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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2015

Arabela Campos Oliven

This paper analyzes affirmative action policies that include racial and socioeconomic criteria in order to enhance the opportunity of access of underrepresented groups in…

Abstract

This paper analyzes affirmative action policies that include racial and socioeconomic criteria in order to enhance the opportunity of access of underrepresented groups in Brazilian elite universities. It focuses on the public system of higher education since research universities in Brazil are mainly public and are free of charge. This renders them very competitive and highly selective. Emphasis is given to issues related to racial quotas, as the latter has been the subject of great controversy in Brazilian society. The experiences of three universities are analyzed.

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Mitigating Inequality: Higher Education Research, Policy, and Practice in an Era of Massification and Stratification
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-291-7

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Julia Paranhos, Fernanda Steiner Perin, Eduardo Mercadante and Caroline Soares

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the strategies and organizational forms used by large Brazilian pharmaceutical companies (LBPCs) in interaction with universities

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the strategies and organizational forms used by large Brazilian pharmaceutical companies (LBPCs) in interaction with universities for the development of innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

In the pharmaceutical industry, a science-based sector, the source of new knowledge is often outside the company environment. Thus, the search for innovation depends on the company’s strategic decisions of cooperation. This research uses the case study method, with secondary data from the 2008, 2011 and 2014 Innovation Survey (Pintec) about the innovative efforts of LBPCs, as well as primary data from semi-structured interviews with six of them.

Findings

The most recent data on innovation in Brazil show changes in the innovative efforts of LBPCs, involving the raise in the interaction with universities. The results of the field research also show that the LBPCs have differentiated innovative structures and are effectively using strategies for partnerships with universities, through the creation of radical innovation departments, the establishment of internal scientific committees and the internationalization of research and development.

Originality/value

These findings contribute to the literature on the industry-university interactions in Brazil and in developing countries. However, this analysis cannot be generalized for the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry as it uses the case study method. Moreover, it is too early to determine if the identified strategies were successful. Nonetheless, it is worth mentioning that the strategies of the six interviewed companies differ greatly from the patterns of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry and the manufacturing industry.

Objetivo

El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las estrategias y estructuras organizacionales de las grandes empresas farmacéuticas brasileñas (GEFBs) en la interacción con universidades para el desarrollo innovador. En la industria farmacéutica, un sector basado en la ciencia, la fuente del conocimiento suele estar fuera del ambiente de la empresa. Por lo tanto, la búsqueda de la innovación depende de las decisiones estratégicas de cooperación de la empresa.

Diseño/metodología/aproximación

Esta investigación utiliza el método de estudio de caso, a partir de datos secundarios de la Encuesta de Innovación (Pintec) de 2008, 2011 y 2014 sobre los esfuerzos innovadores de las GEFBs, así como datos primarios de entrevistas semiestructuradas con seis de ellas.

Resultados

Los datos más recientes sobre innovación en Brasil muestran cambios en los esfuerzos innovadores de las GEFBs, incluyendo ampliación de la interacción con universidades. Los resultados de la investigación de campo también indican que las GEFBS poseen estructuras innovadoras diferenciadas y están aplicando estratégicas de alianzas con universidades, por la creación de departamentos de innovación radical, por el establecimiento de comités científicos internos y por la internacionalización de la investigación e innovación.

Limitaciones de la investigación/implicaciones

Este análisis no puede ser generalizado para la industria farmacéutica brasileña por utilizar el método de estudio de caso. Además, es muy temprano para determinar si las estrategias identificadas obtuvieron éxito.

Palabras claves

Estrategias empresariales, interacción universidad-empresa, Brasil

Tipo de artículo

Estudio de caso

Originalidad/valor

Estos resultados contribuyen a la literatura sobre interacciones universidad-empresa en Brasil y en países en desarrollo. Asimismo, debe ser mencionado que las estrategias de las seis empresas entrevistadas difieren considerablemente de los padrones de la industria farmacéutica y de la industria de transformación brasileñas.

Objetivo

O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as estratégias e estruturas organizacionais das grandes empresas farmacêuticas brasileiras (GEFBs) na interação com universidades para o desenvolvimento inovativo. Na indústria farmacêutica, um setor baseado em ciência, a fonte do conhecimento costuma estar fora do ambiente da empresa. Portanto, a busca pela inovação depende das decisões estratégicas de cooperação da empresa.

Design/metodologia/abordagem

Esta pesquisa utiliza o método de estudo de caso, a partir de dados secundários da Pesquisa de Inovação (Pintec) de 2008, 2011 e 2014 sobre os esforços inovativos das GEFBs, assim como dados primários de entrevistas semiestruturadas com seis delas. Os dados mais recentes sobre inovação no Brasil mostram mudanças nos esforços inovativos das GEFBs, incluindo a ampliação da interação com universidades.

Resultados

Os resultados da pesquisa de campo também indicam que as GEFBs possuem estruturas inovativas diferenciadas e estão efetivamente aplicando estratégicas de parcerias com universidades, pela criação de departamentos de inovação radical, pelo estabelecimento de comitês científicos internos e pela internacionalização da pesquisa e inovação.

Limitações de pesquisa/implicações

Esta análise não pode ser generalizada para a indústria farmacêutica brasileira por utilizar o método de estudo de caso. Ademais, é muito cedo para determinar se as estratégias identificadas obtiveram sucesso.

Originalidade/valor

Esses resultados contribuem para a literatura sobre interações universidade-empresa no Brasil e em países em desenvolvimento. Outrossim, deve ser mencionado que as estratégias das seis empresas entrevistadas diferem consideravelmente do padrão da indústria farmacêutica e da indústria de transformação brasileiras.

Palavras chaves

Estratégias empresariais, interação universidade-empresa, indústria farmacêutica, Brasil

Tipo de artigo

Estudo de caso

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 February 2019

Marcia Siqueira Rapini, Tulio Chiarini, Pablo Bittencourt and Thiago Caliari

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the academic side of university–firm linkages, reporting the results of research (called the “BR Survey”, a primary database…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the academic side of university–firm linkages, reporting the results of research (called the “BR Survey”, a primary database) conducted in Brazil with leaders of research groups that interacted with firms. The authors analysed the answers from 662 research groups (from both universities and research institutes) to investigate whether the intensity of private funds affects the results of the interactions. The main intent is to answer the following question: Is there a difference between funding sources and the type of results achieved by research groups when interacting with firms?

Design/methodology/approach

To verify the impact of some variables on the perception of the main results of university–firm interactions, highlighting the impact of funding sources, the authors present a Logit Model defined with binary dependent variables. The null value is categorized as a “scientific result” (new scientific discoveries and research projects; publications, theses and dissertations; human resources’ and students’ education) and the value 1 is classified as an “innovative/technological result” (new products, artefacts and processes; improvement of industrial products and processes; patents, software, design and spin-off firms).

Findings

The authors found that the modes of interaction (relationship types) and some knowledge transfer channels, besides the number of interactions with firms, have statistically significant coefficients, so their values present different impacts on the results of the interaction. The results suggest that the Brazilian innovation policy towards a more active and entrepreneurial role of universities is fostering innovative/technological results from university–firm interactions.

Originality/value

The originality of the study lies on the results found that given the fact that private funding sources do not affect the conventional mission of Brazilian universities – teaching and research – university research groups should be even more incentivized to search for private funds to carry out their research. This may be a solution to the public fund scarcity and may help in reducing the historical distance between universities and firms in Brazil.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2008

Karin Amos, Lúcia Bruno and Marcelo Parreira do Amaral

For the longest period of its history, the university was the guardian and transmitter – not the producer – of knowledge. This relatively recent change of transmitting…

Abstract

For the longest period of its history, the university was the guardian and transmitter – not the producer – of knowledge. This relatively recent change of transmitting canonical knowledge and generating new knowledge is normally associated with Wilhelm von Humboldt. Other highly influential university models were provided by France and Great Britain. The association of certain types of universities with particular countries is a strong indicator of the intricate link between nation-state and education. Hence, the history of tertiary education and its elite institutions, the research universities, must be considered in relation with a sea change in educational history – the gradual emergence of national education systems. Only under the conditions of the by now standard form of organizing modern societies as nation-states did education become a central institution (Meyer, Boli, Thomas, & Ramirez, 1997) collapsing individual perfectibility and national progress. The nationally redefined university was integrated into the education system as its keystone while also being considered the motor of societal development. From a social history perspective, the latter aspect in particular indicates the pragmatic (training professionals, imparting military and technical knowledge, etc.) and symbolic expectations, “myths” of the nation-state that have been so aptly described and analyzed in numerous macro-sociological neo-institutionalist studies (Meyer, Ramirez, & Soysal, 1992; Meyer et al., 1997; Ramirez & Boli, 1987). In a macro-phenomenological perspective, the term “myth” is used to denote a fundamental change in the self-description of European society which since the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries no longer views itself as consisting of separate collectivities divided from each other by social origin – as was the case under feudal conditions – with each collectivity providing itself the necessary education for its members or being provided for by others in the case of neediness. Instead, as a result of a number of material and immaterial changes, society now defines the individual as its key unit, with the nation being consequently the aggregate of individuals and not of collectivities and the state redefined as the guardian of the nation. This conception might be taken as a kind of overlapping area which includes different approaches, such as Michel Foucault's concept of the disciplinary society (Foucault, 1977), Balibar and Wallerstein's (1991) deliberations on the relation between race, class, and nation, and Benedict Anderson's (1991) description of nations as imagined communities. All these studies could be taken as sharing the notion of “constructedness” (cf. Berger & Luckmann, 1972) of modern society with the neo-institutionalist perspective. The concept of a “world polity” which encompasses the “myths” society is based on, the overall notion of a cognitive culture, which takes Max Weber's concept of rationality as a point of departure, is identified as the basis of isomorphic change in the organizational structure of modern education systems (cf. Baker & Wiseman, 2006). However, the strong emphasis on international, world system embeddedness of nation-states and their education systems is not to be taken as a unidirectional dependence on external forces. While modern nation-states originate from and remain tied to international dynamics and developments, they are conceived as unique entities. For most of their history, modern nation-states have been preoccupied with making themselves distinct from each other. Thus, while international competition has always been present, looking abroad traditionally meant reworking, adapting, and reshaping what was imported, or borrowed (Halpin & Troyna, 1995; Steiner-Khamsi, 2004). This is true for education as well as for other areas of society.

Details

The Worldwide Transformation of Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1487-4

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Annor da Silva Junior, Priscilla de Oliveira Martins-Silva, Karina Santos Feu, Aline Chima Komino, Vitor Correa da Silva and Katia Cyrlene de Araújo Vasconcelos

This paper aims to investigate the viewpoint of undergraduate Management students at a Brazilian public university regarding the notion of corporate social responsibility…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the viewpoint of undergraduate Management students at a Brazilian public university regarding the notion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). It theoretically articulates the notion of CSR and the formal education perspective to discuss managerial education.

Design/methodology/approach

Stude nts in the Management program were surveyed for their opinion on the notion of CSR. Data were collected through triangulation by combining the application of questionnaire and documentary research. There were 241 valid questionnaires, and this is the size of the sample. Data were analyzed by using the SPSS software (version 20), descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests.

Findings

Results reveal that, for undergraduate Management students, the most important CSR dimensions are, in hierarchical order, the philanthropic, the ethical, the legal and the economic. Thus, one can notice an inversion of the original CSR pyramid proposed by Carroll (1991).

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is the conduction of research in the context of a single public university.

Practical implications

Results indicate a change in how CSR is understood, the philanthropic dimension becoming the main factor for the establishment of organizational goals.

Social implications

Considering that undergraduate Management students are the future members of the corporate world and decision-makers in society, these results indicate the stance these future professionals will take when confronted by dilemmas involving CSR.

Originality/value

This investigation is original in Brazilian context, for it identifies students’ opinion on CSR using a questionnaire whose development was based on the CSR pyramid.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Izabela Simon Rampasso, Sidney L.M. Mello, Rubens Walker, Victor G. Simão, Robson Araújo, Juliana Chagas, Osvaldo Luiz Gonçalves Quelhas and Rosley Anholon

The objective of this study is to identify research gaps related to skills required for Industry 4.0, considering research in the context of Brazilian undergraduate…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to identify research gaps related to skills required for Industry 4.0, considering research in the context of Brazilian undergraduate courses. In this sense, the question of this study was established: What are the educational gaps related to skills required in Industry 4.0 context, considering considering research in the previously mentioned?

Design/methodology/approach

To answer this question, the ten top work-related skills required for professionals in Industry 4.0 published by the World Economic Forum were used to perform a systematic literature review. From this review, 100 articles were found in the searched databases. From them, 18 were within the research scope.

Findings

Through an analysis of their content, it was possible to verify that, from the 10 skills analyzed, only six were identified in the articles. That is, no research was found for: people management, service orientation, negotiation, and cognitive flexibility. Additionally, there are undergraduate courses that are not considered in current researches and should be analyzed.

Originality/value

The gaps pointed out in this study are relevant to guide future analyzes of the Brazilian educational model and may provide insights for research in other countries.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Mario Duarte Canever, Maria Renata Martínez Barral and Felipe Garcia Ribeiro

The purpose of this paper is to explore the causal links between public and private university environments and the entrepreneurial intention (EI) of students.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the causal links between public and private university environments and the entrepreneurial intention (EI) of students.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of different university environments on the students’ EI was checked using a model adapted from Krueger et al. (2000). The study comprised a sample of students enrolled in business administration from three public and three private universities at first semester (freshmen) and at the last two semesters (senior) in Brazil. The model was measured through various questions and later assessed by principal component analysis to build constructs. Via t-test and path analysis the EI and the antecedents were subjected to a comparative analysis to test the equality of the models across the four categories emerged.

Findings

The two main types of Brazilian university environments (public and private) do not present significant differences in the way they influence EI and its antecedents. Both the tests of means and the tests of measurement of the structural relations between constructs confirm this finding with only a few exceptions. The result of this study is opposed to other studies carried out in Brazil, by showing that the public university environment is not worse for the entrepreneurship than the private. The environmental effects are mostly equal and they as a whole are not conducive to the development of EI.

Research limitations/implications

The study comprises business students only, and enrolled on regular universities. It is worth highlighting that evidence was brought to the debate for a group of universities in Brazil. Replicating the study with students from other areas and other universities, as well as students in Master’s and Doctorate programs could enrich the analyses.

Practical implications

This study provides insight into entrepreneurship education, as to which the university environment is conducive to the entrepreneurship. It brings insights for the development of entrepreneurial universities.

Originality/value

This study contributes to understanding the differences between the public and private universities environment regarding students’ EI.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Thaís Peiter de Borba, Manoella Vieira da Silva, Manuela Mika Jomori, Greyce Luci Bernardo, Ana Carolina Fernandes, Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença, Gabriele Rockenbach and Paula Lazzarin Uggioni

Self-efficacy in cooking and consuming fruits and vegetables is one of the dimensions that compose cooking skills. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the…

Abstract

Purpose

Self-efficacy in cooking and consuming fruits and vegetables is one of the dimensions that compose cooking skills. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the self-efficacy of Brazilian university students in cooking and consuming fruits and vegetables and examine the relationship of self-efficacy with sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through an online questionnaire, which was culturally adapted and validated for the studied population. Questions about self-efficacy for using basic cooking techniques (SECT), self-efficacy for using fruits, vegetables, and seasonings (SEFVS) and produce consumption self-efficacy (SEPC) were rated on a five-point Likert scale. Differences in median self-efficacy score between groups were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test or the Kruskal–Wallis test followed by the Mann–Whitney U test.

Findings

766 subjects participated in the study. The mean age was 21 ± 5.6 years, most respondents were female (60%), reported to know how to cook (72%), and lived with parents and/or grandparents (45%). The median SECT and SEFVS scores were 3.55, and the median SEPC score was 3.33. Female students, individuals aged more than 25 years, and students who did not live with their parents or grandparents had higher (p < 0.005) self-efficacy scores. Low SECT, SEFVS and SEPC scores were associated with having less than one hour a day to cook (p = 0.023, 0.01, and 0.002, respectively) and not knowing how to cook (p < 0.001). There was no relationship of median self-efficacy scores with source of knowledge about cooking skills or parental education.

Originality/value

The results of this study can guide interventions and public policies aimed at health promotion in the university setting.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Cassiane Chais, Paula Patrícia Ganzer and Pelayo Munhoz Olea

This paper aims to research how technology transfer occurs, based on the Schumpeterian approach to innovation trilogy focusing on the interaction between the university

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to research how technology transfer occurs, based on the Schumpeterian approach to innovation trilogy focusing on the interaction between the university and the company.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used for this study was the analysis of two cases with an exploratory and qualitative approach. The case study subjects were two Brazilian universities: University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and University of Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS). Semi-structured interviews were used as the data collection technique, whereas content analysis was used as the analysis technique.

Findings

The main results showed the need of companies and universities to understand that working in collaborative technology research contributes to the transformation of applied research into technological innovations that can transform society.

Research limitations/implications

The research’s limitations were the unfeasibility of studying the government helix, the lack of clear and established processes within universities so that a comparison between the cases would be possible and the lack of access to technology contracts, as they are considered confidential. In addition, the use of two cases is considered a limitation, as it is not possible to generalize the conclusions pointed out by the study.

Originality/value

With this research, the authors were able to conclude that the university–industry interaction process has been improving, but it still needs to advance in organizational aspects. Some of the aspects to be considered are the adjustments for the institutions’ internal policies, the existing negotiations, the researchers’ behavior regarding the dissemination of the innovation culture and the performance of the technological innovation centers, which gradually are being trained to work in the market as well as in the university. It is necessary that primarily companies and universities understand that they must join efforts in collaborative technological research, so that the financial resources invested are not only accepted as published articles in qualified journals but also turn into technological innovations accepted by the market. All this investment must return as new products, services and technologies that generate local, regional, national and even international impact, implementing new types of businesses and new markets and yielding an economic impact in the country, thus generating innovation and social well-being.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Carlo Gabriel Porto Bellini, Rita de Cássia de Faria Pereira and João Luiz Becker

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural design of customer teams (CuTes) working with external teams to implement customized information systems (IS)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural design of customer teams (CuTes) working with external teams to implement customized information systems (IS). Design consists of theoretically based measures and a first set of real-world, empirical values.

Design/methodology/approach

A search in the organizational literature suggested that the adhocracy is the preferred structure for CuTes. Adhocracy-like measures were then developed and applied to a high-performance CuTe to reveal a first benchmark for a team’s adhocratic design.

Findings

High-performance CuTes do not necessarily implement the adhocratic principles to the highest degree.

Research limitations/implications

It is still open whether all the structural measures described here are necessary and sufficient to describe the adhocracy-like structural design of CuTes.

Practical implications

The CuTe is highlighted as the key incumbent of cooperation with the technology supplier and consultants in terms of project authority and responsibility. A psychometric instrument and real-world values are proposed as a reference for the structural design of high-performance CuTes.

Social implications

The performance of IS projects is a social concern, since IS products should be aimed at serving people better both inside and outside the organization. Professionals who work in CuTes to develop better IS should receive institutional recognition and management attention.

Originality/value

This study seems to be the first to discuss the structure of CuTes in customized IS projects from a theoretical and applied perspective.

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