An optimal temperature monitoring is a prerequisite for cold chain management and thus for the production and supply of high quality and safe products as well as for the reduction of waste and economic losses. The aim of this paper is to identify and compare already existing temperature monitoring solutions in operation and novel temperature monitoring solutions with a view to their use for optimal temperature monitoring in meat supply chains. A special focus is placed on the identification and specification of challenges by the implementation of temperature monitoring systems which allow an optimal control of the temperature conditions in meat supply chains, as required by the new European food law.
The paper is a literature review of existing and novel temperature monitoring systems and challenges faced by the practical implementation of monitoring systems which allow continuous control of the temperature conditions in meat supply chains. First, the relevant literature relating to these aspects was examined and second, expert knowledge was applied with system developers of temperature monitoring and information management systems, participants in the meat supply chains and researchers
In the article different intra‐ as well as inter‐organisational challenges relating to the practical implementation of optimal temperature monitoring solutions have been identified and described.
The paper provides a holistic perspective of temperature monitoring solutions in meat supply chains. The challenges met when implementing temperature monitoring solutions have not been widely discussed in the literature. The proposed solutions to the specified challenges make an important contribution to developing guidelines for the implementation of optimal temperature monitoring systems in meat supply chains, resulting in improvements in food quality and safety.
Within the past few years, responsible educators, librarians, parents, counselors, social workers, therapists, and religious groups of all sexual persuasions and…
Within the past few years, responsible educators, librarians, parents, counselors, social workers, therapists, and religious groups of all sexual persuasions and lifestyles have recognized the need for readily available reading material for lesbian and gay youth. Unfortunately, this material is often buried, because it is embedded in larger works. To meet this need, I have compiled and annotated 100 of the best works for young homosexuals, bisexuals, and heterosexuals. I have also included a few of the best works currently available on heterosexuality as a much needed source of knowledge for all young adults whether they are gay or straight, whether they remain childless or eventually become parents.
Using data from the linked National Health Interview Survey National Death Index (NHIS‐NDI), a new and unique data set, we examine the interaction of age and self‐rated…
Using data from the linked National Health Interview Survey National Death Index (NHIS‐NDI), a new and unique data set, we examine the interaction of age and self‐rated health as a predictor of overall and cause‐specific mortality. Proponents of wear and tear theories argue that as the body ages, it begins to degenerate, leaving the aged in poor health and vulnerable to their ultimate mortality. We find that although the majority of the elderly rate their health as good or better, low levels of education and income contribute to poor perceived health, and the effect of age on mortality varies by level of perceived health. While the oldest old who report the poorest health experience greater risks of mortality, elders who report good health experience much lower risks. As a larger share of our population survives into old age, it is important to emphasize preventive health care policy, as well as strong economic and health care safety nets, not only to promote health but also to lengthen life.
The following is an annotated list of materials dealing with information literacy including instruction in the use of information resources, research, and computer skills…
The following is an annotated list of materials dealing with information literacy including instruction in the use of information resources, research, and computer skills related to retrieving, using, and evaluating information. This review, the twenty‐second to be published in Reference Services Review, includes items in English published in 1995. After 21 years, the title of this review of the literature has been changed from “Library Orientation and Instruction” to “Library Instruction and Information Literacy,” to indicate the growing trend of moving to information skills instruction.
Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to trace the history of the cultural myth that children, especially boys, experience an abrupt heterosexual awakening during…
Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to trace the history of the cultural myth that children, especially boys, experience an abrupt heterosexual awakening during pubescence, from its origin during the 1950s to the present, with particular attention to a decrease in the age posited for such an awakening, from fourteen or fifteen to eight or nine or even earlier, until finally children are presented as heterosexually desiring from birth.
Methodology – The methodology is a content analysis of a sample of mass media texts starring or featuring prepubescent or pubescent boys, including films, television programs, comic books, comic strips, and juvenile novels, appearing in the United States between 1950 and 2007.
Findings – The rapid decrease in the age is correlated with an increased visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents, leading to the conclusion that it results from an attempt to privilege heterosexuality by making it appear a natural, inevitable outcome of biological maturation that is absent until puberty, whereas at the same time addressing homophobic insistence that no juvenile character be presented as gay by ensuring all characters, regardless of age, express heterosexual desire.
Research limitations/implications – The study is limited to a single causal factor, but it illustrates a complex cultural phenomenon, a shift in the way childhood is constructed, so there are doubtless other factors that should be explored. It is also necessary to explore why the change from presumed pubescent heterosexual awakening to presumed constitutional heterosexuality occurred at different rates depending on the race and social class of the character and the medium presented.
The aim of the article is to discuss the challenges from immigration to Nordic (gender) politics, theories and research. The research question is to what extent Nordic…
The aim of the article is to discuss the challenges from immigration to Nordic (gender) politics, theories and research. The research question is to what extent Nordic welfare and gender equality politics is based on exclusive solidarity biased towards the native majorities. A key issue is how Nordic gender theory and research has addressed multiple inequalities. The article briefly revisits the academic debates about gender equality, diversity and multiculturalism, which arguably represent two different paradigms: multicultural approaches have addressed the accommodation of minorities with diversity as the key concept, while feminist approaches have focused on gender (in)equality with gender as the key concept.
The intersectional approach suggests that increased migration and mobility present similar challenges for the two bodies of thought to address complex and multiple inequalities within and beyond the nation state. The main part explores “the multicultural dilemma” in greater detail focusing on the intersections between gender and etho‐national minorities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Perceptions of diversity and gender equality/women's rights are contextual and dynamic as intersecting diversities and inequalities are embedded in national histories, institutions and policies. Scholars have demonstrated that the discourse about women's rights and gender equality has become an intrinsic part of Nordic identities and belongings. The article suggests that the new forms of inequalities among women can be interpreted as a Nordic gender equality paradox between the relative inclusion of the native majority women and the relative marginalization of women from diverse ethnic minorities in society.
The intersectionality approach to gender and ethnicity in Scandinavia is in this article combined with a transnational approach to gender, diversity and migration.