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In the last two decades, different policy initiatives have been set up to increase the share of intermodal freight transport through a modal shift. In the design of these…
In the last two decades, different policy initiatives have been set up to increase the share of intermodal freight transport through a modal shift. In the design of these policies, often critical break-even distances are set, showing the cost or price competitiveness of intermodal transport to delineate transport routes that qualify for such a modal shift. In this chapter, we discuss to which extent such break-even distances can be generalized on a larger scale and how they are calculated.
We use two price-based models to calculate break-even distances for an intermodal rail and an intermodal barge transport case. General break-even values do not show the price variation in the transport market and vagueness in the calculation of these values adds to this problem.
We find that for the inland waterway case, intermodal barge transport shows potential on shorter distances as well. In addition, different ways to lower the break-even distance are discussed and a framework for calculating break-even distances is suggested.
The research elaborates on break-even distances in a European context using price data which are fluctuating over time, location specific and often not publicly available.
Policy initiatives promoting intermodal transport should not focus solely on long distance transport. Moreover, evaluating the competitiveness of the intermodal sector solely on a price comparison dishonours its true potential.
This chapter challenges the current European policy on intermodal transport by showing the price competitiveness of intermodal transport in two cases.
The creation of value for shareholders, the central theme of contemporary financial theory, is generally regarded as the ultimate goal for management. The uncertain outlook for the remainder of this decade indicates that a management that does not concern itself with the creation of value for shareholders may be jeopardizing its own existence. The recent and continuing popularity of takeover activity, proxy fights, and existence of stock options suggests it is important for management to be cognizant of shareholders' desire for wealth.
EVERY reader who ever served in the forces of the Crown will know that charge those footsloggers were convinced was the Sergeant's delight: Dumb Insolence. This was brought against a man who failed to reply when spoken to. (We must admit that if you did answer, he might find another charge or at least bellow at you “SHUT UP!”.)
The article presents the “cost‐volume profit analysis (CVP)” for the hotel industry.
The case presents students with the opportunity to do the following: students can pre-work questions; understand the relevant factors to be considered in the decision to…
The case presents students with the opportunity to do the following: students can pre-work questions; understand the relevant factors to be considered in the decision to expand; and list out the industry and macro-environment factors affecting the expansion decision. Assignment questions help understand the various measures used to evaluate the financial performance of the company; understand the practical implication of incremental analysis to estimate the profit; assess the operating profit and margin of safety of the restaurant Shri Sagar with and without expansion; and critically evaluate the impact of uncertainty on projected sales using the sensitivity model.
Shri Sagar (Central Tiffin Room – CTR) was started by Y.V. Subramanyam and his siblings (Y.V. Srikanteshwaran, Y.V. Krishna Iyer and Y.V. Ramachandran) in the 1920s, specialised in Benne (Butter) Masala dosa, Maddur Vada and Mangalore Bajji. In Bengaluru, there are few restaurants, which have the legacy of more than 50 years such as Vidyarthi Bhavan, Mavalli Tiffin Rooms and Shri Sagar (CTR). Shri Sagar has witnessed three different ownership right from 1920 to the present. Ganesh, an MBA graduate, took the active participation in the business from 2018 and found there are potential opportunities to expand the business. Although business was doing well, Ganesh wanted to assess his company’s financial strength before proceeding. He would require a financial forecast that took into account the strength of the competition and the peculiar nature of the restaurant business in Bengaluru. Ganesh wanted to assess the expansion plan; to address the proposed plan, the case had used cost–volume–profit analysis and sensitivity analysis techniques to make the students understand how these techniques can evaluate the alternatives.
Complexity academic level
This case is best used while teaching Managerial Accounting, which is a core course in MBA program with a module on break-even-analysis or it can also be used in an executive education class with a similar purpose. The teaching plan can be used for MBA students and entrepreneurial training programmes, which involve training on important managerial decisions, which includes business expansion, estimating business profits/revenue targets, etc. It assumes some basic knowledge of cost–benefit analysis concepts where participants have already exposed some basic understanding of break-even analysis and what-if analysis.
Teaching Notes are available for educators only.
CSS 1: Accounting and Finance
Preface The functions of business divide into several areas and the general focus of this book is on one of the most important although least understood of these—DISTRIBUTION. The particular focus is on reviewing current practice in distribution costing and on attempting to push the frontiers back a little by suggesting some new approaches to overcome previously defined shortcomings.
This chapter provides an innovative way to introduce a series of managerial assignments that will allow students to take an example of a real company that interests them…
This chapter provides an innovative way to introduce a series of managerial assignments that will allow students to take an example of a real company that interests them and answer questions designated by the instructor. The assignments are individualized to let students choose their area of interest and apply accounting concepts. At the same time, the instructor formulates questions for students to answer based on the materials covered. This chapter also provides an implementation process and student feedback.
The tightening competition and performance pressure in companies often leave no time or space for the assessment of business impacts of different investments and projects…
The tightening competition and performance pressure in companies often leave no time or space for the assessment of business impacts of different investments and projects. In addition, in many cases the assessment may be challenging and there is no experience available to undertake it. Despite that companies often commit to different projects and investments without careful planning and vision of the costs it may cause. The purpose of this paper is to create a decision support system in order to facilitate and increase the assessment of business impacts of different investments concerning to machine-to-machine (M2M) systems.
The created decision support system is composed of cost-benefit analysis including several investment decision methods. In order to deepen the understanding on it, the system was applied to two cases from the M2M business.
During the study it was found that different financial metrics might give contradictory results when deciding whether to undertake an investment. In addition, a significant finding was how much some variables may have significance to the eligibility of an investment than others. The study also gave understanding how long payback time can be and how risky the investments might be in different M2M applications.
The study describes the created decision support system and it is applied to two different M2M applications. The system provides a comprehensive combination of different financial metrics, which will help any manager make decisions whether an investment is eligible or not.
Managerial auditors (MAs) are frequently relying on mistaken mixed costs (MC) forecasting assumptions. Two such assumptions are that MC are linear within the relevant…
Managerial auditors (MAs) are frequently relying on mistaken mixed costs (MC) forecasting assumptions. Two such assumptions are that MC are linear within the relevant range and variable costs vary proportionately with activity levels. Departure from these assumptions can lead to understating expenses, overstating profits, and even to fraud, litigation, and mounting professional liability risk. Develops a forecasting model of mixed cost error estimates, or error difference (ED). MAs can reduce the risk of litigation and professional liability by including such an ED in the internal control structure of a company. Uses Sensormatic Corporation and the electronics security industry as sample case because of the recent prominence of litigation and professional auditor liability verdicts. Focuses on the electronics security industry, but some of the findings may apply to other industries.
Etymologically, the word “loss” means to be deprived, temporarily or permanently, of use of faculty or an advantage. Therefore, when businesses and entrepreneurs suffer…
Etymologically, the word “loss” means to be deprived, temporarily or permanently, of use of faculty or an advantage. Therefore, when businesses and entrepreneurs suffer large amount of losses, they can be attributed to a non-effective and non-efficient way of handling assets. Consequently, high levels of bad management can be the cause for food losses (FL) across the agri-food supply chain, food waste (FW) depends on consumers' behavior in organizing food basket. Food loss and food waste (FWL) negatively affect environment and global economy. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic 4Es (Ethical_Equity_Ecological_Economic) approach aimed at better managing and treating FLW along the agri-food chain from upstream to downstream stages by addressing entrepreneurs and consumers' approach.
The work focuses on the definition and designing of three possible tools: (1) the implementation of a FL_break-even point model; (2) the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) procedures including a scheme for FL critical points and (3) a consumer's tax FW declaration model. Beginning with these tools, the work tries to define a holistic model by involving all the actors performing in a strictly inter- linked system.
Approaching the FLW issue in a holistic way can ensure the involvement of engaged and productive people at work, lead to strategies and policies aimed at enriching consumers' awareness and entrepreneurs' management approach, and can address the handling of FLW toward Ethical, Equity, Ecological_and Economic (that means effective and efficient) paths.
Monitoring and decreasing FLW by implementing the proposed tools from upstream to downstream of the food supply chain can certainly improve the reliability of firm production and investment decisions, and at the same time, behavior of people who feel to be part of an interrelated system. This can help to lighten FLW negative impacts on consumers' income and on pollution as well as indirectly on poverty.
This paper wants to make an innovative attempt to approach the FLW issue in a global and holistic way, while focusing on behavior and awareness of firms/entrepreneurs and consumers/citizens. In addition, the tools and approach defined pave the way for subsequent empirical works to follow.