The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the development of drive tourism in the past 75 years, highlight contemporary issues that will shape the structure of drive tourism in the near future and speculate on how drive tourism may develop in future decades.
The paper draws on a range of academic and grey literature to identify the major trends that are now emerging in the drive tourism sector. These trends form the basis for observations on how new and emerging technologies such as autonomous vehicles may offer new drive tourism opportunities in coming decades.
Recent and near-future advances in automobile technologies, including propulsion and control, are likely to radically alter the structure and operation of drive tourism, offering new opportunities for participation in this form of tourism. The paper observes that the tourism industry must act in a proactive rather than reactive manner if it is to maximise the opportunities that will emerge “from” the coming period of climate change and technology-generated disruption.
Drive tourism has opened many previously remote areas for tourism bringing benefits such as employment and business opportunities. However, the growth of drive tourism may also have social costs including disruption to local social norms as people migrate into and out of these areas in search of new economic opportunities. Future developments in drive tourism may create similar disruptions.
Despite the size and value of the global drive tourism market, academic investigation has been limited. The value of this paper lies in its identification of a range of issues that need further research, including the need to rethink the structure of drive tourism and how new technologies and future responses to climate change may affect this sector.
Shopping is an activity that is central to the tourism experience. It is also an important source of employment and often generates significant revenue for the public…
Shopping is an activity that is central to the tourism experience. It is also an important source of employment and often generates significant revenue for the public sector. For the retail to function effectively, retailers need to understand the needs of their customers and update their range of goods as demand changes. If the retail sector fails to recognise changing demand patterns, consumer gaps will emerge as has been the case on Norfolk Island. In this case, the consumer gap has emerged because the destination has failed to recognise that the generational membership of its seniors market has shifted from the Builders generation to the Baby boomer generation. The problem has been made in worse on Norfolk Island because the government derives a significant proportion of its tax revenue from a 10% tax on the sales of goods. This chapter examines the extent of the consumer gap in the retail sector and finds that it can only be redressed by a rejuvenation of the Island's shopping sector.
In recent decades there have been substantial changes in the structure of the global airline industry commencing with deregulation closely followed by the emergence of…
In recent decades there have been substantial changes in the structure of the global airline industry commencing with deregulation closely followed by the emergence of Low-Cost Carriers (LCCs). LCCs have greatly increased the opportunities for affordable air travel by generating considerable opportunities for many destinations to tap into new markets. This paper examines a range of issues related to the operation of LCCs and how destinations may be adversely affected when problems emerge. Specifically the paper examines problems that arose in Australia in 2011 when Tiger Airways Australia was grounded for an extended period. Until its grounding the airline, while having a poor reputation for on-time service and customer service, did have a significant impact on airfares which rose on average by 15% during the period of it was grounded.
Swimming is a popular holiday activity in tropical tourism destinations but is not risk free. Aside from the obvious risks of drowning, tropical waters harbour a number of marine animals that have the potential to injure or even kill unwary swimmers. Sharks, marine jellyfish and crocodiles may pose threats. From a destination perspective, strategies need to be implemented that firstly reduce the risk of injury and secondly care for swimmers who are injured. This paper first reports on the results of a survey of swimmers that examines a range of swimming-related behaviours then proposes an action pathway model that may be implemented by destinations to reduce risk for swimmers.
This research looks at the significance of friends and relatives as an information source for consumers planning holidays. Recent research has largely ignored friends and…
This research looks at the significance of friends and relatives as an information source for consumers planning holidays. Recent research has largely ignored friends and relatives as destination information sources and has focused instead on the Internet. Two categories of friends and relatives are identified, friends and relatives who live in a destination and friends and relatives who have visited a destination of interest. An exit survey of 1,203 tourists departing a major international destination in Australia found that while the Internet was an important source of information, friends and relatives were as important, if not more, regardless of country of origin and age. These findings indicate that information from friends and relatives and the Internet are complementary rather than exclusive in the minds of consumers.
The aim of this chapter was to investigate aspects of risks that are associated with tropical destinations and to develop a model that may be used to classify tourists…
The aim of this chapter was to investigate aspects of risks that are associated with tropical destinations and to develop a model that may be used to classify tourists according to the level of risk they were prepared to engage in. Overall, the level of perceived risk was small with sunburn found to be the risk factor showing the highest level of concern followed by animal-related risks and illnesses. The findings suggest that tourists can be classified into three distinct groups based on the level of risk they are prepared to accept in activities found in a tropical destination: low-risk takers; moderate risk takers; and risk takers. From a destination marketing perspective the findings suggest that while concerns about risk are not particularly high tourists are aware of risks that may be encountered in tropical destinations and attention needs to be given to strategies to minimise the level of risk exposure faced by tourists.
Tourism development is often seen as a tool to empower rural and peripheral communities. Problems can arise if there is an imbalance in the power relationship between…
Tourism development is often seen as a tool to empower rural and peripheral communities. Problems can arise if there is an imbalance in the power relationship between local communities and external actors promoting development, including investors and Non Government Organisations (NGOs). This chapter examines the issues of leadership and power related to a hotel project operated by a private company in a small rural town in Timor-Leste. While there was initially substantial support for the project, the private company leading the project failed to adequately engage with community leaders creating feeling of loss of authority. Moreover, the members of the community who were not directly associated with the project felt that there was a gap between promises made to the community and the actual outcomes.
Over the next decade the older travel market will experience a generational shift as the pre-war generation is replaced by the baby boomer generation. For destinations…
Over the next decade the older travel market will experience a generational shift as the pre-war generation is replaced by the baby boomer generation. For destinations such as Norfolk Island that have built a substantial market segment based on older tourists this generation shift will have significant implications. While changes will be required in the type of products and experiences offered by the Island's tourism industry the increased size of the baby boomer generation offers considerable scope to increase yield. This paper examines these issues and discusses the need to recognise the importance of the baby boomer tourist as a distinct and separate tourism segment. To illustrate the possible impact of generation change the paper proposes a product gap model.
In Sabah, Malaysia, illegal hunting has increased in recent years putting considerable pressure on large mammal populations. The causes for this phenomenon lie in…
In Sabah, Malaysia, illegal hunting has increased in recent years putting considerable pressure on large mammal populations. The causes for this phenomenon lie in increasing rural poverty, ineffective policies to regulate hunting, as well as a ready market for many wildlife products in the Chinese medicine markets. This paper examines how Community-Based Ecotourism has some potential to be used as a tool to reducing poaching using the Tidong community in Sabah as a case study. The key finding is that successful conservation outcomes for Community-Based Ecotourism projects are only sustainable over the long run if projects are structured to ensure that the local community is able to continue effective management once sponsoring organizations hand over control and that revenue from tourism does not decline. If tourist revenue declines communities may be forced to revert to previous practices reversing any initial conservation gains.
A number of scholars have discussed the role of perceived risk as a significant factor in destination selection. In response to these concerns and in an effort to increase…
A number of scholars have discussed the role of perceived risk as a significant factor in destination selection. In response to these concerns and in an effort to increase their competitiveness, a number of countries have introduced tourism quality schemes (TQSs) as a mechanism to build tourist confidence in the destination and the products and experiences that it offers and in so doing reduce the level of consumer risk. Existing TQSs run by national or regional governments vary greatly in terms of scope, assessment criteria and procedures and have received little attention by academic researchers. Indeed, in an era of increasing use of user-generated content, TQSs may become increasingly irrelevant. This paper examines Hong Kong’s Quality tourism Services (QTS) scheme and identifies a number of weaknesses that need to be addressed if the scheme is to be viewed as an effective tool to build consumer confidence. The findings are based on a survey of the views of QTS scheme members and tourists departing Hong Kong.