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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Ali Tighnavard Balasbaneh, Abdul Kadir Bin Marsono and Emad Kasra Kermanshahi

The purpose of this study is to describe life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluation for single story building house in Malaysia. Two objective…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to describe life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluation for single story building house in Malaysia. Two objective functions, namely, LCA and LCC, were evaluated for each design and a total of 20 alternatives were analyzed. Two wall schemes that have been adopted from two different recent studies toward mitigation of climate change require clarification in both life cycle objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

For this strategic life cycle assessment, Simapro 8.3 tool has been chosen over a 50-year life span. LCC analysis was also used to determine not only the most energy-efficient strategy, but also the most economically feasible one. A present value (PV)-based economic analysis takes LCC into account.

Findings

The results will appear in present value and LC carbon footprint saving, both individually and in combination with each other. Result of life cycle management shows that timber wall−wooden post and beam covered by steel stud (W5) and wood truss with concrete roof tiles (R1) released less carbon emission to atmosphere and have lower life cycle cost over their life span. W5R1 releases 35 per cent less CO2 emission than the second best choice and costs 25 per cent less.

Originality/value

The indicator assessed was global warming, and as the focus was on GHG emissions, the focus of this study was mainly in the context of Malaysian construction, although the principles apply universally. The result would support the adoption of sustainable building for building sector.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2019

Kim Haugbølle and Lau M. Raffnsøe

Sustainable building design suffers from a lack of reliable life cycle data. The purpose of this paper is to compare life cycle costs of sustainable building projects…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable building design suffers from a lack of reliable life cycle data. The purpose of this paper is to compare life cycle costs of sustainable building projects, examine the magnitude of various cost drivers and discuss the implications of an emerging shift in cost drivers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on data from 21 office buildings certified in Denmark according to the sustainable certification scheme DGNB.

Findings

The paper supports previous findings that construction costs and running costs each roughly make up half of the life cycle costs over a 50-year period. More surprising is the finding that the life cycle costs for cleaning are approximately twice as high as the supply costs for energy and water.

Research limitations/implications

The data set is based on actual construction costs of office buildings constructed in 2013-2017. Although all running costs are calculated rather than measured, they are based on a more detailed, specific and industry-supported set of calculation assumptions than is usual for life cycle costing studies because of extensive collaborative work in a number of concomitant national research and development projects.

Practical implications

Authorities, clients and building professionals heavily emphasise energy-saving measures in new Danish buildings. The paper suggests redirecting this effort towards other more prominent cost drivers like cleaning and technical installations.

Originality/value

This paper provides a notable contribution to the academic understanding of the significance of different cost drivers as well as the practical implementation of life cycle costing.

Details

Facilities, vol. 37 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Qingfeng Meng, Yifan Zhang, Zhen Li, Weixiang Shi, Jun Wang, Yanhui Sun, Li Xu and Xiangyu Wang

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the current applications of BIM, the integration of related technologies and the tendencies and challenges systematically.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the current applications of BIM, the integration of related technologies and the tendencies and challenges systematically.

Design/methodology/approach

Using quantitative and qualitative bibliometric statistical methods, the current mode of interaction between BIM and other related technologies is summarized.

Findings

This paper identified 24 different BIM applications in the life cycle. From two perspectives, the implementation status of BIM applications and integrated technologies are respectively studied. The future industry development framework is drawn comprehensively. We summarized the challenges of BIM applications from the perspectives of management, technology and promotion, and confirmed that most of the challenges come from the two driving factors of promotion and management.

Research limitations/implications

The technical challenges reviewed in this paper are from the collected literature we have extracted, which is only a part of the practical challenges and not comprehensive enough.

Practical implications

We summarized the current mode of interactive use of BIM and sorted out the challenges faced by BIM applications to provide reference for the risks and challenges faced by the future industry.

Originality/value

There is little literature to integrate BIM applications and to establish BIM related challenges and risk frameworks. In this paper, we provide a review of the current implementation level of BIM and the risks and challenges of stakeholders through three aspects of management, technology and promotion.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2019

Filipa Salvado, Nuno Almeida and Alvaro Vale e Azevedo

Both financial and non-financial functions are imbedded in the life-cycle management activities of building assets. These functions provide relevant information for the…

Abstract

Purpose

Both financial and non-financial functions are imbedded in the life-cycle management activities of building assets. These functions provide relevant information for the establishment of operational and maintenance strategies and for decision-making processes related with the timing of major repairs, replacements and rehabilitations. The purpose of this paper is to focus on improving the alignment of financial and non-financial functions related to the recognition that the service potential of buildings should be appropriately funded as it is consumed over its life cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

Authors undertake an analysis of depreciation rates used to accommodate a systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of building assets over its useful life. Different depreciation approaches and calculation methods are explored. A case study of a school building portfolio is used to debate situations of misalignment of financial and non-financial depreciation rates. Data mining methods including decision tree and clustering are used to predict equivalent functional depreciation rates of buildings system and subsystems and promote an enhanced alignment with regulated financial depreciation rates toward an optimized life-cycle management of the school building portfolio.

Findings

Historical data show the relevance of considering technical and functional characteristics of the building system and their subsystems (landscaping; structure; external elevations and roofs; interior divisions; and services and equipment) when determining depreciation rates for the building assets The case study showed a misalignment of equivalent functional and financial depreciation rates used in the life-cycle management activities of the school building portfolio ranging between 1/1.26 for external elevations and roofs and 1/5.21 for landscaping.

Originality/value

Buildings initial technical and functional attributes are affected with its wear, aging or decay, causing loss of value until they reach end-of-life. This paper demonstrates the impact of the different interpretations of the concept of useful life and the subsequent misalignment that it generates between financial functions based on financial depreciation rates and non-financial functions based on historical data and the functional equivalent (technical and functional) depreciation rates. Economic data of 158 public school buildings constructed in Portugal since the 1940s, that sound life-cycle thinking enhances the alignment of both financial and non-financial functions.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Allan Ashworth

Considers how the life expectancies of building components in a life cycle cost calculation can be determined. Makes comparisons with initial capital cost estimating…

Abstract

Considers how the life expectancies of building components in a life cycle cost calculation can be determined. Makes comparisons with initial capital cost estimating, where forecasts or estimates of cost have been carried out for many years. By definition an estimate is unlikely to be spot‐on. Also recognizes that life expectancy is not just a mathematical calculation but also requires the use of expert judgement. Any forecast of a future event, while utilizing previously recorded performance data, will always be influenced by prevailing conditions and future expectations. The initial quality and standards of the building project are important characteristics in determining component life expectancy as is the type of project itself. Identifies a range of different sources of published information on building component life expectancies. Different techniques are also discussed that have a potential in assisting with the prediction of the lives of building components.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Filipa Salvado, Nuno Marques de Almeida and Alvaro Vale e Azevedo

Stakeholders of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector require information on the buildings economic performance throughout its life cycle. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Stakeholders of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector require information on the buildings economic performance throughout its life cycle. This information is neither readily available nor always accurate because building management (BM) professionals still face difficulties to fully incorporate the life cycle cost (LCC) concept into their daily practice. The purpose of this paper is to identify and contribute to solving these difficulties.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a background knowledge review and set the ground for a structured research roadmap and a management framework that highlight the links and limitations to be addressed within and between LCC and BM. A six-stage method was used for developing conceptual frameworks targeting six goals: establishing a point of departure; mapping sources of information; literature research; notion deconstruction and conceptual categorization; overview of the applicable background knowledge; and structuring of a framework for LCC-informed decisions in BM.

Findings

Management solutions for the built context are necessarily connected with LCC and BM current concepts such as asset management, project, program and portfolio management, facility management and data management. These management approaches highlight the importance of incorporating life cycle concepts and promote LCC effective application within the AEC sector.

Originality/value

This paper identifies and discusses current limitations on the information availability for the economic performance of buildings throughout its life cycle. This work also identifies LCC-related topics that need to be further explored or addressed by both the scientific community and practitioners to overcome these limitations and facilitate the integration of the LCC concept into BM activities.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Manish K. Dixit, Charles H. Culp, Sarel Lavy and Jose Fernandez-Solis

The recurrent embodied energy (REE) is the energy consumed in the maintenance, replacement and retrofit processes of a facility. The purpose of this paper was to analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

The recurrent embodied energy (REE) is the energy consumed in the maintenance, replacement and retrofit processes of a facility. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the relationship of REE with the service life and life cycle embodied energy. The amount of variation in the reported REE values is also determined and discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach that is known as the literature based discovery (LBD) was adopted. Existing literature was surveyed to gather case studies and to analyze the reported values of REE.

Findings

The reported values of REE showed considerable variation across referred studies. It was also found that the reported REE values demonstrated a moderate positive correlation with the service life but a very strong positive correlation with the life cycle embodied energy of both the residential and commercial facilities.

Research limitations/implications

This review paper pointed out the importance of the maintenance and replacement processes in reducing the life cycle energy use in a facility. Future research could focus on performing case studies to evaluate this relationship.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the significance of REE in reducing the life cycle energy impacts of a facility. As facility managers routinely deal with maintenance and replacement processes, they hold an important responsibility of reducing the life cycle energy.

Originality/value

The findings of the paper would motivate the facilities management professionals to prefer long service life materials and components during the postconstruction phases of a built facility.

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Seyedhabibollah Sadrinooshabadi, Afshin Taheri, Ibrahim Yitmen and Rogier Jongeling

Each building project demands an integrated method for information and requirement management in its life cycle. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the major…

Abstract

Purpose

Each building project demands an integrated method for information and requirement management in its life cycle. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the major obstacles in integrated life cycle information management and recognize the potentials of CoClass as the new Swedish digital classification system to tackle them throughout asset life cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

The industry viewpoint toward the current status of asset information management considering ISO 19650-1 principles and the existing obstacles and the industry practitioners' ideas regarding CoClass capabilities and applicability were captured and analyzed. A total of 13 semistructured interviews were conducted with the AECO industry professionals to have an understanding of information requirement management. Then the results were analyzed qualitatively, using the NVivo 12 software. Different attributes of a component (heating panel) in a meeting room according to CoClass and data deviations throughout the asset life cycle were elaborated.

Findings

This study reveals some obstacles in information management process in seven categories in relation to: (1) the need to employ information exchange platforms as common data environments (CDEs) by all actors from early stages; (2) the communication issues caused by lack of utilizing common languages; (3) the costly and time-consuming implementation process; (4) the misunderstandings in terms of data communication between service providers and owners; (5) the definition and fulfillment of information requirements as well as keeping track of data deviations throughout asset life cycle; (6) the information update difficulty; and (7) the need for training practitioners dealing with new systems such as CoClass.

Originality/value

The research explores the major obstacles in information requirement management concerning the practical implementation of the new Swedish classification system, CoClass, supporting the asset life cycle.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2007

Andrea Pelzeter

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the result of an optimisation via life cycle costs (LCC) depends on the assumptions made throughout the process of calculating LCC.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the result of an optimisation via life cycle costs (LCC) depends on the assumptions made throughout the process of calculating LCC.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework is used to structure the assumptions made in the process of calculating LCC. These include the following three pairs: technical versus economic life‐span, static versus dynamic calculation method or costs only versus income minus costs. In a broader sense, these LCC are referred to as the life cycle economy (LCE). Two case studies form the basis for the LCC calculations. Using different assumptions, the LCC of virtual design variations of these buildings are compared to each other.

Findings

The rankings drawn from the calculations differ according to the chosen calculation method, i.e. the chosen variation for the optimisation of a building is not consistent.

Research limitations/implications

This is essentially an exploratory study and the prognosis of future cash flow in relation to certain design variations requires further research.

Practical implications

The credibility of life cycle costing should improve with a greater transparency of assumptions in the context of the outlined framework.

Originality/value

All players in facilities management who support their decisions with LCC will benefit from this quantification of the impact of different calculation methods. The extension of LCC to LCE will help planners, investors and owners of real estate in evaluating building options with respect to quality, image, flexibility or comfort.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Yash Gupta and Wing Sing Chow

This article surveys the literature dealing with theory and applications of life cycle costing (LCC). It deals with the literature published in the last 25 years and…

Abstract

This article surveys the literature dealing with theory and applications of life cycle costing (LCC). It deals with the literature published in the last 25 years and provides 667 references.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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