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Article

Petra Eriksson, Vlatko Milić and Tor Brostrom

Energy use in buildings needs to be reduced to meet political goals; however, reducing energy use can conflict with heritage preservation objectives. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Energy use in buildings needs to be reduced to meet political goals; however, reducing energy use can conflict with heritage preservation objectives. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a method that combines quantitative and qualitative analyses of the potential of energy savings in an historic building stock. Specifically, this study examines how requirements of historic building preservation affect the energy saving potential on a building stock level.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the World Heritage Town of Visby, Sweden as a case study, this paper illustrates a step-by-step method as a basis for implementing energy savings techniques in an historic building stock. The method contains the following steps: categorisation of a building stock, definition of restriction levels for energy renovation scenarios and life cycle costs optimisation of energy measures in archetype buildings representing the building stock. Finally, this study analyses how different energy renovation strategies will impact heritage values and energy saving potentials for different categories of buildings.

Findings

The outcome of the study is twofold: first, the method has been tested and proven useful and second, the results from the application of the method have been used to formulate differentiated energy renovation strategies for the case study.

Originality/value

The study shows that it is possible to integrate techno-economic analysis with assessment of heritage values in a given building stock in order to facilitate a strategic discussion balancing policies and targets for energy savings with policies for the preservation of heritage values. The findings will contribute to sounder policy development and planning for historic building stocks.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article

Laura Gabrielli, Aurora Greta Ruggeri and Massimiliano Scarpa

This paper aims to develop a forecasting tool for the automatic assessment of both environmental and economic benefits resulting from low-carbon investments in the real…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a forecasting tool for the automatic assessment of both environmental and economic benefits resulting from low-carbon investments in the real estate sector, especially when applied in large building stocks. A set of four artificial neural networks (NNs) is created to provide a fast and reliable estimate of the energy consumption in buildings due to heating, hot water, cooling and electricity, depending on some specific buildings’ characteristics, such as geometry, orientation, climate or technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

The assessment of the building’s energy demand is performed comparing the as-is status (pre-retrofit) against the design option (post-retrofit). The authors associate with the retrofit investment the energy saved per year, and the net monetary saving obtained over the whole cost after a predetermined timeframe. The authors used a NN approach, which is able to forecast the buildings’ energy demand due to heating, hot water, cooling and electricity, both in the as-is and in the design stages. The design stage is the result of a multiple attribute optimization process.

Findings

The approach here developed offers the opportunity to manage energy retrofit interventions on wide property portfolios, where it is necessary to handle simultaneously a large number of buildings without it being technically feasible to achieve a very detailed level of analysis for every property of a large portfolio.

Originality/value

Among the major accomplishments of this research, there is the creation of a methodology that is not excessively data demanding: the collection of data for building energy simulations is, in fact, extremely time-consuming and expensive, and this NN model may help in overcoming this problem. Another important result achieved in this study is the flexibility of the model developed. The case study the authors analysed was referred to one specific stock, but the results obtained have a more widespread importance because it ends up being only a matter of input-data entering, while the model is perfectly exportable in other contexts.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article

Jeff Donaldson, Donald Flagg and J. Hunter Orr

The purpose of paper is to provide students with a sorting methodology to select securities and build portfolios.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of paper is to provide students with a sorting methodology to select securities and build portfolios.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses various accounting variables for all firms in the S&P 500, sorted by sector. The fundamental metrics are converted into standardized Z‐scores and then combined into a single score used to rank individual firms within each industry. Equity portfolios are then constructed using the aggregate Z‐scores.

Findings

In the authors' experience with student‐managed investment funds (SMIFs), students at the start of the course consistently ask how to begin selecting securities or seek to learn a new model for selecting securities. Discussions on stock selection are helpful to engage students in this area, but an attempt is made to further this by providing a comprehensive stock‐selection exercise to help students better understand how to appropriately pick stocks and create a portfolio.

Practical implications

In this exercise, students are reminded of the limitations surrounding the stock‐screening process and are provided with an alternative, more robust method for selecting securities that is commonly utilized by investment professionals. While the exercise described in this paper is done in reference to SMIFs, it is equally applicable to standard investment courses.

Originality/value

This paper provides an exercise which provides students a way to dive deeper into stock selection through stock sorting. Stock selection is typically a hot topic for most students in finance courses. Stock screens may permit a search on multiple variables simultaneously but typically do not allow for applying specific weights to each metric. A sorting method, avoids these issues by permitting the user to create custom variables, affords the opportunity to view all of the variables used in the screening process simultaneously, and includes the option to apply specific weights to each variable.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Ardeshir Mahdavi and Jayakrishna Shankavaram

Explains that, in the past, most building evaluation efforts havefocused on the detailed analysis of single buildings and their specificoccupancy patterns. However…

Abstract

Explains that, in the past, most building evaluation efforts have focused on the detailed analysis of single buildings and their specific occupancy patterns. However, detailed and exhaustive studies may not be feasible for large‐scale and time‐constrained building evaluations in the case of organizations such as government agencies and major industrial corporations. In order to play a critical role in the organizational strategy, facility decisions not only need to be efficient but also should be closely aligned with the strategic focus of the organization. Proposes a “progressive resolution method” as an effective decision support method for the rapid classification and selection of buildings for organizations with a large building stock.

Details

Facilities, vol. 13 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article

Sui Pheng Low, Shang Gao and Wen Lin Tay

With pressing issues of climate change, greening buildings have emerged as a viable solution for meeting the increasing demand for buildings with minimal environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

With pressing issues of climate change, greening buildings have emerged as a viable solution for meeting the increasing demand for buildings with minimal environmental impacts. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to establish the possibility of achieving this goal by investigating the drivers, challenges, and critical success factors (CSFs) involved in greening existing buildings. Since most of the relevant literature focuses on only acknowledging CSFs for new building projects in general, this study seeks to distinguish CSFs that are particularly related to the greening of existing buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review of past literature, 28 selected factors were identified and were categorised into five main groups, namely pre-project-related factors, project management-related factors, client-related factors, project team-related factors, and external factors. Because older buildings have more constraints than new buildings, a comparison of the CSFs for greening new and existing buildings was also made. Surveys and interviews were conducted to validate the CSFs identified.

Findings

The top CSFs in each building category (new vs existing) were then further examined and analysed. These are “top management support”, “effective planning and control”, “building owner's involvement”, “cost management”, “responsiveness of building owners”, “clear scope and priorities of stakeholders”, and “legislation”. Furthermore, there was a strong consensus on the rankings of most factors between new and existing buildings.

Research limitations/implications

By understanding the factors that are crucial for managing and delivering successful green projects in the Singaporean context, these CSFs can be used to direct an organisation's efforts in identifying critical issues and tackling them to achieve high performance.

Originality/value

An ambitious goal of greening 80 per cent of Singapore's building stocks has been set by the government in the Second Green Building Master Plan. To help achieve this goal, this study contributes to the knowledge of project management issues that would determine the success of managing new green building projects and retrofitting existing ones.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

Fari Akhlaghi

Introduces an outline methodology for facilities management tohandle the new corporate polytechnics′ building stocks. Reviews thecontext of the incorporation of…

Abstract

Introduces an outline methodology for facilities management to handle the new corporate polytechnics′ building stocks. Reviews the context of the incorporation of polytechnics and the implications for their building stocks. Defines facilities objectives and mechanisms for proactive facilities management. Considers the role of design and institutional restructuring. Suggests that automated systems will enhance facilities management. Finally, concludes that facilities management will be one means of balancing the existing mismatch between supply and demand for space in the new polytechnics.

Details

Facilities, vol. 8 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article

Karel Williams, John Williams and Colin Haslam

The case for stock reduction in manufacturing has been argued byengineers who emphasise the productive benefits. Western managementaccounting does not provide an adequate…

Abstract

The case for stock reduction in manufacturing has been argued by engineers who emphasise the productive benefits. Western management accounting does not provide an adequate indication of the costs of holding stock. This article constructs a framework for identifying and measuring the financial benefits of stock reduction. Within this framework, the financial benefits of stock reduction in Japanese manufacturing in the 1960s are estimated and the productive preconditions for successful stock reduction are identified. The case of British manufacturing where stock levels have not been reduced is considered. Financial savings from stock reduction cannot be realised in Britain because the productive preconditions are not satisfied when output growth is slow and management has poor control over the production process.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 9 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Daniel O'Neill, Louis Gunnigan and Peter Clarke

The purpose of this paper is to present information on the construction technology used to build Dublin City Council’s (DCC’s) housing stock, with an emphasis on wall…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present information on the construction technology used to build Dublin City Council’s (DCC’s) housing stock, with an emphasis on wall construction.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology applied was a mix of literature review and archival research. The research was undertaken as part of PhD research exploring the energy upgrade of a housing stock.

Findings

The research uncovered details of the construction technology used in the construction of DCC’s housing stock, especially wall construction. These details disprove perceptions and assumptions made on the evolution of construction technology in Dublin and Ireland.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited in that it primarily focused on the period between 1887 to the introduction of the 1991 Building Regulations. Further research is required on both DCC’s housing stock and the Irish housing stock to identify the specific changes in construction technology.

Practical implications

It is hoped this research will be a foundation for further research on the evolution of house construction technology, and housing stock asset intelligence in Ireland.

Originality/value

This research provides information for researchers and professionals with an interest in the evolution of Irish house construction technology. This is an area which has not received significant attention in Irish built-environment research.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

Satu Huuhka and Sini Saarimaa

When dwellings fail to respond to residents’ needs, housing will suffer from segregation and buildings will possibly be demolished ahead of their time. This paper focuses…

Abstract

Purpose

When dwellings fail to respond to residents’ needs, housing will suffer from segregation and buildings will possibly be demolished ahead of their time. This paper focuses on the lack of variation in the sizes of dwellings as a factor in residential segregation. It examines this issue in the context of Finnish mass housing built in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of the paper is to review how mass housing layouts can be adapted to produce the currently absent flat sizes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper operates at the intersection of human geography, building stock research and adaptability research. First, statistical data are utilized to investigate how dwellings and households of different sizes are distributed over the Finnish housing stock. Second, the building layouts of mass housing are examined in detail. Third, the potential that flats in mass housing have for size modification is reviewed.

Findings

There is a disparity of available dwelling sizes between different housing types, and statistics show that the proportion of large households has decreased significantly in blocks of flats over the last decades. The lack of large dwellings in mass housing may contribute as one factor to the segregation of the neighborhoods built in the 1960s and 1970s. The findings show how the variation of apartment sizes can be increased in mass housing.

Originality/value

The housing stock is rarely examined in detail in segregation research, even though it is a major determinant for a city’s social structure. This paper argues that to address segregation sustainably, it is necessary to understand the housing stock better and to view it as an adaptable asset.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article

Khadidja El-Bahdja Djebbar, Souria Salem and Abderrahmane Mokhtari

The purpose of this paper is to analyze energy performance of the multi-storey buildings built in the city of Tlemcen between 1872 and 2016.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze energy performance of the multi-storey buildings built in the city of Tlemcen between 1872 and 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

A diagnosis based on a bottom-up methodology, using statistical techniques and engineering, has been developed and applied. To do this, demand condition analysis was conducted using a data collection survey on a sample of 100 case studies. Physical characteristics of the buildings have been determined through the archetype by period. This serves to define the strengths and weaknesses of buildings as energy consumers.

Findings

The obtained results showed that dwellings built between 1872 and 1920 offer better energy performance with a consumption index close to 130kWh/m2/year and this compared to the five periods considered. For dwellings built between 1974 and 1989, energy consumption is higher with an index approaching 300kWh/m2/year, thus qualifying the buildings of this period as energy intensive.

Originality/value

A database is established to collect physical information on the existing housing stock and thus allow their classification vis-à-vis of the energy label. This study is part of a research project aimed at evaluating and determining optimal measures for energy rehabilitation of multi-family buildings in Tlemcen. Thermal rehabilitation solutions are proposed using thermal simulations, in the following studies, to improve thermal performance of existing buildings. This study constitutes the first step of a roadmap applicable to other cities constituting climatic zones in Algeria. This helps to enrich the Algerian thermal regulation in thermal rehabilitation of existing residential buildings and conception of new ones, in urban areas with a similar climate.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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