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Purpose – In light of the recent report on regulation by the CMO of England and Wales and the subsequent Department of Health White Paper, this paper aims to consider the…
Purpose – In light of the recent report on regulation by the CMO of England and Wales and the subsequent Department of Health White Paper, this paper aims to consider the nexus between revalidation, appraisal and clinical governance. It provides a summary of the history of revalidation in the UK and explores how revalidation is linked to annual appraisal. It further considers the implications of this relationship and its potential impact on clinical governance and practise. Design/methodology/approach – This is a policy review related to revalidation and appraisal including primary sources from the Department of Health, the GMC, Fifth report of the Shipman Inquiry and published journal articles. Findings – Local clinical governance will be a significant part of the route to re‐licensing for the vast majority of doctors working in the NHS and many of the larger private sector hospitals. Although it will be used for two different purposes, it is generally accepted that the information collected by doctors for their annual appraisal will also form the basis of evidence for revalidation. If appraisal is to be effective, robust and consistent, it is important that the clinical governance framework within which it operates is appropriately designed for its increased role within the regulatory system. Originality/value – This paper is a valuable summary and introduction to the concept of revalidation in the UK, its history and its impact on clinical governance and regulation. It provides a timely review and analysis of the proposed changes to clinical governance at the local, SHA level and the strengthened connection between consultant appraisal and revalidation, contained in both the Department of Health White Paper – Trust, Assurance and Safety and the report – Good Doctors, Safer Patients, by the Chief Medical Officer for England and Wales.
We examine whether variations in the most fundamental aspects of state corporate income tax regimes affect state economic activity as measured by personal income, gross…
We examine whether variations in the most fundamental aspects of state corporate income tax regimes affect state economic activity as measured by personal income, gross state product, and total non-farm employment. We focus on a variety of statutory components of state corporate income taxes that apply broadly in most U.S. states and for most multi-state corporate taxpayers. Our econometric strategy consists of a series of fixed effects panel regressions using state-level data from 1996 through 2010. Our results reveal important interaction effects of tax rates and policies, suggesting that policy makers should avoid making decisions about tax rates in isolation. The results demonstrate a relatively consistent negative economic response to the combination of high tax rates with throwback rules and heavy sales factor weights. Combined reporting has no discernible effect on personal income, GSP, or employment after controlling for tax rates, apportionment, and throwback rules. In an effort to gauge the relative impacts of tax policies on the location of economic activity, we also estimate alternative models in which each state’s economic activity is measured as a share of the national economic activity in each year. Statistically significant effects for tax rates, apportionment formulas, and throwback rules in the shares models suggest that at least some of their impact involves the movement of activity across state lines, thereby leaving open the possibility of a zero-sum game among the states.
These moments of the asymptotic distribution of the least-squares estimator of the local-to-unity autoregressive model are computed using computationally simple…
These moments of the asymptotic distribution of the least-squares estimator of the local-to-unity autoregressive model are computed using computationally simple integration. These calculations show that conventional simulation estimation of moments can be substantially inaccurate unless the simulation sample size is very large. We also explore the minimax efficiency of autoregressive coefficient estimation, and numerically show that a simple Stein shrinkage estimator has minimax risk which is uniformly better than least squares, even though the estimation dimension is just one.
Unlike artists using sartorial flair and flamboyant identities to shock and engage audiences, Bruce Springsteen is relatable, stable, consistent and authentic. Based on…
Unlike artists using sartorial flair and flamboyant identities to shock and engage audiences, Bruce Springsteen is relatable, stable, consistent and authentic. Based on qualitative interviews of Springsteen fans of various levels, it is suggested that brands can sustain success through such tactics as existential authenticity, transparency and charity. His fans co-opt his music and co-create their own stories, which are enabled through Springsteen's use of universal themes and vivid details. In terms of a branding paradigm, he adapts to the post-postmodern era, where brands allow individuals to define their own meaning.
The authors used a qualitative method in generating themes and relationships on the enduring success of Bruce Springsteen's brand. They interviewed 19 informants of various levels of fan support and various backgrounds and areas. They used grounded theory methodology, including open coding, triangulation and member checks, to develop themes and findings.
In general, it was found that narrative structure and cause-and-effect stories are at the heart of his enduring success. While his individual songs, stage performances and charitable works cover a variety of topics and interests, combined they map to the same universal story structure, thus giving his fans solid understanding of his brand. His underdog appeal and story of redemption are maintained through such tactics as vivid songwriting, activism and charitable acts despite his international success and fame.
Theoretically, the authors add to the literature on celebrity branding, narratology and authenticity. Specifically, the authors build upon the notion of existential authenticity, connecting a brand to its various stakeholders beyond customers in a way that is holistically authentic. We also suggest that to sustain a brand for the long haul, it is necessary to be transparent and available to your community members. The story of your brand needs to resonate and be meaningful to the audience in a way that is believable, and more importantly true to the artist and product.
The authors show how narrative structure and universal story themes create ways in which fans can identify. By not straying too far away from the inherent brand meaning, brands can achieve long-term success. Tactically, all ways to manage the brand must link to the main story, but authenticity and maintaining a macromarketing perspective are the keys to making the story believable and enduring. In Springsteen's case, according to our interviews, his music and the message of his well-scripted songs have always mapped well with his real-life persona, making a distinction between his staged persona and actual self visibly difficult to distinguish.
Part of Bruce Springsteen's enduring success and strong brand are built on his charitable works and activism. Brands that have this aspect will endure as well if motives are transparent, benign and believable. Springsteen has succeeded in this aspect because his charitable works often go unnoticed or unreported, which his fans respect when they discover these acts.
Theoretically, the authors also add to the question (i.e. WH-question) literature in terms of connectedness and felt meaning. Springsteen's music connects specific discourse to universal stories/themes via his vivid songwriting, live performances, charitable acts and multiple other tactics. The data suggest that Springsteen's experiences are so vivid and thoughtful that little is needed for the audience to obtain aesthetic or felt meaning of his universal story themes. He allows direct access to the stories without internal interpretation, which then allows for instant penetration of felt meaning.
In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.