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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Diwa Pandey, Mohammed H. Buzgeia, Epuru Suneetha, Hana Ahmed, Honida Abd El Rahaman Al Gani, Hajir Abd El Rahman Al Kadam and Nawal Juma Elariby

Breakfast skipping by children, with its varying global prevalence and associated factors, is well documented to adversely affect their health, cognitive ability, academic…

Abstract

Purpose

Breakfast skipping by children, with its varying global prevalence and associated factors, is well documented to adversely affect their health, cognitive ability, academic performance and anthropometric status. Libya, a country with a young population base, has limited information on breakfast skipping prevalence among its young citizens as well as its compounding factors unique to the country. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the breakfast skipping pattern among Benghazi primary school children.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper's approach is to use a cross sectional study among 386 primary school children (196 males and 190 females) using an interviewer‐administered structured questionnaire. The enrolment exclusion criteria were a pre‐existing chronic disease or a food allergy or food intolerance or any acute illness.

Findings

Breakfast skipping during weekdays (38.6 per cent, n=149), reduced drastically on weekends (1.0 per cent, n=4); 10.7 per cent subjects skipped breakfast daily (mean 2.5 + 1.3 days). Absence of hunger and lack of time to eat or prepare breakfast were cited as main barriers in its regular consumption. Bread and milk were the most commonly consumed breakfast foods. Certain groups of regular breakfast eating subjects consumed higher (p < 0.05) dietary thiamine and iron than their breakfast skipping counterparts and also better fulfilled their daily requirements for these nutrients. Parental breakfast eating habits influenced their children's breakfast eating pattern.

Practical implications

Efforts, including better time management, are required to inculcate a positive breakfast eating attitude among Benghazi primary school children. Their parents need to act as better role models by adopting healthy breakfast eating practices themselves.

Originality/value

The paper shows that breakfast skipping among Benghazi primary school children is a nutritional problem of grave concern, warranting a public health intervention.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Barbara Ann Mullan and Monika Singh

Consumption of breakfast is often associated with important health‐related behaviours. For example, skipping breakfast is related to obesity and eating breakfast is also…

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Abstract

Purpose

Consumption of breakfast is often associated with important health‐related behaviours. For example, skipping breakfast is related to obesity and eating breakfast is also correlated to cognitive, behavioural, and affective components. The purpose of this paper is to review the breakfast eating literature, and investigate the circumstances under which people consume breakfast, what is actually being consumed, and how much breakfast is eaten therefore.

Design/methodology/approach

This systematic review summarises the results from 24 studies which focus on who is eating what, where, and with whom.

Findings

All 24 of the included studies are of a self‐report nature, from which nine were analysed from second‐hand survey data. Sample sizes vary from 100 to a total of 35,119 with a reported participants' age range from two years old to 70 years of age. Ready‐to‐eat cereal and dairy foods are the most commonly consumed breakfast items across the studies. Between 1.7 and 30 per cent of participants are found to skip breakfast and approximately one‐quarter of the studies report that those with lower socio‐economic status, non‐whites, and females were the groups more likely to omit breakfast.

Research limitations/implications

The evidence provided in this review suggests that there is still considerable variation in studies into breakfast consumption. This has implications for future research into breakfast eating if interventions are based on these studies.

Originality/value

There are very few systematic reviews detailing the quality, context, and content of breakfast consumption and the lack of consistency in the results show the need for further research to be conducted to find a degree of consistency in how breakfast should be defined and measured.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

P. Mullie, P. Clarys, D. De Ridder, P. Deriemaeker, N. Duvigneaud, M. Hebbelinck, A.R. Grivegnée and P. Autier

Several cross‐sectional studies reported that breakfast skipping and a poor consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with overweight and obesity‐related…

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Abstract

Purpose

Several cross‐sectional studies reported that breakfast skipping and a poor consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with overweight and obesity‐related morbidities. In this respect healthy eating habits such as regular breakfast and a sufficient intake of fruit and vegetables are two important items to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity. The purpose of this study is to determine the breakfast frequency and the fruit and vegetable consumption in Belgian adolescents.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross‐sectional study using pupils contacted by nurses in schools during an information session about female hygiene. On that occasion all pupils (boys and girls) completed a questionnaire concerning their eating habits. Subjects were boys (n = 1390) and girls (n = 3610) between 12 and 15 years of age from the main three educational programmes (general, technical and occupational programme).

Findings

Socio‐economic status significantly influenced breakfast frequency with differences between the highest educational programme (general) and the lower technical‐ and occupational programmes. The use of daily breakfast was respectively 67 versus 49 and 48 per cent for the boys and 60 versus 42 and 39 per cent for the girls). For both sexes breakfast frequency decreased when comparing age groups from 12 with 15 years of age respectively from 67 to 55 per cent for the boys and from 61 to 47 per cent for the girls. Half of the subjects who declared to have overweight (self‐image) did not take breakfast at a regular base. Twenty six per cent of the boys of the French speaking part and 19 per cent of the boys of the Flemish speaking part of Belgium declared to take only one or less than one portion of fruit and/or vegetables a day. For the girls the reported intake of one or less than one portion of fruit and/or vegetables was respectively 20 and 16 per cent. Only 13 per cent of the French speaking boys and 10 per cent of the Flemish speaking boys reported an intake of four or more fruits and/or vegetables a day. The percentage of girls reaching an intake of four or more a day was 15 per cent for the two language regions. Fruit and/or vegetable intake was influenced significantly by the educational programme and by the educational level of the mother. In conclusion, healthy eating habits among girls and boys in Belgium (as estimated by breakfast frequency and fruit and/or vegetable intake) are rather poor. These habits are influenced by age, educational programme, self‐image and educational level of the mother.

Originality/value

In the light of these findings action should be taken to improve the eating habits among Belgian children to prevent childhood obesity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

C.H.S. Ruxton, T.R. Kirk, N.R. Belton and M.A.M. Holmes

Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the dayand its consumption has been linked with aspects of health, such asnutrient intake and cognitive powers…

Abstract

Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and its consumption has been linked with aspects of health, such as nutrient intake and cognitive powers. Aims to review some of the literature on the subject and present new data on breakfast consumption patterns from the authors′ dietary survey of Scottish schoolchildren. Frequency of breakfast consumption and type of breakfast chosen was investigated in boys and girls in low and high socio‐economic groups. Few children missed breakfast and the most popular choice was ready‐to‐eat (RTE) breakfast cereal. Children from the low socio‐economic group tended to favour bread or toast. Differences in nutrient intake between RTE cereal eaters and the rest of the group were found and it was concluded that, although the dietary intake of this former group appeared more favourable, further research was required to establish a more definite causative effect.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 93 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Barbara Mullan, Cara Wong, Emily Kothe and Carolyn Maccann

Breakfast consumption is associated with a range of beneficial health outcomes including improved overall diet quality, lower BMI, decreased risk of chronic disease, and…

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Abstract

Purpose

Breakfast consumption is associated with a range of beneficial health outcomes including improved overall diet quality, lower BMI, decreased risk of chronic disease, and improved cognitive function. Although there are many models of health and social behaviour, there is a paucity of research utilising these in breakfast consumption and very few studies that directly compare these models. This study aims to compare the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health action process approach (HAPA) in predicting breakfast consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

University students (N=102; M=19.5 years) completed a questionnaire measuring demographics, TPB and HAPA motivational variables, and intentions. Behaviour and HAPA volitional variables were measured four weeks later.

Findings

Using structural equation modelling, it was found that the TPB model was a superior fit to the data across a range of model indices compared to the HAPA. Both models significantly predicted both intentions and behaviour at follow up; however, the TPB predicted a higher proportion of the variance in breakfast consumption (47.6 per cent) than the HAPA (44.8 per cent). Further, the volitional variables did not mediate the intention-behaviour gap, and the data were not an adequate statistical fit to the model compared to the TPB.

Research limitations/implications

The results support the use of the TPB and show that some aspects of the HAPA are useful in predicting breakfast consumption, suggesting that risk perception and self-efficacy be targeted in interventions to increase behaviour. The volitional variables did not appear to mediate breakfast consumption indicating that intention is still the strongest predictor, at least in this behaviour.

Originality/value

The current study is the first to compare the TPB and HAPA in predicting breakfast consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

So-young Kim and Meeyoung Kim

The study aimed to analyse the nutritional quality of self-proposed or prescribed weight-loss diets shared by female Korean adolescents through a social media platform and…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed to analyse the nutritional quality of self-proposed or prescribed weight-loss diets shared by female Korean adolescents through a social media platform and identified potential dietary problems.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 317 weight-loss diets, shared by 107 female adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 in April 2019, were collected from three Kakao Open Chat rooms of which the main topic was “weight-loss diet”. The weight-loss diets were converted to daily energy and nutrient intake.

Findings

Approximately two-thirds of the subjects were normal or underweight, and more than half of them were limiting energy intake to less than half of the recommended daily amounts. The average daily intake of energy and most nutrients did not meet the standard intake levels. Approximately 20% of the subjects were breakfast skippers, while 8 and 5% were dinner and lunch skippers, respectively. Notably, meal skippers tended to fast longer and have an uneven distribution of daily energy intake per meal. The percentages of energy contribution from macronutrients, particularly carbohydrates, also deviated more from the acceptable range in the meal skippers. The weight-loss diets of the subjects with particularly low daily energy intake were categorised into simplified, unbalanced and nutrient-poor, energy-dense meals. Overall, the nutritional quality of the self-proposed or prescribed weight-loss diets was poor. More effective and proactive educational interventions in school environments should be developed to promote positive eating behaviours in adolescents and free them from their obsession with body image.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first attempt to analyse the nutritional quality of female adolescents' self-proposed or prescribed weight-loss diets.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Emily J. Kothe and Barbara Mullan

A number of interventions aimed at increasing breakfast consumption have been designed and implemented in recent years. This paper seeks to review the current research in…

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Abstract

Purpose

A number of interventions aimed at increasing breakfast consumption have been designed and implemented in recent years. This paper seeks to review the current research in this area with the aim of identifying common features of successful interventions and strengths and weaknesses in the current research methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing breakfast‐eating frequency in a non‐clinical sample was conducted.

Findings

A total of 11 interventions were identified and reviewed; of these, only three resulted in an increase in breakfast consumption at follow‐up. The three studies that were successful in changing breakfast consumption all included a psychosocial component that was successful in increasing positive attitudes towards nutrition in the intervention protocol. Many of the breakfast‐eating interventions included in this review have methodological weaknesses, including difficulties in implementing interventions, small sample sizes, and selection biases, which future researchers should consider when designing and evaluating their own interventions.

Research limitations/implications

These findings highlight the importance of including psychosocial components in interventions designed to increase breakfast consumption, while also signalling issues that should be addressed when designing and reporting future interventions.

Originality/value

This review was the first to investigate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing breakfast consumption. The identification of weaknesses in the current body of research, and of successful and unsuccessful intervention practices is an important step in developing successful interventions in the future.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2007

Katy Tapper, Simon Murphy, Laurence Moore, Rebecca Lynch and Rachel Clark

The purpose of this paper is to report findings on an initiative set up by The Welsh Assembly Government to provide free, healthy breakfasts to primary school children…

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1735

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report findings on an initiative set up by The Welsh Assembly Government to provide free, healthy breakfasts to primary school children throughout Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

The research employed a cluster randomised controlled trial design with 58 schools in South, West and North Wales. Quantitative measures were taken at baseline, four months and 12 months.

Findings

With the injection of more money and effective services it was found that the free school breakfast initiative could help improve health and social inequalities.

Originality/value

This paper provides some of the background to the initiative, describes the evaluation and highlights some of the key methodological issues that arose during the course of the research.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 109 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2018

Neha Rathi, Lynn Riddell and Anthony Worsley

The rising prevalence of obesity among Indian adolescents has underscored the need to develop effective strategies to reduce this epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The rising prevalence of obesity among Indian adolescents has underscored the need to develop effective strategies to reduce this epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to assess the patterns of snacking, meal consumption and fast food consumption among adolescents in private schools in Kolkata, India.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional, paper-based, self-administered dietary and lifestyle survey was completed by 1,026 year-nine students aged 14–16 years. Cross-tabulation analyses were performed to compare the frequencies of various dietary behaviours across gender.

Findings

The two most common episodes for snacking among respondents were while watching television (57.9 per cent) and while interacting with peers (54.1 per cent). In contrast, snacking throughout the day (8.7 per cent) and in the middle of the night (7.8 per cent) were minimally practiced by the adolescents. The most regularly consumed meal was lunch (94.6 per cent), whereas the most frequently missed meal was breakfast (14.0 per cent). Fast food was most frequently consumed as snacks (26.8 per cent) but least frequently consumed for lunch (9.2 per cent). Overall, boys exhibited more unhealthy dietary behaviours than girls.

Practical implications

These findings highlight the need to develop nutrition education programmes for nutritionally vulnerable adolescents which communicate the importance of regular meal consumption, reduced intake of fast food and less snacking on energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods.

Originality/value

This is the first cross-sectional survey to investigate patterns of snacking, meal consumption and fast food consumption amongst urban Indian adolescents.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Elham Sharifi-Zahabi, Hadi Abdollahzad, Seyed Mostafa Nachvak, Yahya Pasdar, Amir Bagheri, Badrieh Sahargahi and Behzad Mahaki

Lactose intolerance (LI) is a disturbing gastrointestinal disorder with a high prevalence in all parts of the world, especially in Asian countries. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Lactose intolerance (LI) is a disturbing gastrointestinal disorder with a high prevalence in all parts of the world, especially in Asian countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of LI in students from Zabol, Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on cluster random sampling method, 887 subjects were selected for the study. Of all, 54.7 per cent of the students were boys. The mean (±SD) of age, weight and body mass index (BMI) for participants were 13.27 ± 1.14 years, 42.12 ± 10.25 kg and 18.7 ± 3.9 kg/m2, respectively. LI was assessed using a validated self-administered questionnaire. After measuring the anthropometric indices, students were asked to ingest 200cc of milk. The questionnaires were completed 2 h after the ingestion of milk.

Findings

In total, 25.8 per cent of the adolescents had LI. Of all, 1, 4.6, 11, 30.2 and 53.2 per cent of affected students had severe, relatively severe, moderate, relatively mild and mild LI, respectively. The association between LI and gender, and BMI was not significant (p > 0.05 for both); however, the association between LI and the history of LI in parents (OR = 2.06; 95 per cent CI: 1.47-2.88; p < 0.001), and breakfast consumption was significant (OR = 1.49; 95 per cent CI: 1.04-2.14; p = 0.028).

Originality/value

Although the prevalence of LI is noticeable, majority of adolescents had mild and relatively mild LI. Parents’ history and breakfast consumption are related to the rate of LI prevalence. Appropriate strategies should be considered to prevent breakfast skipping.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of 237