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The purpose of this paper is to provide a research model and hypotheses that explores software users' perceptions of privacy, trust, and US legal protection in using…
The purpose of this paper is to provide a research model and hypotheses that explores software users' perceptions of privacy, trust, and US legal protection in using application software with embedded spyware.
An experimental study was undertaken requiring subjects to use an online analytical processing software product. After use, the experimental group was told spyware was embedded in the software. Questionnaire responses for the experimental and control group were compared using independent samples t‐test. Multiple regression was used to determine significant predictors of overall trust in the software vendor.
Users of software with spyware, versus users of software without spyware, have lower trust perceptions of a software vendor. Further examination of trustworthiness as a multi‐dimensional construct, reveals trustworthiness‐ability and trustworthiness‐integrity are important influences of overall trust of a vendor.
The main limitation of the findings is the use of a convenience sample, limiting the generalizability of the results.
The results may provide guidance to software vendors and government regulatory agencies in addressing the concerns associated with spyware.
Software vendors should rethink the practice of embedding spyware in software applications, unless user trust can be maintained.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges confronting organizations in responding to the recent electronic discovery (e‐discovery) amendments to the US…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges confronting organizations in responding to the recent electronic discovery (e‐discovery) amendments to the US federal rules of civil procedure. Failure to comply with these rules, even unintentionally, can have significant adverse legal consequences for parties of the lawsuit. The vast majority of information and data is electronic and stored in numerous files and on a variety of media. Thus, there is a critical need to better manage electronic content and implement a strategic approach to accommodate new rules, legislation, and ever‐changing technology. In response, the authors provide recommendations for enterprise‐wide e‐discovery readiness.
To investigate the legal theory for e‐discovery, the authors examine precedent‐setting legal cases for the purpose of providing managerial recommendations for developing and implementing a comprehensive policy for compliance and litigation purposes.
According to the authors' evaluation of the amendments and applicable case law, the new rules make clear that electronic information and data are discoverable, and that failure to protect and store in a retrievable format may lead to adverse legal consequences.
To better prepare for the duties imposed by the e‐discovery amendments, the authors recommend the formation of an enterprise‐wide multi‐functional electronically stored information Discovery Team to develop, implement, and periodically review a comprehensive electronic records management policy and procedures for compliance and litigation purposes.
The authors take into consideration the dearth of information systems literature addressing the critical need to better manage electronic content and to implement an enterprise‐wide strategic approach to accommodate the requirements of e‐discovery, or face costly consequences.
The purpose of this paper is to revisit the internet users’ information privacy concerns (IUIPC) construct, a research model, and hypotheses based on Malhotra et al.…
The purpose of this paper is to revisit the internet users’ information privacy concerns (IUIPC) construct, a research model, and hypotheses based on Malhotra et al. (2004) to assess the continued applicability of this construct. The relationship among privacy concerns, trusting beliefs, and risk beliefs continues to be unclear. Empirical evidence about the impact of privacy concerns on behavior is mixed.
A paper-based questionnaire was distributed and collected from 63 part-time graduate students of a private university in the mid-Atlantic USA. These respondents have an average of six years of full-time professional work experience and the vast majority (88.9 percent) has over seven years of experience on the internet. Questionnaire items measured the constructs of the IUIPC instrument. All measurement scales were validated using factor analysis, Cronbach's α, and reliability analysis. For hypothesis testing, multiple regression analysis was used.
The results partially support those of Malhotra et al. (2004). Consistent are the findings that the higher the trust a consumer holds for an online company, the less likely that consumer is to view providing personal information as risky. Also consistent is that the higher the trust a consumer holds for an online company, the more likely is that consumer to intend to provide personal information online. Finally, the greater risk a consumer has for providing personal information, the less willing that consumer is to reveal such information online. However, the results did not support a negative relationship between the IUIPC construct and consumer trust in an online company or a positive relationship between IUIPC and consumer risk in providing personal information to an online company. The paper concludes that the IUIPC is not the valid scale to employ in measuring information privacy concerns.
The main limitation of the findings is the use of a small convenience sample, limiting the insights into interrelationships between various dimensions of privacy concerns and the generalizability of the results.
The results may provide guidance to online retailers in addressing the dimensions of privacy concerns related to trusting beliefs and risk beliefs.
IUIPC were measured using the IUIPC instrument. This responds to Malhotra et al.'s (2004) call to use the IUIPC scale and the associated research framework to further investigate consumer privacy concerns and the suggestion by Belanger and Crossler (2011) that more studies should explore this scale. Further, both Westin (1967), and Smith et al. (1996) recognize that privacy attitudes and concerns may change over time, providing motivation to revisit IUIPC.
The purpose of this chapter is to review the historical development of identity theory from 1988 to the present, and then outline some thoughts about future directions for…
The purpose of this chapter is to review the historical development of identity theory from 1988 to the present, and then outline some thoughts about future directions for the theory.
The chapter discusses major advances in identity theory over the past 25 years such as the incorporation of the perceptual control system into the theory, the introduction of “resources” in which symbolic and sign meanings are important, new views of the social structure, the relevance of the situation in influencing the identity process, the idea of different bases of identities, broadening our understanding of multiple identities, studying identity change, and bringing in emotions into the theory.
Throughout the review, empirical work is identified and briefly discussed that supports the major advances of the theory.
The chapter suggests a number of ways that identity theory may be developed in the future such as examining negative or stigmatized identities. Additionally, there is a discussion as to ways in which the theory may be tied to other theoretical traditions such as affect control theory, exchange theory, and social identity theory.
Identity theory has had a number of applications to various areas in society, including understanding crime, education, race/ethnicity, gender, the family, and the environment.
Originality/Value of Chapter
This is the most recent overview of identity theory over the past 25 years. It becomes clear to the reader that the theory offers a way of understanding the person as a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral agent who influences the structure of society but who is also influenced by the social structure.
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of…
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of globalization on work and employment in contemporary organizations. Covers the human resource management implications of organizational responses to globalization. Examines the theoretical, methodological, empirical and comparative issues pertaining to competitiveness and the management of human resources, the impact of organisational strategies and international production on the workplace, the organization of labour markets, human resource development, cultural change in organisations, trade union responses, and trans‐national corporations. Cites many case studies showing how globalization has brought a lot of opportunities together with much change both to the employee and the employer. Considers the threats to existing cultures, structures and systems.
The purpose of this paper was to empirically integrate the structural and perceptual control programs in the identity theory. This integration involved examining how the…
The purpose of this paper was to empirically integrate the structural and perceptual control programs in the identity theory. This integration involved examining how the structural concepts of prominence and salience moderate the impact that the perceptual control process of nonverification has role-specific self-esteem.
We use survey data from normative and counter-normative conditions in the parent and spouse identities to test a series of structural equation models. In each model, we test the direct impacts of prominence, salience, and nonverification on worth, efficacy, and authenticity. We also test interaction effects between prominence and nonverification as well as salience and nonverification on the three self-esteem outcomes.
Out of the 24 possible interaction effects, only three were significant. By contrast, the expected positive effects of prominence on worth were supported among all identities, while the expected positive effects of salience on self-esteem were supported only among normative identities. Also as expected, the negative effects of nonverification on self-esteem were supported, though most strongly among counter-normative identities.
Our findings indicate that the structural and perceptual control concepts have independent effects on self-esteem. Thus, future research should incorporate both programs when examining identity processes on self-esteem. However, depending on the normativity or counter-normativity of the identities of interest, research may find it useful to focus on concepts from one program over the other.
Originality/value of Paper
This paper is a test of integration of the two research paradigms in the identity theory, which addresses the micro–macro problem in a unique way.
In this chapter, we advance an understanding of identity theory (IT) as originally created by Sheldon Stryker and developed over the past 50 years. We address…
In this chapter, we advance an understanding of identity theory (IT) as originally created by Sheldon Stryker and developed over the past 50 years. We address misunderstandings of IT concepts and connections. We provide definitions of key ideas in IT, propositions that identify important relationships, and scope conditions that outline the circumstances to which IT applies. Our goal is to provide scholars with an accurate view of IT so that it can continue to advance the science of human behavior in sociology and beyond.