There have been many innovations in public finance in the 21st century to address increasing budget constraints and increasing demands from government. One innovation has…
There have been many innovations in public finance in the 21st century to address increasing budget constraints and increasing demands from government. One innovation has been civic crowd-funding which began in 2009. This is predicated on the voluntary commitment of funds by individual and institutional donors and investors for specific projects. This paper explores this new approach to funding capital projects and grounds it within a discussion of the Voluntary Theory of Public Finance. There is a lack of research on civic crowd-funding and a lack of theoretical approaches to it. This paper draws these connections and develops future directions of research that includes the continuing application of this approach, the increasing engagement of citizens in the administrative process of government and increasing budget constraints.
This paper analyzes the impact of economic downturns on the revenue and expense sides of city financing for the period 2003 to 2009 using a convenience sample of the…
This paper analyzes the impact of economic downturns on the revenue and expense sides of city financing for the period 2003 to 2009 using a convenience sample of the audited end of year financial reports for thirty midsized US cities. The analysis focuses on whether and how quickly and how extensively revenue and spending directions from past years are altered by recessions. A seven year series of Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) data serves to explore whether citiesʼ revenues and spending, especially the traditional property tax and core functions such as public safety and infrastructure withstood the brief 2001 and the persistent 2007 recessions? The findings point to consumption (spending) over stability (revenue minus expense) for the recession of 2007, particularly in 2008 and 2009.
The purpose of this study is to review the capital budgeting literature over the past decade.
Specifically, over the years 2004–2013, we review works appearing in the major academic journals in accounting, finance, and management. Further, we review the specialized academic journals in management accounting. We examine the frequency of articles by journal and year published, the type of research method applied, and the topic area studied. We then review the research findings by topic area.
We find 110 articles appearing in the selected journals. While the articles increase in frequency, the research methods applied are predominantly analytical and archival in nature with relatively few experiments, case studies, or surveys. Some progress is observed for capital budgeting techniques and new methods for structuring uncertainty. The studies find that the size of capital budgets is about right for companies with high financial reporting quality, for liquid companies, during periods of normal cash flow, when the budget is financed by equity, for companies when they first go public or first go private. Tax rates and financial reporting methods for depreciation and tax expenses distort capital budgets. Organization structure and performance measurement can distort capital budgeting. Individual differences, especially optimism and honesty, can influence capital budgeting decisions.
Limitations and Implications
This review is limited to the major journals in accounting, finance, and management; and the specialized journals in management accounting. There is much research to be done on capital budgeting, especially case studies of actual practice and experiments related to individual and group decision processes.
The chapter is devoted to the factors aimed at optimizing the partnership of public and private sectors in the sphere of public infrastructure development. In modern…
The chapter is devoted to the factors aimed at optimizing the partnership of public and private sectors in the sphere of public infrastructure development. In modern conditions of economic slowdown and budget consolidation in Russia, the infrastructure has become the most important driver of economic growth and public–private partnership (PPP) – the most perspective form of cooperation of public and private investors of infrastructure projects. PPP interpretation as a structural relationship of economic system allows the authors to model optimal combination of formal and informal institutions in order to stimulate long-term economic growth. It becomes promising to model replacement of budget funds by private investment to ensure positive impact on the Russian development despite the budget consolidation. It could only be achieved in the case of formal institutionalization of appropriate conditions for private investors as to low transactional costs and attractive financial parameters. There have been determined some PPP standards connected with public infrastructure projects in order to reduce capital expenditures of the budget funds and increase the inflow of private investment. The authors have managed to obtain model estimates and graphic interpretation of government expenditures’ efficiency increase that could help to structure the fiscal conditions to induce positive multiplier effect as a result of PPP forms improvement in the public infrastructure development.
The purpose of this paper is to explore inter-organizational interactions that might result in prolonged decoupling between central governments' ideas and local…
The purpose of this paper is to explore inter-organizational interactions that might result in prolonged decoupling between central governments' ideas and local governments' practices during the reform of an institutional field (i.e. healthcare).
The paper is based on a qualitative study of the centrally directed reform of the healthcare financing system in Ukraine and focusses on practices and reform ideas from 1991 to 2016.
The findings show that, for more than 25 years, local governments, as providers of healthcare services, faced two major problems associated with drawbacks of the healthcare financial system: line-item budgeting and fragmentation of healthcare funds. Over 25 years, central government's attempts to reform the healthcare financing system did not comprehensively or systematically address the stated problems. The reformers' ideas seemed to focus on creating reform agendas and issuing new laws, instead of paying attention to challenges in local practices.
This article has two main points that are relevant for practitioners. First, it calls for greater involvement from local actors during all stages of public sector reforms, in order to ensure the relevance of developed reform strategies. Second, it points to potential challenges that central governments may face when conducting healthcare financing system reforms in transitional economies.
The paper's contribution is twofold: it outlines reasons for problematic implementation of healthcare financing system reform in Ukraine and explains them through a “reverse decoupling” concept.
This article explores collaborative capital budgeting in U.S. local governments. To date, the capital budgeting literature has focused on practices within individual governments. This leaves a gap in our understanding because a large portion of capital planning, acquisition, and maintenance occurs through collaboration between two or more local governments. Drawing on the capital budgeting and collaborative public management literature, and on illustrative cases of collaborative capital budgeting in the United States, an inductive approach is used to: (1) identify and categorize the different objectives that motivate local officials to pursue collaborative agreements, (2) examine common patterns in the types of assets involved in collaboration, and (3) discover common institutional arrangements in collaboration agreements. The research findings demonstrate significant heterogeneity in the objectives, patterns, and institutions of collaborative capital budgeting.
This paper investigates the extent to which formal capital budgeting methods are used in small high-tech firms. We define high-tech firms by their R&D intensity. In…
This paper investigates the extent to which formal capital budgeting methods are used in small high-tech firms. We define high-tech firms by their R&D intensity. In addition, we define software industry as a special type of R&D-intensive firm. We focus on the methods that are used by the small high-tech firms in evaluating the profitability of investment projects, estimating the cost of capital and making decisions related to the capital structure. Our results based on two surveys of Finnish firms indicate that the high-tech firms use similar capital budgeting methods and estimate their cost of capital in a similar way to other small-sized firms in other industries. Moreover, high-tech firms seek external financing and co-owners.
The purpose of this paper is to review monetary policy options in countries assumed to be suffering from two common economic problems: deficient private demand and high…
The purpose of this paper is to review monetary policy options in countries assumed to be suffering from two common economic problems: deficient private demand and high and rising public debt.
The analytical approach assumes that relevant authorities have decided that new money creation is necessary to address their economic problems. The paper asks the question: how should this new money creation best be deployed to create the required economic stimulus in the context of rising public debt?
The first finding is that the latest rounds of “quantitative easing” in the USA (QE2) and Japan are likely to be inefficient, largely ineffective and have adverse side‐effects, and that in periphery countries the risk of debt default is being increased by current defensive policy settings. The second finding is that the policy of financing budget deficits by printing new money is likely to be more effective (than “quantitative easing” and current Eurozone policy) in raising demand, output and employment without adding unnecessarily to already high levels of public debt.
There are very substantial practical policy implications, involving a potential change of monetary policy strategies for two of the world's largest economies and for Eurozone periphery countries. Post‐earthquake reconstruction in Japan could be financed in the manner recommended in this paper.
The originality/value lies in demonstrating that current monetary policy orthodoxy is misplaced, and that an alternative policy strategy has been overlooked and is likely to be more effective.
Expenditure management practices in Asia shows that these vary from the ]still-in-transition’ China, to the colonial concerns of compliance in the South Asian countries…
Expenditure management practices in Asia shows that these vary from the ]still-in-transition’ China, to the colonial concerns of compliance in the South Asian countries, to more advanced experiments in Singapore. Budgetary practices in many of these countries are characterized by incremental and bottom-up budgets, across-the-board cuts in times of fiscal stress, and little or no analysis of costs and outputs. At the same time, resource allocation as a percentage of GDP and accrual accounting are being tried in some other countries. The paper suggests that the institutional changes now underway in these countries and the imperative need to control expenditure could bring meaningful changes.