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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Clive Tobutt and Raffaella Milani

The aim of this randomised intervention study was to test the use of two counselling styles in reducing alcohol consumption in offenders who were hazardous drinkers and…

Abstract

The aim of this randomised intervention study was to test the use of two counselling styles in reducing alcohol consumption in offenders who were hazardous drinkers and who had been charged with alcohol‐related offences. An additional aim was to evaluate the research process itself before embarking on a larger trial. Participants were recruited from a police custody suite in the south east of England and randomised to receive either a motivational interviewing brief intervention (MIBI) or a standard brief intervention (BI). The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to screen offenders for hazardous drinking. Participants were asked to complete a second AUDIT 12 weeks later. Two hundred offenders with alcohol‐related offences were screened over a 10‐month period. Of these, 182 were alcohol dependent and were therefore excluded from the study. Of the 18 who were eligible to enter the study, six refused to participate. Five were randomised to the MIBI group and seven into the BI group (BI). The mean age of the MIBI group was 25 (SD±3.86) years and the mean age of the BI group was 32.4 (SD±7.9). Audit scores were significantly lower at time 2 compared to time 1 for both intervention groups (t(11) = 17.60; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the different intervention groups.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Ruth McGovern, Jennifer Birch, Gillian O'Neill, Hannah Kaner, Arun Sondhi and Kieran Lynch

The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence of alcohol use disorders within the different stages of the criminal justice system in the UK. Furthermore it reviewed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence of alcohol use disorders within the different stages of the criminal justice system in the UK. Furthermore it reviewed the worldwide evidence of alcohol brief interventions in the various stages of the criminal justice system.

Design/methodology/approach

A rapid systematic review of publications was conducted from the year 2000 to 2014 regarding the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in the various stages of the criminal justice system. The second part of the work was a rapid review of effectiveness studies of interventions for alcohol brief interventions. Studies were included if they had a comparison group. Worldwide evidence was included that consisted of up to three hours of face-to-face brief intervention either in one session or numerous sessions.

Findings

This review found that 64-88 per cent of adults in the police custody setting; 95 per cent in the magistrate court setting; 53-69 per cent in the probation setting and 5,913-863 per cent in the prison system and 64 per cent of young people in the criminal justice system in the UK scored positive for an alcohol use disorder. There is very little evidence of effectiveness of brief interventions in the various stages of the criminal justice system mainly due to the lack of follow-up data.

Social implications

Brief alcohol interventions have a large and robust evidence base for reducing alcohol use in risky drinkers, particularly in primary care settings. However, there is little evidence of effect upon drinking levels in criminal justice settings. Whilst the approach shows promise with some effects being shown on alcohol-related harm as well as with young people in the USA, more robust research is needed to ascertain effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions in this setting.

Originality/value

This paper provides evidence of alcohol use disorders in the different stages of the criminal justice system in the UK using a validated tool as well as reviewing the worldwide evidence for short ( < three hours) alcohol brief intervention in this setting.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Emily P. Bouwman, Marleen C. Onwezen, Danny Taufik, David de Buisonjé and Amber Ronteltap

Self-efficacy has often been found to play a significant role in healthy dietary behaviours. However, self-efficacy interventions most often consist of intensive…

Abstract

Purpose

Self-efficacy has often been found to play a significant role in healthy dietary behaviours. However, self-efficacy interventions most often consist of intensive interventions. The authors aim to provide more insight into the effect of brief self-efficacy interventions on healthy dietary behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present article, two randomized controlled trials are described. In study 1, a brief self-efficacy intervention with multiple self-efficacy techniques integrated on a flyer is tested, and in study 2, an online brief self-efficacy intervention with a single self-efficacy technique is tested.

Findings

The results show that a brief self-efficacy intervention can directly increase vegetable intake and indirectly improve compliance to a diet plan to eat healthier.

Originality/value

These findings suggest that self-efficacy interventions do not always have to be intensive to change dietary behaviours and that brief self-efficacy interventions can also lead to more healthy dietary behaviours.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Bev John, Tina Alwyn, Ray Hodgson, Alyson Smith and Seta Waller

Doctors and nurses in three accident & emergency (A&E) departments were interviewed about the feasibility of screening for hazardous drinking as well as the provision of…

Abstract

Doctors and nurses in three accident & emergency (A&E) departments were interviewed about the feasibility of screening for hazardous drinking as well as the provision of minimal or brief interventions. They were also asked about a more comprehensive approach to alcohol‐related problems that would involve liaising with other services. The feasibility of a comprehensive approach to excessive alcohol consumption is considered. Quantitative data revealed that computerised A&E records did not accurately portray the prevalence of alcohol‐related attendance.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Jan Klimas, Kevin Lally, Lisa Murphy, Louise Crowley, Rolande Anderson, David Meagher, Geoff McCombe, Bobby P. Smyth, Gerard Bury and Walter Cullen

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and process evaluation of an educational intervention, designed to help general practitioners (GPs) identify and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and process evaluation of an educational intervention, designed to help general practitioners (GPs) identify and manage problem alcohol use among problem drug users.

Design/methodology/approach

The educational session was developed as part of a complex intervention which was informed by the Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions. A Cochrane review and a modified Delphi-facilitated consensus process formed the theoretical phase of the development. The modelling phase involved qualitative interviews with professionals and patients. The training's learning outcomes included alcohol screening and delivery of brief psychosocial interventions and this was facilitated by demonstration of clinical guidelines, presentation, video, group discussion and/or role play.

Findings

Participants (n=17) from three general practices and local medical school participated in four workshops. They perceived the training as most helpful in improving their ability to perform alcohol screening. Most useful components of the session were the presentation, handout and group discussion with participants appreciating the opportunity to share their ideas with peers.

Originality/value

Training primary healthcare professionals in alcohol screening and brief psychosocial interventions among problem drug users appears feasible. Along with the educational workshops, the implementation strategies should utilise multi-level interventions to support these activities among GPs.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Anna Thake, Sarah Wadd, Kim Edwards and James Randall-James

– The purpose of this paper is to explore current practice, barriers and facilitators to identifying and responding to alcohol problems in memory clinics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore current practice, barriers and facilitators to identifying and responding to alcohol problems in memory clinics.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire sent to professionals in 55 memory clinics in England, Wales and the Isle of Wight and two focus groups with professionals from three memory clinics in England.

Findings

Only 1/35 clinics that responded to the questionnaire was using a standardised alcohol screening tool but all attempted to gain some information about alcohol use. Without screening tools, practitioners found it difficult to determine whether alcohol use was problematic. Barriers to identification/intervention included cognitive impairment, service-user being “on guard” during assessment, presence of family members/carers, time constraints and a perception that brief interventions were not within the remit of memory clinics. Facilitators were obtaining visual clues of problem drinking during home visits and collateral information from family members/carers.

Research limitations/implications

Focus group participants were recruited through convenience sampling and a small number of professionals took part. This means that the findings may be subject to selection bias and limits the generalisability of the findings.

Practical implications

Memory clinics should provide guidance and training for practitioners on how to intervene and respond to alcohol misuse. Further research is required to determine the most effective way to identify alcohol problems in people with cognitive impairment and how to deliver brief alcohol interventions that take account of cognitive deficits.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine alcohol screening and interventions in memory clinics and identifies a need for guidance, training and further research.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Geoff Lowe

A short piece on the efficacy of employing brief motivational interventions (one‐to‐one interviews) with young people as a method of reducing their drinking or smoking. If…

Abstract

A short piece on the efficacy of employing brief motivational interventions (one‐to‐one interviews) with young people as a method of reducing their drinking or smoking. If conducted within a medical context they can be seen to have a significant effect on the young person’s future behaviour.

Details

Health Education, vol. 101 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Arielle Silverman and Geoffrey Cohen

Achievement motivation is not a fixed quantity. Rather, it depends, in part, on one’s subjective construal of the learning environment and their place within it – their…

Abstract

Purpose

Achievement motivation is not a fixed quantity. Rather, it depends, in part, on one’s subjective construal of the learning environment and their place within it – their narrative. In this paper, we describe how brief interventions can maximize student motivation by changing the students’ narratives.

Approach

We review the recent field experiments testing the efficacy of social-psychological interventions in classroom settings. We focus our review on four types of interventions: ones that change students’ interpretations of setbacks, that reframe the learning environment as fair and nonthreatening, that remind students of their personal adequacy, or that clarify students’ purpose for learning.

Findings

Such interventions can have long-lasting benefits if changes in students’ narratives lead to initial achievement gains, which further propagate positive narratives, in a positive feedback loop. Yet social-psychological interventions are not magical panaceas for poor achievement. Rather, they must be targeted to specific populations, timed appropriately, and given in a context in which students have opportunities to act upon the messages they contain.

Originality/value

Social-psychological interventions can help many students realize their achievement potential if they are integrated within a supportive learning context.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Constance L Coogle and Myra G Owens

In recent years, Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) has become increasingly available to older adults who engage in at-risk drinking behaviors. The results of SBI…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) has become increasingly available to older adults who engage in at-risk drinking behaviors. The results of SBI training sessions that targeted hospital-based healthcare providers, as well as mental health service providers in community-based clinics, are reported. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 93 participants attended SBI active learning training sessions. The responses of physicians/physicians in training about their intentions to apply the information in professional practice and their willingness to recommend the training to others in their profession were compared to practitioners in other professions.

Findings

Although there were no differences in terms of commitment to apply the information or level of comfort using the techniques, physicians/physicians in training were less interested in promoting the SBI training among their colleagues.

Research limitations/implications

The results are limited with respect to the number of training participants engaged and the geography entailed, yet implications for addressing barriers to widespread implementation and training challenges are explored.

Practical implications

Although it may be more difficult to promote SBI training in locations that do not primarily provide mental health services, hospitals, and other primary care settings are precisely where training may be most useful.

Social implications

The importance of training approaches to SBI that are disseminated within the context of a public health model of clinical preventive services is highlighted.

Originality/value

Original research is presented to highlight the need to improve training receptivity and facilitate the translation into practice.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Jesse Wynn, Aaron Hudyma, Elizabeth Hauptman, Tiffani Nicole Houston and James Michael Faragher

– The purpose of this paper is to seek to present an overview of past, present, and future approaches to the treatment of problem gambling.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek to present an overview of past, present, and future approaches to the treatment of problem gambling.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the literature concerning conceptual, historical, and clinical research perspectives on the treatment of problem gambling.

Findings

Perspectives on the etiology, maintenance, conceptualization, and treatment of problem gambling have evolved over time. Once seen as a failure of moral character, problem gambling is now considered to be an addictive disorder with similarities to substance abuse disorders. Empirical research into the treatment of problem gambling is progressing, but is relatively sparse compared to the body of research in other addictive disorders. Methodological issues have been identified that will need to be addressed in future research. Currently, cognitive-behavioral approaches have received the most attention and have the greatest amount of research support. Brief interventions, pharmacological interventions, family therapy, and Gamblers Anonymous are also in use. Future directions for problem gambling treatment that are being researched and implemented are mindfulness-based interventions and internet-based treatment approaches.

Originality/value

This review should be useful to those seeking general information about problem gambling treatment, its development, status, and future directions.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

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