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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2023

Lydia Garas, Shahnaz Aziz, Karl Wuensch and Brian Waterwall

The purpose is to identify the underlying motives of heavy work investment (HWI) types (i.e. workaholism and work engagement) based on self-determination theory, while…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to identify the underlying motives of heavy work investment (HWI) types (i.e. workaholism and work engagement) based on self-determination theory, while controlling for job demands and resources. The role of four cultural differences (i.e. individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity) in moderating the motivational correlated relationships is also explored using data retrieved from two distinct cultures (i.e. the USA and Egypt).

Design/methodology/approach

Full-time employees (N = 595) in the USA and Egypt were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to test the associations between the two HWI types and four types of motivation (i.e. intrinsic, extrinsic, introjected and identified motivations). Furthermore, moderation analyses were conducted to explore potential effects of four cultural dimensions (i.e. individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity) on the motivationalcorrelated relationships.

Findings

Workaholism positively relates to the controlled types of motivation (i.e. extrinsic and introjected regulation), while work engagement positively relates to the autonomous ones (i.e. intrinsic and identified regulation) and negatively associates with extrinsic motivation. Moreover, cultural masculinity moderated the relationship between work engagement and extrinsic motivation, as well as the association between workaholism and extrinsic motivation.

Practical implications

A clear differentiation of motivation behind both types of HWI is required by occupational health practitioners to design interventions that stimulate employee engagement rather than fuel workaholism. Multinational organizations could also benefit from understanding the interaction between cultural dimensions, motives and HWI, thereby planning more effective work engagement strategies among different cultures.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the motivational correlates of HWI types across two contrasting cultures.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 16 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2022

Brian Waterwall, Cody Logan Chullen, Dennis Barber and Tope Adeyemi-Bello

This paper aims to examine work values among job seekers and how these values differ across experience and gender.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine work values among job seekers and how these values differ across experience and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

This study asked participants to rate the importance of various intrinsic and extrinsic work values on a five-point Likert scale. Responses were compared for 865 participants.

Findings

This study found that individuals differed in their ratings of work values based on experience. Individuals with more experience assigned greater importance to intrinsic job characteristics, while those with less experience assigned greater importance to extrinsic job characteristics. Findings further reveal differences in gender ratings of work values, with females assigning greater importance ratings to both intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics as compared to males.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this study include that it drew its data exclusively from a sample of US respondents. Research investigating populations from other geographic regions within the same study may uncover important cross-national similarities/differences. Moreover, although this study examined experience and gender, it excluded other potentially important factors such as ethnicity. Future research should explore international samples and broaden its focus to include additional factors.

Practical implications

Organizations should be aware of how experience and gender shape work values to impact job choice and retention. They may wish to target their recruitment efforts toward certain groups to ensure alignment between candidates' work values and those of available positions.

Originality/value

This study improves on prior research by examining the dual impact of experience and gender in shaping work values.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

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