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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Fernando G. Alberti and Emanuele Pizzurno

This paper aims at investigating the multifaceted nature of innovation networks by focusing on two research questions: Do cluster actors exchange only one type of…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at investigating the multifaceted nature of innovation networks by focusing on two research questions: Do cluster actors exchange only one type of innovation-related knowledge? Do cluster actors play different roles in innovation-related knowledge exchange?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper builds on data collected at the firm level in an Italian aerospace cluster, that is a technology-intensive industry where innovation is at the base of local competitiveness. A questionnaire was used to collect both attribute data and relational data concerning collaboration and the flows of knowledge in innovation networks. The authors distinguished among three types of knowledge (technological, managerial and market knowledge) and five types of brokerage roles (coordinator, gatekeeper, liaison, representative and consultant). Data analysis relied on social network analysis techniques and software.

Findings

Concerning the first research question, the findings show that different types of knowledge flow in different ways in innovation networks. The different types of knowledge are unevenly exchanged. The exchange of technological knowledge is open to everyone in the cluster. The exchange of market and managerial knowledge is selective. Concerning the second research question, the authors suggest that different types of cluster actors (large firms, small- and medium-sized enterprises, research centers and universities and institutions for collaboration) do play different roles in innovation networks, especially with reference to the three types of knowledge considered in this study.

Research limitations/implications

The present paper has some limitations. First of all, the analysis focuses on just one cluster (one industry in one specific location), cross- and comparative analyses with other clusters may illuminate the findings better, eliminating industry and geographical biases. Second, the paper focuses only on innovation-related knowledge exchanges within the cluster and not across it.

Practical implications

The results have practical implications both for policy makers and for managers. First, this research stresses how innovation often originates from a combination of different knowledge types acquired through the collaboration with heterogeneous cluster actors. Further, the analysis of brokerage roles in innovation-driven collaborations may help policy makers in designing programs for knowledge-transfer partnerships among the various actors of a cluster.

Social implications

The paper suggests a clear need of developing professional figures capable of operating at the interface of different knowledge domains.

Originality/value

The data illuminate several aspects of how innovation takes place in a cluster opening up intriguing aspects that have been overlooked by extant literature. The authors believe that this may trigger several lines of further research on the topic.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Jeonghwan Jeon and Yongyoon Suh

Using the large database of patent, the purpose of this paper is to structure a technology convergence network using various patent network analysis for integrating…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the large database of patent, the purpose of this paper is to structure a technology convergence network using various patent network analysis for integrating different results according to network characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The patent co-class analysis and the patent citation analysis are applied to discover core safety fields and technology, respectively. In specific, three types of network analysis, which are centrality analysis, association rule mining analysis and brokerage network analysis, are applied to measure the individual, synergy and group intensity.

Findings

The core safety fields derived from three types of network analysis used by different nature of data algorithms are compared with each other to understand distinctive meaning of cores of patent class such as medical safety, working safety and vehicle safety, differentiating network structure. Also, to be specific, the authors find the detailed technology contained in the core patent class using patent citation network analysis.

Practical implications

The results provide meaningful implications to various stakeholders in organization: safety management, safety engineering and safety policy. The multiple patent network enables safety manager to identify core safety convergence fields and safety engineers to develop new safety technology. Also, in the view of technology convergence, the strategy of safety policy can be expanded to collaboration and open innovation.

Originality/value

This is the initial study on applying various network analysis algorithms based on patent data (class and citation) for safety management. Through comparison among network analysis techniques, the different results are identified and the collective decision making on finding core of safety technology convergence is supported. The decision maker can obtain the various perspectives of tracing technology convergence.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Pietro Beritelli, Federica Buffa and Umberto Martini

The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative perspective on understanding the coordinating role of destination management organizations. Destination Management…

1110

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative perspective on understanding the coordinating role of destination management organizations. Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) are known to have a coordinating role within a destination. Many qualitative case studies discuss this role in the institutional context, assuming that the DMO is supposed to coordinate the network of the organizations and stakeholder groups in the destination. By contrast, this paper analyzes the coordinator role of DMOs by focusing primarily on the prominent individuals (directors and board members) affiliated with it. In so doing, it proposes an alternative perspective on these organizations. Looking at the influential individuals in the destination, in particular those affiliated with the DMO, reveals new insights into what the DMO alternatively could be from an individual’s perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Using social network analysis, the coordinator role of the actors affiliated with the DMO for six destination cases in Switzerland, Italy and Austria was measured. First, the network of the most salient individuals in the destination was identified. Second, the coordinator score with the help of the Gould and Fernandez measure was measured. Third, the coordinator scores of individuals affiliated with the DMO were compared against those of the other actors in the network. Fourth, the scores of actors affiliated with the DMO and other actors were compared to the coordinator role attributed to the whole organization by those individuals (i.e. how they see the DMO as coordinator). Fifth, the analysis of the results with case-specific information was completed.

Findings

In each of the six destinations, there are actors affiliated with the DMO as top scorers; these are usually the president of the board and other board members, as well as the director. Additionally, the analysis identifies further board members of the DMO among the tourist elite in the destination. The DMO as an organization is generally seen as an important coordinating institution. In particular, the actors affiliated with the DMO attribute a higher coordinating role to the organization than do the other respondents.

Practical implications

In their board constellation, DMOs support the formation of interlocking directorships through the representation of various stakeholder groups. They increase the concentration of power in favor of a small group (elite), but they can also increase the effectiveness of decisional processes. In so doing, a DMO serves as a valuable platform for leaders in its destination.

Social implications

This study affords a surprising insight into the difference between the overall image actors have of DMOs and the organizations’ self-images, expressed by the actors affiliated to the organizations – the former is always lower than the latter. The study also clearly demonstrates that the role of an institution largely depends on the actors affiliated to it and hence points to the constantly adapting coordinating role of DMOs within destinations.

Originality/value

A DMO can be seen as an organization constituted by individuals who join and leave its board or its management. This paper proposes an actor-based analysis of these often small, but controversially discussed organizations. We do it with a combination of quantitative measures from network analysis and qualitative information. The alternative perspective (actors of the DMOs inside the elite) and the application of social network analysis for this purpose have not been used in studies before. Further research points to two new research streams, namely, to understanding the role attributed to the DMO by different actors in the destination and the reasons for joining/leaving the organization and the shift of the self-concept of the DMO.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

J. Jena, Sumati Sidharth, Lakshman S. Thakur, Devendra Kumar Pathak and V.C. Pandey

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the methodology of total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) in order to provide interpretation for direct as well as…

2796

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the methodology of total interpretive structural modeling (TISM) in order to provide interpretation for direct as well as significant transitive linkages in a directed graph.

Design/methodology/approach

This study begins by unfolding the concepts and advantages of TISM. The step-by-step methodology of TISM is exemplified by employing it to analyze the mutual dependence among inhibitors of smartphone manufacturing ecosystem development (SMED). Cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to the classification analysis is also performed to graphically represent these inhibitors based on their driving power and dependence.

Findings

This study highlights the significance of TISM over conventional interpretive structural modeling (ISM). The inhibitors of SMED are explored by reviewing existing literature and obtaining experts’ opinions. TISM is employed to classify these inhibitors in order to devise a five-level hierarchical structure based on their driving power and dependence.

Practical implications

This study facilitates decision makers to take required actions to mitigate these inhibitors. Inhibitors (with strong driving power), which occupy the bottom level in the TISM hierarchy, require more attention from top management and effective monitoring of these inhibitors can assist in achieving the organizations’ goals.

Originality/value

By unfolding the benefits of TISM over ISM, this study is an endeavor to develop insights toward utilization of TISM for modeling inhibitors of SMED. This paper elaborates step-by-step procedure to perform TISM and hence makes it simple for researchers to understand its concepts. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes the inhibitors of SMED by utilizing TISM approach.

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Yasaman Sarabi, Matthew Smith, Heather McGregor and Dimitris Christopoulos

Corporate success depends partially on the quality of knowledge accessible to the executive board. One route of access to such knowledge is the appointment of directors…

Abstract

Purpose

Corporate success depends partially on the quality of knowledge accessible to the executive board. One route of access to such knowledge is the appointment of directors who already hold directorships with prominent other corporate actors. Such director appointments provide interlocks to a corporate knowledge ecosystem (Haunschild and Beckman, 1998). The purpose of this paper is to examine how linkages between companies belonging to different sectors impact firm performance and to examine how linkages created by female directors, as opposed to male directors, shape performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates the interlocks created between UK FTSE 350 companies from 2010 to 2018. It draws on network analysis to map the roles that male and female directors play in linking firms with varying sector classifications. The paper provides an examination of the impact of these roles on firm performance, through a panel data regression analysis.

Findings

This paper finds that there is an increase of inter-industry brokers over the period, and that men are still dominant in both the network and creating inter-industry ties amongst companies. However, the role of women in establishing these ties appears to be changing, and women are more important when it comes to create inter-industry ties among key economic sectors.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel approach to examine the interplay between gendered inter (and intra) sectoral linkages and firm performance. It provides an original application of the two-mode brokerage analysis framework proposed in Jasny and Lubell (2015).

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Ray Reagans and Bill McEvily

Knowledge sharing is a fundamental source of competitive advantage. Social networks are thought to play an important role in knowledge sharing, but are presumed to create…

Abstract

Knowledge sharing is a fundamental source of competitive advantage. Social networks are thought to play an important role in knowledge sharing, but are presumed to create a trade-off such that a network can be optimized to promote either knowledge seeking or knowledge transfer, but not both. The trade-off, however, is premised on, and representative of a broader tendency to treat, brokerage and closure as contradictory network forms. We challenge this assertion and propose a theory of knowledge sharing with brokerage and closure as compatible and complementary. Evidence from a contract research and development firm broadly supports our theory. We also report the results of a simulation analysis, which illustrate that only in the extremely rare case when a network is characterized by nearly complete balance do brokerage and closure begin to create a trade-off.

Details

Network Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1442-3

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Joanne M. Roch

The diversification phase observed in the American economy since 1975 (Leontiades, 1980) has led to significant questioning about the dimensions constituting related…

Abstract

The diversification phase observed in the American economy since 1975 (Leontiades, 1980) has led to significant questioning about the dimensions constituting related diversification. During the 1980s, the disappointing performances of businesses that had implemented related diversifications pushed researchers to take a closer look at the challenges involved in integration to discover commonalities in progressing from potential synergy to synergy achieved. As a result, many recent research endeavors have attempted to describe the management and integration process best suited to the context (Haspelagh & Jemison, 1991; Marks & Mirvis, 1998; Pablo, 1994; Shrivastava, 1986). Obviously, their attention focused primarily on initiatives targeting integration on the functional, structural, and operational levels, without really taking into account the historical, cognitive, and cultural baggage that each business carries around with it.

This research is intended to provide a better understanding of the factors that contribute to creating synergies between companies undertaking an integration process involving related diversification. Based on the cognitive approach, it is premised on the notion that creating synergy primarily depends on reconciling the collective representations of the companies involved rather than on simply implementing measures designed to achieve technical and operational integration.

This study places particular emphasis on the concept of collective representations, which recognizes that organizational players come to adopt a relatively homogeneous view of the world. It proposes an analysis framework and research method enabling it to go beyond the limits of attempts that, up until now, have strived to quantify and substantiate the mental schemata of organizations involved in merger acquisition. Moreover, these attempts have been criticized as being too vague (Côté, Langley & Pasquero, 1999; Grant, 1988; Lampel & Shamsie, 2000).

In order to characterize the content of collective representations specific to each of the organizations undergoing integration, we propose applying a new approach in the sociology of organizations called the theory of conventions (Boltanski & Thévenot, 1991, 1994). The convention theory posits that organizational players share representation systems that help forge interaction rules. Collective, concerted action is made possible by mobilizing common frameworks, that is, conventions. These conventions are characterized by higher principles specific to each city. The outcome can be agreement or conflict, depending on whether player justifications are rooted in the same city or not.

Through the longitudinal analysis of the case of related diversification, specifically a Canadian chartered bank’s acquisition of two brokerage subsidiaries (1987, 1994), this study examines the evolution of the integration initiatives and collective representations of the businesses involved. We made two significant observations in examining the various integration initiatives undertaken by the bank during the period under study. First, the integration initiatives could be described as falling into the technical, structural, and operational categories. Second, their outcomes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, were far from conclusive.

Concurrent analysis of justificatory fragments of the three organizations, during the period under studied, revealed divergence between the justification modes that each of the businesses opted for. This divergence of dominant collective representations enabled us to interpret the issues encountered during these initiatives and posit a new explanation for their qualified success.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-172-9

Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

David Obstfeld, Stephen P. Borgatti and Jason Davis

We argue for a broadened approach to brokerage by distinguishing between brokerage emphasizing a particular structural pattern in which two otherwise disconnected alters…

Abstract

We argue for a broadened approach to brokerage by distinguishing between brokerage emphasizing a particular structural pattern in which two otherwise disconnected alters are connected through a third party (“brokerage structure”) and the social behavior of third parties (“brokerage process”). We explore a processual view of brokerage by examining three fundamental strategic orientations toward brokerage: conduit, tertius gaudens, and tertius iungens that occur in many different forms and combinations. This processual view is especially relevant in increasingly complex and dynamic environments where brokerage behavior is highly varied, intense, and purposeful, and has theoretical implications for studying multiplexity, heterogeneity, and brokerage intensity.

Details

Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-751-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko and Pekka Valkama

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the rationale and functioning of the partnership-based brokerage model as a vehicle of service integration with special reference…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the rationale and functioning of the partnership-based brokerage model as a vehicle of service integration with special reference to its support for information intermediation, learning and service market creation.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework is built on the tension between New Public Management (NPM) and post-NPM thinking, which frames the analysis of the brokerage model for elderly care services in the city of Tampere, Finland. The empirical data are derived from interviews, evaluation reports and existing case descriptions.

Findings

In the Kotitori model, the broker enhances the capacity building of the city government and the cost-effectiveness of its service provision, provides added value through improved information processes and handles matters relating to subcontracting and the facilitation of the service provider network. The model as a whole reflects the hybridisation of public administration. Even if Kotitori contains many NPM-inspired elements, they are complemented by features derived from New Public Governance and the neo-Weberian local state. The most neglected aspect of post-NPM thinking in the design of Kotitori is citizen centredness.

Originality/value

This paper broadens the perspective on the role of brokers in public service provision and highlights the multi-dimensionality of the brokerage function. It also shows how such partnership-based brokerage model reflects various aspects of both NPM and post-NPM paradigm.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Nayanthara De Silva, R.P.N.P. Weerasinghe, H.W.N. Madhusanka and Mohan Kumaraswamy

A case is made for developing “Relationally Integrated Value Networks for Total Facilities Management” (RIVANS-TFM) by synergistically connecting significant stakeholders…

Abstract

Purpose

A case is made for developing “Relationally Integrated Value Networks for Total Facilities Management” (RIVANS-TFM) by synergistically connecting significant stakeholders of the project management (PM) and facilities management (FM) phases to deliver substantially better value for the end users of built infrastructure. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire survey enabled identification of typically significant stakeholders in the PM and FM phases. In total, 14 key stakeholders were identified through t-test analysis in this Sri Lankan study. Semi-structured interviews unveiled relationships among the aforementioned stakeholders and the findings were used to develop the “required” RIVANS-TFM, as well as the “existing” RIVANS-TFM, using the UCINET social network analysis software package. Social network theory of relationships was applied to analyze the networks in terms of “Structural Holes” or missing links and “Brokerage Potentials.”

Findings

Structural holes analysis highlighted the existing setup to be more vulnerable to missing links than the “required”/targeted setup. Furthermore, brokerage potentials analysis revealed that owners, project managers, facility managers, maintenance engineers, main contractors, designers, principal consultants, and other specialist consultants can act as “brokers” to bridge the gaps or minimize structural holes, thereby uplifting and reinforcing the existing network to deliver better performance and value in TFM.

Originality/value

By revealing existing and required levels of integration of each stakeholder in RIVANS-TFM, clients are provided a great opportunity to identify the stakeholders who should be engaged more, or less – in order to best achieve clients’ long-term aspirations and project objectives. Furthermore, the findings also indicate appropriate levels of stakeholder relationships to target, in order to maintain efficient flows of information, material and services in the supply chains while enhancing TFM life-cycle values.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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