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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2008

Asokan Anandarajan, Gary Kleinman and Dan Palmon

Prior literature provides clear evidence that the judgments of experts differ from those of non‐experts. For example, Smith and Kida concluded that the extent of common…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior literature provides clear evidence that the judgments of experts differ from those of non‐experts. For example, Smith and Kida concluded that the extent of common biases that they investigated often are reduced when experts perform job related tasks as compared to students. The aim in this theoretical study is to examine whether “heuristic biases significantly moderate the understanding of experts versus novices in the going concern judgment?”

Design/methodology/approach

The authors address the posited question by marshalling extant literature on expert and novice judgments and link these to concepts drawn from the cognitive sciences through the Brunswick Lens Model.

Findings

The authors identify a number of heuristics that may bias the going concern decision, based on the work of Kahneman and Tversky among others. They conclude that experience mitigates the unintentional consequences played by heuristic biases.

Practical implications

The conclusions have implications for the education and training of auditors, and for the expectation gap. They suggest that both awareness of factors that affect understanding of auditing reports and greater attention to training are important in reducing the expectation gap.

Originality/value

This paper develops additional theoretical understanding of factors that may impact the expectation gap. While there has been limited prior discussion of the impact of cognitive factors on differences between experts and novices, the paper significantly expands the range of factors discussed. As such, it should provide a stimulus to new research in this important area.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2018

Christopher A. Ballweg, William H. Ross, Davide Secchi and Chad Uting

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and influence of social network website (SNW) content about alcohol use and abuse on job applicant reactions to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and influence of social network website (SNW) content about alcohol use and abuse on job applicant reactions to their prospective immediate supervisor and toward applying for the job.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1, raters coded photographs and photo captions found on 1,048 personal SNWs of US managers or business owners. Approximately 22 percent of managers’ personal SNWs contained references to alcohol, providing a base rate large enough to warrant further research. In Study 2, laboratory experiment participants saw a fictitious company’s website including a professional managerial profile. A 3 × 3 factorial design then varied whether the prospective manager’s comments on his personal SNW emphasized professional activities, social drinking, or alcohol abuse; also, the manager’s friends’ comments emphasized work activities, social drinking, or alcohol abuse. A control group did not see a personal SNW.

Findings

Alcohol abuse information on personal SNWs – whether posted by the manager or by the manager’s friends – negatively affected attitudes toward the manager. Alcohol abuse information posted by the manager (but not by the manager’s friends) decreased the willingness of participants to apply for the position. These findings were consistent with the Brunswick Lens Model and the warranting hypothesis.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate managerial SNW content and it effects upon prospective job seekers’ attitudes.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Karen Nokes and Gerard P. Hodgkinson

Policy-capturing is an experimental technique potentially capable of providing powerful insights into the cognitive bases of work-related decision processes by revealing…

Abstract

Policy-capturing is an experimental technique potentially capable of providing powerful insights into the cognitive bases of work-related decision processes by revealing actors’ “implicit” models of the problem at hand, thereby opening up the “black box” of managerial and organizational cognition. This chapter considers the strengths and weaknesses of policy-capturing vis-à-vis alternative approaches that seek to capture, in varying ways, the inner workings of people’s minds as they make decisions. It then outlines the critical issues that need to be addressed when designing policy-capturing studies and offers practical advice to would-be users concerning some of the common pitfalls of the technique and ways of avoiding them.

Details

Methodological Challenges and Advances in Managerial and Organizational Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-677-0

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Muh‐Chyun Tang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role different information sources (or cues) play in forming users' mental representation of a work in an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role different information sources (or cues) play in forming users' mental representation of a work in an academic library setting. Of particular interest is discerning how these information sources influence borrowing decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

A large‐scale user survey featuring two‐part questionnaires was utilized in an academic library setting. The questionnaires were designed to ascertain those information sources exerting a formative influence on users' information‐seeking behavior, especially the routes by which users came to know of a title and the sources by which they infer its content.

Findings

Evidently users adaptively make use of a variety of cues to help them fulfil their information needs. These cues significantly reduced the uncertainty faced by users making a borrowing decision, even after their sense of domain familiarity was controlled for. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings for library services. It is suggested that libraries could provide a more “cue‐rich” environment that supports users' decision making and facilitates exploration of their collection.

Originality/value

The research questions were framed in the language of decision‐making theory, which, as the research demonstrates, sheds light on the dynamics between “cue validity” and judgment uncertainty. It also demonstrates the applicability of the “accuracy‐cost” framework in the study of human information‐seeking behavior.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

A. Chew Ng and Keith A. Houghton

Previous researchers (eg. Libby, 1976 and Salamon et al., 1976) have proposed three alternative strategies for improving decisions: (1) changing the information set; (2…

Abstract

Previous researchers (eg. Libby, 1976 and Salamon et al., 1976) have proposed three alternative strategies for improving decisions: (1) changing the information set; (2) replacing the decision maker with a model; and (3) training the user (e.g. with the use of feedback information). The present research focusses on the role of feedback in the prediction of corporate failure. The effect of various types of feedback on human judgments is examined in the present study in two ways. The first section of the paper extends Kessler and Ashton's (1981) study which looked at the impact of several alternative types of feedback. Using 173 advanced undergraduate students as subjects, we find that, contrary to general expectations, both task properties and lens model feedback are not effective for decisions taken within a financial accounting context. Several possible explanations are given for this result. The second section of the paper examines the effect of outcome feedback within a financial accounting context. The participants in this study were 40 advanced undergraduate students. We found that outcome feedback is an effective means for promoting learning even where the task is not highly predictable.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1996

Joseph M. Hagan, Andre de Korvin and Philip H. Siegel

In order to allow flexibility in the enforcement of the tax law, the language used is often intentionally vague and ambiguous. This enables the government to implement the…

Abstract

In order to allow flexibility in the enforcement of the tax law, the language used is often intentionally vague and ambiguous. This enables the government to implement the intent of the lawmakers in administering that law. However, interpreting these vague and ambiguous laws requires tax professionals to face planning situations that are complex and uncertain. Due to an increase in civil litigation, the importance of tax professionals making defensible decisions has been magnified in recent years. Carnes, et al. (1994) report that tax partners with Big‐Six accounting firms spend about 30 to 45 percent of their time resolving ambiguous tax questions. Therefore, tax professionals could benefit from models or systems (i.e., decision support systems, expert systems, artificial intelligence) that provide decision direction when facing ambiguous tax situations. One such area in which tax professionals must assist their clients is the determination of what levels of compensation are reasonable for owner‐employees of closely‐held corporations (Hagan, et al. 1995).

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 22 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Carsten Lausberg and Patrick Krieger

Scoring is a widely used, long-established, and universally applicable method of measuring risks, especially those that are difficult to quantify. Unfortunately, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Scoring is a widely used, long-established, and universally applicable method of measuring risks, especially those that are difficult to quantify. Unfortunately, the scoring method is often misused in real estate practice and underestimated in academia. The purpose of this paper is to supplement the literature with general rules under which scoring systems should be designed and validated, so that they can become reliable risk instruments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper combines the rules, or axioms, for coherent risk measures known from the literature with those for scoring instruments. The result is a system of rules that a risk scoring system should fulfil. The approach is theoretical, based on a literature survey and reasoning.

Findings

At first, the paper clarifies that a risk score should express the variation of a property’s yield and not of its quality, as it is often done in practice. Then the axioms for a coherent risk scoring are derived, e.g. the independence of the risk factors. Finally, the paper proposes procedures for valid and reliable risk scoring systems, e.g. the out-of-time validation.

Practical implications

Although it is a theoretical work, the paper also focuses on practical applicability. The findings are illustrated with examples of scoring systems.

Originality/value

Rules for risk measures and for scoring systems have been established long ago, but the combination is a first. In this way, the paper contributes to real estate risk research and risk management practice.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Bakare Kazeem Kayode, Ikhlas F. Zamzami and Akeem Olowolayemo

As computer‐mediated communication has diffused, successive technological variations raise new questions about interpersonal impressions and several standardized…

Abstract

Purpose

As computer‐mediated communication has diffused, successive technological variations raise new questions about interpersonal impressions and several standardized instruments have been advanced in literature to asses various aspect of interpersonal attraction phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to examine the claims for reliability and validity of the attraction scales by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the light of research since 1974 which has employed the scales, and then improve the measures if needed.

Design/methodology/approach

Random sampling procedure was carried out in two kulliyahs (Faculty) at International Islamic university Malaysia (IIUM), in which 340 students were selected from a population of 2,000 undergraduate students. A total of 26 items were tested from an instrument that has been used in previous studies; each item is expected to measure one of the three orientations' dimensions.

Findings

The analysis result confirms that the orientation of students towards interpersonal communication in online social network sites (SNS) is a multi‐dimensional construct consisting of social attraction, physical attraction and task attraction. In addition, since substantial numbers of research studies have been reported to have employed one or more of these measures, this research was examined to evaluate their reliability and validity.

Research limitations/implications

Since the reliabilities found in literatures have been highly varied, it was determined that improved measures should be used in the future. Thus, a revised and improved version of these measures, using CFA, are reported and recommended in this paper for future research.

Originality/value

The paper has produced a second‐generation measure with substantially improved internal reliability and validity. The paper's most important and obvious conclusion is that interpersonal attraction does appear to be a multidimensional construct.

Details

Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-497X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Hannu Kuusela, Mark T. Spence and Antti J. Kanto

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of expertise on prechoice decision processes and final outcomes. By decomposing verbal protocols collected from 90…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of expertise on prechoice decision processes and final outcomes. By decomposing verbal protocols collected from 90 individuals who made one complex, mortgage loan decision, we could compare the frequency and type of elementary information processes evoked. We found that experts, relative to less knowledgeable decision makers, made a greater number of problem framing statements; made more references to why an option was being retained for further consideration; and used more compensatory decision rules. In addition, we found that misunderstanding externally provided information mediates the expertise‐choice relationship. Novices were significantly more likely to misunderstand information than were more knowledgeable decision makers. As a result, there was greater variance in novices’ final choices than was the case with experts’. The deleterious effect of mis‐understandings is disconcerting because consumers frequently miscomprehend print communications.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 32 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2019

Teresa Bezler, Giovanni B. Moneta and Gary Pheiffer

The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a Work Environment Complexity (WEC) Scale for leaders.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a Work Environment Complexity (WEC) Scale for leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, gathered in the course of major organisational restructuring, using samples from employees (n=305) and leaders (n=120) in two health care organisations.

Findings

The research developed and validated a scale of WEC for leaders with two factors: frequent change and events, and uncertain work demands. Comparisons between samples suggest diverging employee and leadership representations of WEC.

Practical implications

Being the first scale to measure the comprehensive construct of WEC, a foundation is laid to measure the amount of complexity in a leader’s work and the functioning of leaders with regards to WEC.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to leadership research and practice by clarifying the construct of WEC for leaders empirically and validating a bidimensional scale of WEC.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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