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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2008

Brian O'Neill and Alex Gillespie

A variety of brain pathologies can result in difficulties performing complex behavioural sequences. Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) attempts support of complex…

Abstract

A variety of brain pathologies can result in difficulties performing complex behavioural sequences. Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) attempts support of complex sequences with the aim of reducing disability. Traditional ATCs are cognitively demanding to use and thus have had poor uptake. A more intuitive interface may allow ATCs to reach their potential. Insights from psychological science may be useful to technologists in this area. We propose that an auditory‐verbal interface is more intuitive than a visual interface and reduces cognitive demands on users. Two experiments demonstrate a novel ATC, the General User Interface for Disorders of Execution (GUIDE). GUIDE is novel because it simulates normal conversational prompting to support task performance. GUIDE provides verbal prompts and questions and voice recognition allows the user to interact with the GUIDE. Research with non‐cognitively impaired participants and a single participant experiment involving a person with vascular dementia provide support for using interactive auditory‐verbal interfaces. Suggestions for the future development of auditory‐verbal interfaces are discussed.

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Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Diane Marie Ward

Presents a survey of the OCLC Office of Research (OR) with emphasis on two projects (Web Characterization Project and Economics of Digital Preservation), and their impact…

Abstract

Presents a survey of the OCLC Office of Research (OR) with emphasis on two projects (Web Characterization Project and Economics of Digital Preservation), and their impact on the library and information science community. The OR is characterized as a model of an informatics organization that recognizes the needs of its library constituents and delivers new technological products as a result of ongoing research projects.

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OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Brian O'Neill, Catherine Best, Alex Gillespie and Lauren O'Neill

The purpose of this paper is to test the efficacy of an interactive verbal prompting technology (Guide) on supporting the morning routine. Data have already established…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the efficacy of an interactive verbal prompting technology (Guide) on supporting the morning routine. Data have already established the efficacy of such prompting during procedural tasks, but the efficacy of such prompting in tasks with procedural and motivational elements remains unexamined. Such tasks, such as getting out of bed in the morning and engaging in personal care, are often the focus of rehabilitation goals.

Design/methodology/approach

A single‐n study with a male (age 61) who had severe cognitive impairment and was having trouble completing the morning routine. An A−B−A′−B′−A″−B″ design was used, with the intervention phase occurring both in an in‐patient unit (B, B′) and in the participant's own home (B″).

Findings

Interactive verbal prompting technology (Guide) significantly reduced support worker prompting and number of errors in the in‐patient setting and in the participant's own home.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that interactive verbal prompting can be used to support motivational tasks such as getting out of bed and the morning routine. This study used a single subject experimental design and the results need to be confirmed in a larger sample.

Originality/value

This is the first report of use of interactive verbal prompting technology to support rehabilitation of a motivational task. It is also the first study to evaluate Guide in a domestic context.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1990

Brian O′Neill

Second of two articles focuses on cultural and attitudinal factorsthat are potential stumbling‐blocks to corporately driven initiativesfor systematic change. Considers…

Abstract

Second of two articles focuses on cultural and attitudinal factors that are potential stumbling‐blocks to corporately driven initiatives for systematic change. Considers short‐term versus long‐term time perspectives and corporate versus departmental interests. Discusses the British Airways leadership development programme including issues of selection versus position in the company. Considers the role of the manager of potential participants and concludes that the greatest effort must be concentrated on the issues affecting career choices and progression.

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Executive Development, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-3230

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Brian O′Neill

Focuses on the assessment and identification of potential at thesenior manager level. Develops a profile of leadership competence anddescribes the assessment and selection…

Abstract

Focuses on the assessment and identification of potential at the senior manager level. Develops a profile of leadership competence and describes the assessment and selection process for participation on the in‐company MBA programme. Discusses the need for a framework for competence profiling and the principle of competence compensation. Concludes that future‐oriented Leadership Profiles will be increasingly important to progressive organisations.

Details

Executive Development, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-3230

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Abstract

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Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Abstract

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 72 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Meggan J. Lee and Nick Rochin

More than half of those who are incarcerated have cited a history of drug abuse before or during arrest. Although social science literature has noted the disparate effects…

Abstract

Purpose

More than half of those who are incarcerated have cited a history of drug abuse before or during arrest. Although social science literature has noted the disparate effects of criminal sentencing for drug possession, little research has explored the punitive measures enacted and enforced by the correctional facilities in which prisoners reside.

Methodology/approach

Using data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, this study estimates a series of logistic regressions to examine the predictors of receiving disciplinary action. Men and women are examined separately to investigate whether these patterns vary across men’s and women’s correctional facilities. The notions of both symbolic and structural violence are used to gain a better understanding of the experiences of drug addicts who are incarcerated.

Findings

Findings indicate that net of the effect of demographic characteristics and previous contact with the criminal legal system, men who are punished for rule violations involving drugs in prisons are approximately twice as likely to receive disciplinary action than inmates who are disciplined for all infractions, other than assaulting other inmates. Moreover, black inmates are significantly more likely to receive disciplinary actions or sanctions than whites.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that disciplinary action is more frequently experienced by those who are drug dependent or use drugs within prison with an even greater penalty for black prisoners in men’s facilities.

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2014

A.J. Astell, B. Malone, G. Williams, F. Hwang and M.P. Ellis

The purpose of this paper is to present the self-described “journey” of a person with dementia (Brian; author 3) in his re-learning of old technologies and learning of new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the self-described “journey” of a person with dementia (Brian; author 3) in his re-learning of old technologies and learning of new ones and the impact this had on his life.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a single case study detailing the participant's experiences collaborating with a researcher to co-create methods of facilitating this learning process, which he documented in the form of an online blog and diary entries. These were analysed using NVivo to reveal the key themes.

Findings

Brian was able to relearn previously used technologies and learn two new ones. This lead to an overarching theme of positive outlook on life supported by person-centredness, identity and technology, which challenged negative perceptions about dementia.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides an example of how learning and technology improved the life of one person with dementia. By sharing the approach the authors hope to encourage others to embrace the challenge of designing and developing innovative solutions for people with a dementia diagnosis by leveraging both current mainstream technology and creating novel bespoke interventions for dementia.

Originality/value

The personal perspective of a person with dementia and his experiences of (re-) learning provide a unique insight into the impact of technology on his life.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Claudia W. Strow and Brian K. Strow

This paper aims to review major historical trends in US divorce rates and the origin of divorce law in the USA, as well as several of the leading explanations for the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review major historical trends in US divorce rates and the origin of divorce law in the USA, as well as several of the leading explanations for the increased rates of divorce in the 20th century and the impact of these trends on remarriage rates.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a historical review, the paper discusses the origins of regional differences, the factors contributing to trends in divorce and remarriage, and the transition in persons pursuing divorce and remarriage throughout the history of the USA.

Findings

The paper notes how the advent of industrialization transformed the family and contributed to rising divorce rates and examines common explanations for the dramatic increase in divorce throughout the 20th century. In particular, this review highlights how the feminist movement along with numerous legislative and demographic changes brought about the increased labor force participation of women and female economic independence, which allowed both men and women greater freedom to divorce. As divorce has become a more common event, the number of people eligible for remarriage has increased and the majority of those entering second marriages have shifted from widows and widowers to divorcees.

Originality/value

Once scholars better understand the historical background for trends in divorce and remarriage, they can more readily recognize and address the implications for marriage in the present day.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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