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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2019

Atsede Tesfaye Hailemariam, Brigitte Kroon, Marloes van Engen and Marc van Veldhoven

Taking a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective, the purpose of this paper is to understand the socio-cultural context on the satisfaction of basic psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

Taking a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective, the purpose of this paper is to understand the socio-cultural context on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness in the entrepreneurial activity of women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women entrepreneurs operating business in the formal sector of the economy in Addis Ababa. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyze and interpret the interview transcripts.

Findings

Women entrepreneurs experience autonomy-supportive and controlling socio-cultural contexts in their gender role, parent–daughter relationship, husband–wife relationship and their religious affiliation. Autonomy-supportive social agents provide women entrepreneurs, the chance to perceive themselves as competent and autonomous to exploit and choose opportunities and run their business in accordance with their personal values and interests. On the other hand, controlling social agents maintain and reinforce the existing male-dominated social and economic order. They constrain women’s entrepreneurial performance by undermining their basic psychological needs satisfaction, which limits their autonomous functioning and well-being in entrepreneurial activity.

Practical implications

To promote women’s autonomous functioning and well-being in entrepreneurial activity, policy should be aimed at reducing constraints to the satisfaction of psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness in the socio-cultural context.

Originality/value

The study is the first to apply SDT to explore the influence of autonomy vs controlling socio-cultural contexts on satisfaction vs thwarting needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness in the entrepreneurial activity of women.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Brigitte Kroon, Marianne van Woerkom and Charlotte Menting

Transformational leaders spark the intrinsic motivation of employees, thereby stimulating their extra-role performance. However, not all employees are lucky enough to have…

Abstract

Purpose

Transformational leaders spark the intrinsic motivation of employees, thereby stimulating their extra-role performance. However, not all employees are lucky enough to have a transformational leader. The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent mindfulness can function as a substitute for transformational leadership. By being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, mindfulness provides employees with a source of intrinsic motivation that lies within the person, thereby possibly making employees less dependent on transformational leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was used to collect data of 382 employees working in diverse sectors in the Netherlands.

Findings

Moderated mediation analyses indicated that mindfulness partly compensates for a low levels of transformational leadership in fostering intrinsic motivation and in turn extra-role performance, thereby providing evidence for the substitutes for leadership theory. Moreover, the findings extend previous research on the contribution of mindfulness to in-role performance by showing its additional value for intrinsic motivation and extra-role performance.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the use of validated measures and the presence of an interaction effect, common-source bias cannot be out ruled completely.

Practical implications

Since mindfulness can be developed, the results suggest a training intervention to make employees less dependent on their leaders for their motivation.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to show that mindful people are more resilient against the absence of transformational leadership. Given the frequent changes in management layers in organizations, knowledge about resources for individual resilience and self-management is sorely needed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Henriette Lundgren, Brigitte Kroon and Rob F. Poell

While factors that influence test takers’ reactions to personality testing in selection contexts have been well researched, little empirical research evidence exists to…

Abstract

Purpose

While factors that influence test takers’ reactions to personality testing in selection contexts have been well researched, little empirical research evidence exists to determine whether these factors also apply to test takers’ reactions in the context of management development (MD). The purpose of this study is, therefore, to explore what explains different test takers’ reactions in the context of MD programs.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative longitudinal approach with three phases of data collection was used, resulting in participatory workshop observations and 11 semi-structured interviews with participants from two different contexts. Data were analyzed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA).

Findings

The findings show that test takers’ reactions vary; some are more accepting, others are more neutral or rejecting, where perceived usefulness, clarity of purpose and perceived respectfulness are identified as distinguishing factors. Individuals also differ in terms of their awareness of assumptions and their perceived emotional safety, two emerging factors that are relevant in the MD context.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected during the MD workshops and three months after, but no records of immediate test takers’ reactions were included, which could be an addition for future research.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that human resource development (HRD) professionals have significant impact on test takers’ reactions when it comes to encouraging self-reflection and learning along personality tests.

Originality/value

This study adds to existing research by offering insights into factors in MD settings where participants are concerned about aspects of fairness, learning and behavioral change.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Henriette Lundgren, Brigitte Kroon and Rob F. Poell

The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why personality tests are used in workplace training. This research paper is guided by three research questions that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why personality tests are used in workplace training. This research paper is guided by three research questions that inquire about the role of external and internal stakeholders, the value of psychometric and practical considerations in test selection, and the purpose of personality test use in workplace training.

Design/methodology/approach

This research paper uses multiple-case study analysis. Interviews, test reports, product flyers and email correspondence were collected and analyzed from publishers, associations, psychologists and human resource development (HRD) practitioners in Germany, the UK and The Netherlands between 2012 and 2016.

Findings

Themes emerge around industry tensions among practitioners and professional associations, psychologists and non-psychologists. Ease of use is a more important factor than psychometrics in the decision-making process. Also, practitioners welcome publishers that offer free coaching support. In the process of using tests for development rather than assessment, re-labeling takes place when practitioners and publishers use positive terms for personality tests as tools for personal stocktaking and development.

Research limitations/implications

Despite extensive data collection and analysis efforts, this study is limited by its focus on a relatively small number of country cases and stakeholders per case.

Practical implications

By combining scientific evidence with practical application, stakeholders can take first steps toward more evidence-based HRD practice around personality testing in workplace training.

Originality/value

Little academic literature exists on the use of personality testing in workplace training. Without a clear understanding of the use of personality testing outside personnel selection, the current practice of personality tests for developmental purposes could raise ethical concerns about the rights and responsibilities of test takers.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

Birgit Schyns, Brigitte Kroon and Guy Moors

This study aims to focus on the perception of leader‐member exchange (LMX). It is assumed that the perceived quality of the relationship is not only related to the actual…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the perception of leader‐member exchange (LMX). It is assumed that the perceived quality of the relationship is not only related to the actual quality of the relationship, but also to followers' expectancies and preferences. However, little is known about person characteristics that are related to LMX perceptions. This study seeks to examine how far followers' leadership‐related characteristics (romance of leadership, idealised supervisor, need for leadership and dependence) are related to the perception of LMX.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 588 Dutch employees from different professions filled in questionnaires on romance of leadership, idealised supervisor, need for leadership and dependence and their perception of LMX.

Findings

Results indicate a positive relationship between need for leadership/dependence and the perception of LMX, thought not for romance of leadership/idealised supervisor and the perception of LMX. An interaction was found between idealised supervisor and dependence on the perception of LMX.

Research limitations/implications

The study only focuses on four antecedents, although many others could have an effect on the perception of LMX. The study comprised a one‐dimensional assessment of LMX. For future research, a multi‐dimensional assessment is recommended.

Practical implications

The results of this study imply that organisations need to address the expectations that followers have towards their leaders in order to avoid disappointments.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the perception of LMX and how follower characteristics are related to the perception of LMX. It extends prior research on the perception of leadership into LMX research. Similar to effect on the perception of leadership behaviour, effects on the perception of LMX are important to take into account when LMX is assessed through follower ratings in order to avoid making incorrect conclusions.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Brigitte Kroon and Charissa Freese

Workers have different motives to be employed at specialist contract work agencies, such as career development aspirations, or a desire for freedom and independence. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Workers have different motives to be employed at specialist contract work agencies, such as career development aspirations, or a desire for freedom and independence. The purpose of this paper is to study how these different motives relate to the appreciation of HR practices applied by agencies and consequently to employee retention at the agency.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in a contract work agency for financial professionals. Management was interviewed about the HR practices used for employee retention. In addition, 291 agency employees filled out a questionnaire about their motives to be employed at the agency, their appreciation of the HR practices of the contract agency and their turnover intentions.

Findings

Regression analysis showed that career development motivation was related to retention at the agency, but that this relation became weaker when tenure with the agency increased. HR practices (like training, supervisory support, career development support, information sharing and employee participation) proved to be related to lower turnover intentions of flex workers with a career development motivation. For flex workers with a freedom motivation the HR practices had no relationship with retention.

Research limitations/implications

Data collection in one agency may limit generalization. Additional research needs to zoom in on alternative HR retention practices that align with freedom motivation.

Originality/value

Specialist contract work agencies typically experience difficulties with employee retention. Agencies may retain their workers if they apply HR practices that are aligned with the motivation of people engaging in contract work.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2019

Alain Klarsfeld, Lena Knappert, Angela Kornau, Faith Wambura Ngunjiri and Barbara Sieben

The purpose of this paper is to further restore diversity and equality to its national contexts by presenting new and so far less visible perspectives from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to further restore diversity and equality to its national contexts by presenting new and so far less visible perspectives from under-researched countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This special issue consists of five articles representing four countries and one country-cluster: Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ethiopia, Korea and the English-speaking Caribbean. Three of the contributions are focused on gender diversity, while the remaining two are more general descriptions of diversity challenges and policies in the respective countries (namely, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the English-speaking Caribbean).

Findings

In addition to providing an overview of this issue’s articles, this paper highlights developments and current themes in country-specific equality and diversity scholarship. In particular, drawing on the special issue’s five papers, and building on the main threads that weave the special issue together, the authors show both the relevance of (some) western theories while also pointing to the need for reformulation of others.

Research limitations/implications

The authors conclude with a call to further explore under-researched contexts and especially to develop locally relevant, culture-sensitive theoretical frameworks.

Originality/value

How do smaller and less developed countries experience equality and diversity concepts? How are their approaches different from those experienced in already researched countries, or, on the contrary, what commonalities can be found found among them? How do theoretical frameworks originated in the West apply (or not) in these less studied countries? Are new, locally grounded frameworks needed to better capture the developments at play? Such are questions addressed by the contributions to this special issue.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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