Search results

1 – 10 of 57
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Van Luc Nguyen, Tomohiro Degawa and Tomomi Uchiyama

This study aims to provide discussions of the numerical method and the bubbly flow characteristics of an annular bubble plume.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide discussions of the numerical method and the bubbly flow characteristics of an annular bubble plume.

Design/methodology/approach

The bubbles, released from the annulus located at the bottom of the domain, rise owing to buoyant force. These released bubbles have diameters of 0.15–0.25 mm and satisfy the bubble flow rate of 4.1 mm3/s. The evolution of the three-dimensional annular bubble plume is numerically simulated using the semi-Lagrangian–Lagrangian (semi-LL) approach. The approach is composed of a vortex-in-cell method for the liquid phase and a Lagrangian description of the gas phase.

Findings

First, a new phenomenon of fluid dynamics was discovered. The bubbly flow enters a transition state with the meandering motion of the bubble plume after the early stable stage. A vortex structure in the form of vortex rings is formed because of the inhomogeneous bubble distribution and the fluid-surface effects. The vortex structure of the flow deforms as three-dimensionality appears in the flow before the flow fully develops. Second, the superior abilities of the semi-LL approach to analyze the vortex structure of the flow and supply physical details of bubble dynamics were demonstrated in this investigation.

Originality/value

The semi-LL approach is applied to the simulation of the gas–liquid two-phase flows.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Van Luc Nguyen, Tomohiro Degawa and Tomomi Uchiyama

This paper aims to provide discussions of a numerical method for bubbly flows and the interaction between a vortex ring and a bubble plume.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide discussions of a numerical method for bubbly flows and the interaction between a vortex ring and a bubble plume.

Design/methodology/approach

Small bubbles are released into quiescent water from a cylinder tip. They rise under the buoyant force, forming a plume. A vortex ring is launched vertically upward into the bubble plume. The interactions between the vortex ring and the bubble plume are numerically simulated using a semi-Lagrangian–Lagrangian approach composed of a vortex-in-cell method for the fluid phase and a Lagrangian description of the gas phase.

Findings

A vortex ring can transport the bubbles surrounding it over a distance significantly depending on the correlative initial position between the bubbles and the core center. The motion of some bubbles is nearly periodic and gradually extinguishes with time. These bubble trajectories are similar to two-dimensional-helix shapes. The vortex is fragmented into multiple regions with high values of Q, the second invariant of velocity gradient tensor, settling at these regional centers. The entrained bubbles excite a growth rate of the vortex ring's azimuthal instability with a formation of the second- and third-harmonic oscillations of modes of 16 and 24, respectively.

Originality/value

A semi-Lagrangian–Lagrangian approach is applied to simulate the interactions between a vortex ring and a bubble plume. The simulations provide the detail features of the interactions.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Van Luc Nguyen, Tomohiro Degawa, Tomomi Uchiyama and Kotaro Takamure

The purpose of this study is to design numerical simulations of bubbly flow around a cylinder to better understand the characteristics of flow around a rigid obstacle.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to design numerical simulations of bubbly flow around a cylinder to better understand the characteristics of flow around a rigid obstacle.

Design/methodology/approach

The bubbly flow around a circular cylinder was numerically simulated using a semi-Lagrangian–Lagrangian method composed of a vortex-in-cell method for the liquid phase and a Lagrangian description of the gas phase. Additionally, a penalization method was applied to account for the cylinder inside the flow. The slip condition of the bubbles on the cylinder’s surface was enforced, and the outflow conditions were applied to the liquid flow at the far field.

Findings

The simulation clarified the characteristics of a bubbly flow around a circular cylinder. The bubbles were shown to move around and separate from both sides of the cylinder, because of entrainment by the liquid shear layers. Once the bubbly flow fully developed, the bubbles distributed into groups and were dispersed downstream of the cylinder. A three-dimensional vortex structure of various scales was also shown to form downstream, whereas a quasi-stable two-dimensional vortex structure was observed upstream. Overall, the proposed method captured the characteristics of a bubbly flow around a cylinder well.

Originality/value

A semi-Lagrangian–Lagrangian approach was applied to simulate a bubbly flow around a circular cylinder. The simulations provided the detail features of these flow phenomena.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Lei Shao, Shiyu Feng, Chaoyue Li, Weihua Liu and Xuying Huang

This paper aims to improve the previous fuel scrubbing model and find out the relationship between bubble diameter and scrubbing efficiency (ƞ).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve the previous fuel scrubbing model and find out the relationship between bubble diameter and scrubbing efficiency (ƞ).

Design/methodology/approach

A fuel tank scrubbing test bench was established to verify the accuracy of this model. Ullage and dissolved oxygen concentration were measured, and images of bubble size and distribution were collected and analyzed using image analysis software.

Findings

The bubble diameter has a great influence on ullage and dissolved oxygen concentration during the fuel scrubbing process. The scrubbing efficiency (ƞ) has an exponential relationship with bubble diameter and decreases rapidly as the bubble diameter increases.

Practical implications

The variation of the ullage and dissolved oxygen concentration predicted by this model is more accurate than that of the previous model. In addition, the study of bubble size can provide a guidance for the design of fuel scrubber.

Originality/value

This study not only improves the previous fuel scrubbing model but also develops a method to calculate scrubbing efficiency (ƞ) based on bubble diameter. In addition, a series of tests and analyses were conducted, including numerical calculation, experiment and image analysis.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Paul W. Cleary

The purpose of this paper is to show how particle scale simulation of industrial particle flows using DEM (discrete element method) offers the opportunity for better…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how particle scale simulation of industrial particle flows using DEM (discrete element method) offers the opportunity for better understanding of the flow dynamics leading to improvements in equipment design and operation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores the breadth of industrial applications that are now possible with a series of case studies.

Findings

The paper finds that the inclusion of cohesion, coupling to other physics such fluids, and its use in bubbly and reacting flows are becoming increasingly viable. Challenges remain in developing models that balance the depth of the physics with the computational expense that is affordable and in the development of measurement and characterization processes to provide this expanding array of input data required. Steadily increasing computer power has seen model sizes grow from thousands of particles to many millions over the last decade, which steadily increases the range of applications that can be modelled and the complexity of the physics that can be well represented.

Originality/value

The paper shows how better understanding of the flow dynamics leading to improvements in equipment design and operation can potentially lead to large increases in equipment and process efficiency, throughput and/or product quality. Industrial applications can be characterised as large, involving complex particulate behaviour in typically complex geometries. The critical importance of particle shape on the behaviour of granular systems is demonstrated. Shape needs to be adequately represented in order to obtain quantitative predictive accuracy for these systems.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

P. Anil Kishan and Sukanta K. Dash

The purpose of the present investigation is to compute the circulation flow of a liquid in a closed chamber when the liquid is fired by a gas jet through number of nozzles.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present investigation is to compute the circulation flow of a liquid in a closed chamber when the liquid is fired by a gas jet through number of nozzles.

Design/methodology/approach

The conservation equations for mass and momentum have been solved in a closed container along with the conservation of volume fraction of the secondary phase in order to take into account the gas phase present in the liquid. The drag force created by the gas on the liquid has been incorporated in the momentum equation as a source term and the resulting equations have been solved numerically using a finite volume technique in an unstructured grid employing a phase coupled pressure linked velocity solver for the pressure correction equation, which is usually known as the Eulerian Scheme for two phase flow solution. An eddy viscosity based kε turbulence model for the mixture was considered to update the fluid viscosity with iterations and capture the turbulence in the overall mixture rather than computing the individual turbulence in both the phases, which was found to be extremely time‐consuming and computationally unstable to some extent.

Findings

The model thus developed was tried to predict the circulation flow rate in an experimental setup where air was injected to drive the water in a long U tube setup. The computed circulation flow rate was found to be within 15 percent deviation from the experimentally observed values. The circulation flow rate of water was found to be increasing with the injected airflow rate. After this model validation, circulation flow rate of steel in an industrial size Ruhrstal‐Haraeus (RH)‐degasser was computed by injecting argon into the liquid steel through the up‐leg of the RH vessel. It was found that the circulation flow rate of steel in the RH degasser was increasing when the argon flow was being varied from 800 to 1,600 NL/min, which confirms the industrial findings.

Research limitations/implications

The present computation could not use the energy equation to compute the swelling of the gas bubbles inside the chamber due to huge computing time requirement.

Practical implications

The present computation could compute realistically the circulation flow rate of water in a U tube when fired by a gas jet by using a two‐phase Eulerian model and hence this model can be effectively used for industrial applications where two‐phase flow comes into picture.

Originality/value

The original contribution of the paper is in the use of the state‐of the‐art Eulerian two‐phase flow model to predict circulation flow in an industrial size RH degasser.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Wei Wang and Hairui Yang

Rectangular fluidised beds are commonly used in industry, e.g. circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boilers. Apparently, no one has tried to imagine rectangular fluidised beds…

Abstract

Purpose

Rectangular fluidised beds are commonly used in industry, e.g. circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boilers. Apparently, no one has tried to imagine rectangular fluidised beds by electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). The purpose of this paper is to design a rectangular ECT sensor to understand the behaviour of a rectangular CFB riser.

Design/methodology/approach

A rectangular sensor with eight electrodes is adopted to obtain the capacitance data. The sensitivity map is simulated to calculate the grey level of pixels for visualisation using the linear back‐projection algorithm.

Findings

Experiments showed that the position of the objects in the riser can be obviously indicated and the central region of the object(s) has significantly higher grey level than other regions in the images using the rectangular ECT sensor.

Research limitations/implications

It has a limitation in providing a higher resolution image.

Practical implications

The results obtained by the rectangular ECT sensor show that it is promising to study the characteristics of flow non‐uniformity in the fast fluidisation regime of CFB.

Originality/value

Without using square and circular ECT sensors, this is the first time a rectangular ECT sensor has been developed to study the unique problems of the characteristics of flow non‐uniformity in a rectangular CFB riser.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Mojtaba Talebian, Rafid Al-Khoury and Lambertus J. Sluys

This paper aims to present a computationally efficient finite element model for the simulation of isothermal immiscible two-phase flow in a rigid porous media with a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a computationally efficient finite element model for the simulation of isothermal immiscible two-phase flow in a rigid porous media with a particular application to CO2 sequestration in underground formations. Focus is placed on developing a numerical procedure, which is effectively mesh-independent and suitable to problems at regional scales.

Design/methodology/approach

The averaging theory is utilized to describe the governing equations of the involved unsaturated multiphase flow. The level-set (LS) method and the extended finite element method (XFEM) are utilized to simulate flow of the CO2 plume. The LS is employed to trace the plume front. A streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin method is adopted to stabilize possible occurrence of spurious oscillations due to advection. The XFEM is utilized to model the high gradient in the saturation field front, where the LS function is used for enhancing the weighting and the shape functions.

Findings

The capability of the proposed model and its features are evaluated by numerical examples, demonstrating its accuracy, stability and convergence, as well as its advantages over standard and upwind techniques. The study showed that a good combination between a mathematical model and a numerical model enables the simulation of complicated processes occurring in complicated and large geometry using minimal computational efforts.

Originality/value

A new computational model for two-phase flow in porous media is introduced with basic requirements for accuracy, stability, and convergence, which are met using relatively coarse meshes.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 January 2021

Shifu Chen, Hong Lei, Meng Wang, Changyou Ding, Weixue Dou and Lishan Chang

The reported mathematical models of gas–liquid flow in single snorkel Rheinstahl–Heraeus (SSRH) are based on the assumption of steady Ar-molten steel flow. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The reported mathematical models of gas–liquid flow in single snorkel Rheinstahl–Heraeus (SSRH) are based on the assumption of steady Ar-molten steel flow. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model to describe the unsteady turbulent flow (CO-Ar-molten steel) with nonequilibrium decarburization reaction.

Design/methodology/approach

On the base of the finite volume method, the computational fluid dynamics software CFX is used to predict the unsteady fluid flow, the spatial distributions of CO/argon gas and carbon element. The water model experiment and the industrial experiment are carried out to verify the mathematical models.

Findings

A two-way coupling model (T-WCM) based on algebraic slip model is developed to investigate the coupling phenomena. The related results show that T-WCM is more rigorous and accurate than one-way coupling model in predicting carbon content of molten steel. The amount of CO gas, which can enhance turbulent flow and mass transfer, is about three times the argon gas blown into SSRH.

Originality/value

CO gas is the key factor in investigating the transport phenomena. This study fully reveals the truth about the unsteady gas-liquid flow in SSRH. It is necessary to adopt T-WCM based on algebraic slip model to describe the CO-Ar-molten steel flow phenomenon.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

P. Regenfuss, A. Streek, L. Hartwig, S. Klötzer, Th. Brabant, M. Horn, R. Ebert and H. Exner

The purpose of the paper is the elucidation of certain mechanisms of laser material processing in general and laser micro sintering in particular. One major intention is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is the elucidation of certain mechanisms of laser material processing in general and laser micro sintering in particular. One major intention is to emphasize the synergism of the various effects of q‐switched laser pulses upon metal and ceramic powder material and to point out the non‐equilibrium character of reaction steps.

Design/methodology/approach

Recent results and observations, obtained in development of “laser micro sintering,” are surveyed and analyzed. By breaking down the overall process into relevant steps and considering their possible kinetics, an approach is made towards interpreting specific phenomena of laser micro sintering. Thermodynamics upon heating of the material as well as its photo‐electronic response to the incident radiation are considered.

Findings

The findings corroborate a model whereby short pulses of high intensity provide non‐equilibrium pressure conditions at the location of incidence, that allow for the melting of metal powder with an almost immediate expansion of a plasma and/or vapor bulb. Thereby the molten material is condensed and propelled towards the substrate. A final boiling eruption after each pulse is the reason for the morphology of the laser micro‐sintered surfaces and can prevent oxidation when the process is conducted under normal atmosphere. In sintering of ceramics, the short pulsed and intensive radiation increases the chance to excite the material even with photon energies below the bandgap value and it lowers the risk of running into a destructive avalanche.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the stochastic character of the respective sintering event, that is initiated by each individual pulse, the gathered data are not suitable yet for the formulation of an exact quantitative function between sintering behavior and laser parameters.

Practical implications

The qualitative findings yield a good rule of thumb for the choice of parameters in laser sintering on a micrometer scale and the model is conducive for advanced interpretation of other phenomena in laser material processing besides sintering.

Originality/value

The kinetics and thermodynamics of laser sintering with q‐switched pulses are approached by a qualitative explanation. The heterogeneous and non‐equilibrium character of the processes is taken into account; this character is often neglected by researchers in the area.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

1 – 10 of 57