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Article

Arto Saari, Matti Kruus, Aimo Hämälainen and Juhani Kiiras

Nowadays it is typical that the precise use of a building becomes clear during construction. Current building processes do not support this in Finland. The objective of…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays it is typical that the precise use of a building becomes clear during construction. Current building processes do not support this in Finland. The objective of this study is to present a novel systematic management of the design process for flexible construction projects, from the project programming stage through to overall design, detailed designs, procurement, and handover, in a situation where the final use of the building becomes clear only during construction.

Design/methodology/approach

The development work included a constructive search for solutions to the problems presented above. The process developed in this study is illustrated with two case projects analysed retrospectively.

Findings

According the open building principle, buildings should be divided into two parts: a permanent base building; and modifiable interior spaces. This division should apply throughout the building's entire life cycle, starting from the beginning of the construction project. The start of the project is the time when goals should be set for the flexibility of the building. The first step in this goal‐setting procedure is to define the flexible modifiable spaces, and the second step is to dimension the permanent base building. A design procedure for this open building procedure has also been developed in the study. The study concludes that traditional boundaries and the content of design packages must be changed. These boundaries should be compatible with the appropriate bid packages and should support implementation of the construction work. The bid packages should follow the division to base building and spaces too.

Originality/value

The procedure proposed forms guidelines for flexible programming, basic principles for design and procurement processes. In addition, it is the starting point to transforming the Finnish standard scope of work for design corresponding to the open building approach.

Details

Facilities, vol. 25 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article

R. Brahme and A. Mahdavi

It is important to provide building performance feedback to the designer as early as possible in the design process. However, many aspects of building performance are…

Abstract

It is important to provide building performance feedback to the designer as early as possible in the design process. However, many aspects of building performance are significantly affected by the design of the building’s technical systems (e.g., heating, airconditioning), which are typically configured in detail only in the later stages of design. The challenge is thus to find a method to use detailed simulation tools even during the early stages of design when values for many of the variables for the building’s technical systems are not yet available. In this paper, we demonstrate how this problem can be partially solved by use of differential representation for building and technical system, homology‐based automatic mapping of relevant information from the building to the technical system representation, and generative design agents which, with a minimal user‐input, can design and model the technical system. We conclude the paper with illustrative examples of detailed performance analysis of complex buildings and their heating, ventilation, and air‐conditioning systems, performed in early stages of design.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article

Jacques Vink

Flex−buildings are buildings which are literally designed to change. A flex−building must be able to accept different infills and its users must be able to easily adapt…

Abstract

Flex−buildings are buildings which are literally designed to change. A flex−building must be able to accept different infills and its users must be able to easily adapt their surroundings.

Flexibility is defined as the capacity of a building to undergo modifications and accept changes of function with limited structural interventions. More than 40% of the activities housed in a flex building can continue to function during modification.

Studies into flex−buildings (commissioned by the Dutch Government) have elicited a number of insights. These are not hard−and−fast conclusions but more in the region of statements and reminders for those involved with flex−buildings.

These studies show that it takes more than civil engineering to successfully realise such buildings. Aspects of use and management are at least as important. Besides, it requires designers who are willing to let go of their design after it is finished. For the result is not a completed ‘architectural’ product but a continually changing object.

Following insights (among others) will be illustrated with built and unbuilt projects in the Netherlands.

• The façade design, for example, figures prominently in designing flexible buildings. It makes special demands on the design’s presentation during the design process, as the building can assume different appearances over time. The double facade is a promising concept that allows for expressive and/or open facades in flexible buildings. It can also help to reduce a building’s energy consumption.

• Also by deliberately incorporating excessive space and construction a building has the necessary leeway to accommodate future developments. A building’s flexibility is enhanced by oversize in structure as well as space.

• A big multi−use building in Rotterdam (H. A. Maaskant / W. van Tijen (1951)) and recent projects of RUIMTELAB are presented as case−studies. These are an inspiration for architects and planners looking for design tools to help achieve an open architecture.

Details

Open House International, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article

Jochem C. Nijs, Elma Durmisevic and Johannes I.M. Halman

Open Building and IFD (Industrial Flexible Demountable) building are philosophies that aim to create high quality buildings with increased flexibility and better…

Abstract

Open Building and IFD (Industrial Flexible Demountable) building are philosophies that aim to create high quality buildings with increased flexibility and better environmental characteristics. However, a successful adoption of IFD principles has not yet occurred because of concerns for the types of connections that are needed between building components. Therefore, this paper describes PhD research at the University of Twente that has the objective of designing a typology of flexible interfaces for IFD building that can be widely applied in the construction industry and aims to standardize connections, at the various levels of technical composition of a building, to create compatibility between building products from different suppliers. Such a typology of interfaces will increase the re-use and recycling of building parts, resulting in the increased sustainability of the building process. Furthermore, it will help accelerate the industrialization of the housing industry and mass customization of housing. A preliminary case study, in which a sustainable, flexible bathroom is designed, illustrates the various types of interfaces that can be applied, based on existing research. The paper illustrates the importance of interfaces, and aims to increase environmental benefits of buildings (less construction waste), improve the social aspects (higher user satisfaction in buildings) and achieve economical advantages (lower overall costs) by designing new interfaces.

Details

Open House International, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article

Ayman Ahmed Ezzat Othman and Fatma Othman Alamoudy

This paper aims to develop a framework for optimising building performance through the integration between risk management (RM) and building information modelling (BIM…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a framework for optimising building performance through the integration between risk management (RM) and building information modelling (BIM) during the design process.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this aim, a research strategy consisting of literature review, case studies and survey questionnaire is designed to accomplish four objectives. First, to examine the concepts of design process, building performance, RM and BIM; second, to present three case studies to explain the role of using RM and BIM capabilities towards optimising building performance; third, to investigate the perception and application of architectural design firms in Egypt towards the role of RM and BIM for enhancing building performance during the design process; and finally, to develop a framework integrating RM and BIM during the design process as an approach for optimising building performance.

Findings

Through literature review, the research identified 18 risks that hamper optimising building performance during the design process. In addition, 11 building performance values and 20 BIM technologies were defined. Results of data analysis showed that “Design budget overrun”, “Lack of considering life cycle cost” and “Inefficient use of the design time” were ranked the highest risks that affect the optimisation of building performance. Respondents ranked “Risk avoid” or “Risk transfer” as the most risk responses adopted in the Egyptian context. In addition, “BIM As Built” was ranked the highest BIM technology used for overcoming risks during the design process. These findings necessitated taking action towards developing a framework to optimising building performance.

Originality/value

The research identified the risks that affect optimising building performance during the design process. It focuses on improving the design process through using the capabilities of BIM technologies towards overcoming these risks during the design process. The proposed framework which integrates RM and BIM represents a synthesis that is novel and creative in thought and adds value to the knowledge in a manner that has not previously occurred.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Book part

Matthew R. Griffis

This exploratory study, a Ph.D. dissertation completed at the University of Western Ontario in 2013, examines the materially embedded relations of power between library…

Abstract

This exploratory study, a Ph.D. dissertation completed at the University of Western Ontario in 2013, examines the materially embedded relations of power between library users and staff in public libraries and how building design regulates spatial behavior according to organizational objectives. It considers three public library buildings as organization spaces (Dale & Burrell, 2008) and determines the extent to which their spatial organizations reproduce the relations of power between the library and its public that originated with the modern public library building type ca. 1900. Adopting a multicase study design, I conducted site visits to three, purposefully selected public library buildings of similar size but various ages. Site visits included: blueprint analysis; organizational document analysis; in-depth, semi-structured interviews with library users and library staff; cognitive mapping exercises; observations; and photography.

Despite newer approaches to designing public library buildings, the use of newer information technologies, and the emergence of newer paradigms of library service delivery (e.g., the user-centered model), findings strongly suggest that the library as an organization still relies on many of the same socio-spatial models of control as it did one century ago when public library design first became standardized. The three public libraries examined show spatial organizations that were designed primarily with the librarian, library materials, and library operations in mind far more than the library user or the user’s many needs. This not only calls into question the public library’s progressiveness over the last century but also hints at its ability to survive in the new century.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-744-3

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Article

S.M. Lo, C.M. Zhao and K.K. Yuen

Traditionally, buildings are designed in accordance with prescriptive building and fire codes. Rapid urbanization causes an increase in urban population and commercial…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditionally, buildings are designed in accordance with prescriptive building and fire codes. Rapid urbanization causes an increase in urban population and commercial activities, and an increase in demand for large and complex buildings. Buildings that have been constructed in accordance with the old prescriptive requirements may not have the same fire safety level as the standard enforced today, even if all fire safety items are maintained at the original design standard. It is the usual practice that any upgrading or alteration works to be carried out in an existing building are required to comply with the requirements currently enforced. The demand for using a performance‐based approach for designing large complex buildings as well as alteration works in existing or historical buildings is increasing. The paper aims to discuss the issues involved

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a brief comparison of the use of performance‐based fire safety design in three locations and presents the use of a system dynamics model to examine how the technological investment will affect the use of performance‐based fire safety design.

Findings

The model predicts that increased investment by the Hong Kong authorities would see a rise in the number of building projects using a performance‐based approach within a few years.

Originality/value

The research in this paper provides guidance to the building control regime in Hong Kong on how to achieve an increase in the use of a fire‐engineered approach to enhance fire safety design in buildings.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

A.S. Ali, K.C. Keong, N. Zakaria, U. Zolkafli and F. Akashah

The purpose of this study is to focus on identifying building elements with design defects and established the relationship between design defects and difficulties in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to focus on identifying building elements with design defects and established the relationship between design defects and difficulties in carrying out maintenance works.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of four cases have been selected covering primary‐ and secondary‐level for both National and National‐type schools (commonly known as vernacular schools). Interviews with school management were carried out throughout the study to assess the common design defects in the buildings.

Findings

A list of the design defects that have caused high maintenance cost was tabulated. It could be concluded that the most common design defects are building façade and missing slot underneath the floor slab which led to more defects.

Research limitations/implications

Only four schools in Penang, Malaysia were involved in this study. Data were gathered from the school management and maintenance personnel. No data have been obtained from the designers because difficulties in tracing the designers record since the school age are more than 20 years.

Practical implications

The study recommended that expert maintenance personnel shall be employed in the design stage to minimize design defects in school projects which in turn minimize the cost of building maintenance.

Social Implications

Safety and health of the students could be affected if there is no accurate measures being adopted to overcome the issue.

Originality/value

A very limited study has been carried out with regards to design maintenance for school buildings in Malaysia.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

Milan Sijakovic, Ana Peric and Pablo Ayuso Ollero

Environmental treat poses a challenge to the entire built environment. This paper aims to focus on the building asset as the key element of any urban pattern, and…

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental treat poses a challenge to the entire built environment. This paper aims to focus on the building asset as the key element of any urban pattern, and, therefore, a crucial condition towards success or failure in achieving resilience. Through the environmental performance assessment of the adaptive reuse project in London, this paper identifies the design principles of resilience, focusing specifically on the measures for protecting vulnerable parts of the building from damage, as well as protecting exposed parts of the building from material degradation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the overview of both scholarly articles and practitioners’ guides, the authors first offer a systematic overview of the main qualities and attributes of the resilient design. Further, to operationalise the resilient design principles, the authors use the well-established Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) on the case of adaptive reuse of the Z Hotel Holborn in London. Specifically, the authors examine if the case building applies the measures to decrease its internal vulnerability and reduce negative effects of external hazards.

Findings

The study confirms that external shocks are controlled by protecting exposed building parts from degradation and that preventing damage to vulnerable parts of the building increases resilience.

Originality/value

Through the analysis of both reactive and proactive perspectives of resilience, this paper elucidates the concept of resilience in the context of architectural design. Furthermore, this paper identifies the attributes of resilient architectural design and presents the measures which directly influence the durability and resilience of the building asset.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article

Helle Lohmann Rasmussen

For optimising long-term building operations, building clients need to enable integration of operational knowledge in the design process of new buildings. This study aims…

Abstract

Purpose

For optimising long-term building operations, building clients need to enable integration of operational knowledge in the design process of new buildings. This study aims to investigate and compare how operational knowledge is integrated into the design of buildings and large ships, focussing on the roles affiliation and the competences of the client’s project manager play.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional qualitative methodology with multiple case studies (five cases) was used. In addition, ten expert interviews and two validation focus group interviews were conducted. Case studies included in-depth interviews, document analysis and observations.

Findings

The study showed that organisational affiliation, focus and competences of the client’s project management play an important role in how much effort and resources go into ensuring integration of operational knowledge in the design process. In the ship cases, projects managers’ highest concerns were operations. Yet, the fewest procedures and tools to integrate operational knowledge in design were found implemented in these cases. Contrastingly, in the building cases, where operations were not the main matter of concern of project management, a large number of procedures and tools to integrate operational knowledge in design were implemented.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this research is the first to compare how integration of operational knowledge is taking place in the design process of buildings and large ships and identifying what these industries can learn from each other. Furthermore, it adds to the limited research on operations in large ship design.

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