft. These incentives allowed more than twice the traditional MACRS allowance for depreciation for the first year of operation of an asset, but the present value of the tax savings after the full depreciable life of the corporate aircraft only generated a 3.25 percent reduction in the after-tax-cost. This study documents that the bonus depreciation incentives did not generate significant growth in the general aviation aircraft market via increased production of aircraft. These incentives may have simply slowed the recession that might have taken place in this industry otherwise. However, the incentives in this study did play a significant role in determining which type of aircraft to purchase, piston or turbine.
This study aims to (1) examine the mediating effect of strategic orientation on the effect of environmental uncertainties on business performance, and (2) examine the…
This study aims to (1) examine the mediating effect of strategic orientation on the effect of environmental uncertainties on business performance, and (2) examine the mediating effect of innovations on the effect of environmental uncertainties on performance of the business in the aviation industry in Indonesia.
The research design was conducted through a survey, and the testing form was carried out using “Relationship Causal Studies” or a study to analyze the causality among environmental uncertainties, strategic orientation, innovations and performance of branches/stations of airlines in the Indonesian aviation industry. The sample was selected by determining the number of branches/stations of the Indonesian airlines to be selected into the sample, then more than one unit managers were selected as respondents representing their respective branches/stations. The number of the target sample in this study was 250 branches. Techniques used to address the hypotheses of the present study were Descriptive Analysis and Structural Model Analysis. The inferential statistical analysis focuses on the subject of the analysis and data interpretation to draw conclusions.
These research findings provide a contextual overview of the aviation industry in Indonesia that activities to make innovations in airline branches play a vital role in encouraging business performance. Moreover, the analysis shows that the more innovative a branch the better its business performance. This corroborates the finding (Spacapan and Bastic, 2007; Talke, 2007) that being highly innovative can ensure sustainable and long-term business performance.
The findings of this research suggest that innovations mediate the effect of environmental uncertainties on business performance. These findings corroborate the results of previous studies that suitability between strategic orientation and innovations of a company in response to environmental uncertainties will affect performance of the company (Li and Gima, 2001; Manu, 1992). These findings also strengthen the view that companies with a higher level of innovations (innovative) have better business performance and competitive advantages (Kessler and Chakrabarty, 1996; Salavou et al., 2004; Spacapan and Bastic, 2007). Furthermore, based on findings, it can be interpreted that management that is able to overcome barriers to innovations, maximize innovation resources and achieve the target of innovations in the form of creation of better products/services will have better performance. The ability of the management to identify and overcome barriers to innovations and maximize the sources of innovation will generate products or services that can be accepted by the customers and eventually these products and services will be able to compete with better business performance (Blumentritt and Danis, 2006).
Findings of this research indicate the positive and significant mediating effect between environmental uncertainties on business performance, through the mediation of innovations, competitive conditions of the industrial environment which can encourage organizations to evolutionarily be more innovative in managing business to compete in the long term (Franke, 2007). This is also consistent with the theory of evolutionary economics (Nelson and Winter, 2000) that the old strategy may not suit the changes in the environment, and therefore companies should continue to seek new breakthroughs with persistent improvement and innovations.
Dynamic and competitive conditions of the industrial environment require organizations to more intensively explore sources (capabilities) of innovations and accelerate generation of the innovations (Franke, 2007; Berry et al., 2006; Dobni, 2006; Davila et al., 2006; Spacapan and Bastic, 2007). Contextually, it appears that the competitive conditions of the aviation industry in either the short term or in the long term require business actors to be more innovative and to survive (Franke, 2007).
Innovations in business models as a new effort in improvisation specific to the business stage of the basic model (not very valuable) become more advanced business processes to produce products that are more valuable for consumers, at a more efficient cost with better profitability (Chesbrough, 2007b). So far, research on the role of innovations in response to environmental uncertainties and implementation of strategies to improve the performance of the environment-strategy-performance (ESP) model is still done partially so that there is no comprehensive model to describe the role of innovations in this ESP model, or let us say that a gap between theories and opportunities to do further research on the role of innovations in the ESP model exists.
The sharing economy (SE) has transformed the tourism industry and continues to disrupt multiple sectors in the global business landscape. This paper aims to investigate…
The sharing economy (SE) has transformed the tourism industry and continues to disrupt multiple sectors in the global business landscape. This paper aims to investigate the potential of the SE entering the aviation sector and examines travelers’ willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for shared private air travel.
The context for the empirical study was the platform JetSmarter, one of the emerging SE platforms in the private aviation sector. A quantitative survey with a random sampling method was adopted to measure customers’ WTP premium prices.
The results reveal a glaring interest of commercial air travelers in flying on a shared, private aircraft and show significant differences in the WTP for private aviation. The findings highlight a difference of WTP between customer segments, including Northern American and European customers, as well as business and leisure travelers.
The study makes a three-fold contribution to theory and practice. First, it bridges SE literature and the WTP construct, and with that, expands the understanding of pricing behaviors in a SE context. For tourism businesses, the study is valuable in that it offers concrete pricing suggestions for SE services when aimed at a premium rather than a budget customer segment. Third, the study is novel in that it taps into the aviation sector as a subsector of the SE ecosystem and offers critical implications suggesting the potential of the SE disrupting traditional aviation businesses.
共享经济不仅影响了旅游业, 更进而改变了许多产业的运作模式。本文旨在研究共享经济在航空业的发展潜力, 以及探讨旅客对于共享私人飞机的溢价的付费意愿。
此研究对理论和实践做出了三方面的贡献。首先, 藉由结合共享经济的文献和支付意愿的领域, 它扩展了我们对共享经济的定价行为的理解。对于旅游企业而言, 这项研究的价值是它为共享经济提供了具体的定价建议, 且它针对的是高端客户而非中低端客户群。最后, 这项研究的新颖性在于它将航空业定义为共享经济生态系统的一部分, 并且它提供了批判性的建议, 说明共享经济有可能对传统的航空业务造成负面影响。
Economía colaborativa que perturba la aviación: Disposición de los viajeros a pagar.
la economía compartida ha transformado la industria del turismo y continúa afectando a múltiples sectores en el panorama empresarial global. Este artículo tiene como objetivo investigar el potencial de la economía colaborativa que ingresa al sector de la aviación y examina la disposición de los viajeros a pagar una prima por viajes aéreos privados y compartidos.
el contexto para el estudio empírico fue la plataforma JetSmarter, una de las plataformas emergentes de economía compartida en el sector de la aviación privada. Se adoptó una encuesta cuantitativa con un método de muestreo aleatorio para medir la disposición de los clientes a pagar precios superiores.
los resultados revelan un interés evidente de los viajeros aéreos comerciales en volar en aviones privados compartidos y muestran diferencias significativas en la disposición a pagar por la aviación privada. Las conclusiones resaltan una diferencia de disposición a pagar entre los segmentos de clientes, incluyendo a los clientes norteamericanos y europeos, así como a los viajeros de negocios y de placer.
el estudio hace una triple contribución a la teoría y la práctica. Primero, une la literatura sobre economía compartida y el constructo de la disposición a pagar, y con eso, amplía nuestra comprensión sobre los comportamientos de fijación de precios en un contexto de economía compartida. Para las empresas de turismo, el estudio es valioso porque ofrece sugerencias concretas de precios para servicios de economía compartida, cuando se dirige a un segmento de clientes premium en lugar de un segmento de clientes de presupuesto. En tercer lugar, el estudio es novedoso porque aprovecha el sector de la aviación como subsector del ecosistema de la economía colaborativa y ofrece implicaciones críticas que sugieren el potencial de la economía colaborativa que perturba las empresas de aviación tradicionales.
This research aims to examine the moderating effect of strategic orientation on the effect of environmental uncertainties on business performance and the moderating effect…
This research aims to examine the moderating effect of strategic orientation on the effect of environmental uncertainties on business performance and the moderating effect of innovations on the effect of environmental uncertainties on performance of the business in the aviation industry in Indonesia.
Research data were collected in stages by means of interviews with corporate leaders of Indonesian airlines and branch managers of several airports, as well as with the Directorate of Civil Aviation as the regulator. A pre-test and focus group discussion (FGD) were conducted to directly determine the questionnaire aspects of the research object, following which an immediate revision was made to the questionnaire. The data from the survey used in each variable were obtained from the mail questionnaire survey. The data collected using the survey are the main data used in the present study.
The model of environment–strategy–performance (ESP) can work well in improving performance if supported by innovations. These findings deepen the ESP paradigm in the aviation industry (Miles and Snow, 1978; Segev 1987; Covin and Slevin, 1989; Miller and Shamsie, 1996) that during conditions of high environmental uncertainties, strategic orientation, rather than a single response, will be effective if supported by innovations that provide the strategy with flexibility. The initial implications of these modeling results generate the findings that the effect of environmental uncertainties in the aviation industry (classified as strictly regulated) on performance of a company is largely determined by the direction of the strategic orientation and the innovation level.
Interactions between innovations and environmental uncertainties have a significant negative effect on the achievement of business performance of the branches with a coefficient of 0.02 and a t-value of 2.00, meaning that the innovation level of a branch has an increasingly stronger influence on the business performance of the branch in the uncertain environment with limitations or underestimated by the branch manager or the innovation level of the branch is not supported with airport facilities and services, which means that the provision of airport facilities and services is inversely proportional to the needs of the airline branches. In other words, the variable “innovations” is a moderating variable for the effect of environmental uncertainties on business performance.
The results of the modeling performed in this research also show that innovations play a major role in the implementation of the ESP model (Blumentritt and Danis, 2006). The empirical phenomena and descriptive analysis results suggest that the Indonesian airlines which have been quite successful and have demonstrated an above-average performance possess higher levels of innovations. This finding corroborates that of previous studies that environmental uncertainties and direction of strategic orientation will determine the ability of a company to overcome the barriers to innovations, by maximizing innovative resources in achieving the target of innovations (Manu, 1992; O’Regan and Ghobadian, 2005; Hult et al., 2003), and more specifically, it indicates that strategic orientation that is prospective in nature leads to a high level of innovations (Salavou et al., 2004).
The research findings indicate that innovations have a central role in the ESP models and are able to offer a new concept as a modification of the ESP model which in the study is called ESIP. The role of innovations in the ESIP model puts innovations as a variable moderating the effect of environmental uncertainties on performance and the effect of strategic orientation on performance. Moreover, based on the summary of the results for the analysis of the ESIP model, the following can be explained: first, environmental uncertainties have a significant and positive effect on the innovation level or the higher the level of environmental uncertainties, the more is the number of the innovations that an Indonesian airline branch creates. External environmental conditions that are likely to be complex and dynamic found in the area of operations make the branch management more able to identify barriers to innovations and manage resources to be more creative and productive for the attainment of the targets of innovations.
Innovations in business models as a new effort in improvisation specific to the business stage of the basic model (not very valuable) become more advanced business processes to produce products that are more valuable for consumers, at a more efficient cost with better profitability (Chesbrough, 2007b). So far, research on the role of innovations in response to environmental uncertainties and implementation of strategies to improve the performance of the ESP model is still done partially, so that there is no comprehensive model to describe the role of innovations in this ESP model, or let us say that a gap exists between theories and opportunities to conduct further research on the role of innovations in the ESP model.
International business and/or strategic management.
This case is useful for undergraduate and postgraduate level students majoring in international business management and/or strategic management.
Etihad Airways was established in 2003, in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) with the UAE government as sole owner. It is the national carrier of UAE with Abu Dhabi as its centre of operations. Etihad is recognized as a fast-growing player in the aviation industry, and has become one of the dominant international players in the industry in a relatively short time. Etihad's fleet now contains more than 67 planes, with more than 1,300 flights per week to diverse destinations across the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia and North America. The company describes its business strategy as “sustainable growth”. Looking through a practitioner's lens, strategic partnerships have been the critical activities through which Etihad has delivered its strategy. The purpose of this case study is therefore to elaborate on its major and successful partnerships and the critical benefits of these. Secondary data were collected from credible sources including academic studies, relevant Etihad publications and industry reports published by official aviation associations.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will be able to understand the theory of strategic partnerships, their roles and benefits and critically evaluate the pre-staging “requirements” of such partnerships. In this case, the specific learning outcome of it is to help students to understand the importance of successful strategic partnerships for Etihad Airlines and how partnership strategies can improve the performance of Etihad Airlines.
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This viewpoint aims to increase the awareness on the demand faced by the technical sector of the Indian and Chinese aviation industry and how this can be met by the…
This viewpoint aims to increase the awareness on the demand faced by the technical sector of the Indian and Chinese aviation industry and how this can be met by the adoption of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulatory framework.
A brief overview of the challenges that the Indian and the Chinese aviation industry is facing is provided, in terms of meeting the demand for sustainable growth. A description of the structure of the EASA framework and its main characteristics is presented, along with a focussed discussion on the framework’s applicability to the Indian and the Chinese aviation maintenance and broader continuing airworthiness sector.
The EASA regulatory framework can offer a safe and business-effective solution for the Indian and the Chinese aviation industry, aligning with world’s best practice.
A discussion in adopting the EASA framework in India and China can be helpful in increasing awareness and assisting decision makers realise that this is a possible option.
This viewpoint can be useful in provoking discussion, by summarising the key issues and points surrounding aviation regulation standardisation in India and China, along the lines of the EASA framework. Moreover, some possible ways to increase awareness around EASA in India and China are discussed from the point of view of influencing tomorrow’s decision makers.