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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2011

Shamindra Nath Sanyal and Saroj Kumar Datta

The purpose of this paper is to find out the relationship between the qualities of generic drugs perceived by the physicians and brand equity of the branded generics and…

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7029

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out the relationship between the qualities of generic drugs perceived by the physicians and brand equity of the branded generics and to examine the physicians' perceptions of prescribing generic drugs for selective medical conditions in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out across six major cities in Eastern India with 392 physicians. Here components of perceived quality, i.e. intrinsic cues and extrinsic cues are hypothesized to influence perceived quality of branded generics which in turn influence brand equity. It is also hypothesized that respondents' quality experience is assimilated towards their quality expectations, independent of small variations in objective quality of the drug.

Findings

Results showed that perceived quality of branded generics significantly, but indirectly, affected brand equity through the mediating variables, intrinsic cues and extrinsic cues. The results also showed that physicians' quality experience leads to quality expectations, independent of small variations in drug quality on five common yet serious diseases in India.

Practical implications

Current research finds that for prescription‐based branded generic drugs, perceived quality mainly depends on intrinsic cues; therefore, managers should be interested in intrinsic cues that increase brand equity and necessary marketing actions should be implemented accordingly.

Originality/value

No other scholarly article has been developed, so far, analyzing the effect of perceived quality on brand equity in the Indian branded generic drug segment. Besides providing evidence from the Indian pharmaceutical context about the impact of quality cues, the paper also presents evidence on physicians' quality observation of branded generics on five common yet serious diseases in India.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Andrea Sestino and Cesare Amatulli

This study aims at exploring the role of perceived disease seriousness in consumers’ preference for generic versus branded drugs, by shedding light on new factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at exploring the role of perceived disease seriousness in consumers’ preference for generic versus branded drugs, by shedding light on new factors impacting consumer purchase behaviour for pharmaceutical products.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study based on a quantitative analysis has been conducted with a sample of 100 participants who have been presented with two different scenarios: one related to more serious disease (as in cardiological disease) and one related to less serious disease (as in the seasonal flu). This paper considered Italy as a research setting where the recent mandatory prescription of the active ingredient by doctors leaves the final purchase decision in consumers’ hands

Findings

Results show that, although consumers are free to choose whether to buy a branded or a generic prescribed active ingredient, their choice is mainly driven by the role of the brand. Consumers’ intention to buy generic drugs is higher in the case of diseases perceived as less serious, while the intention to buy branded drugs is higher in the case of disease perceived as more serious.

Originality/value

This study contributes to marketing research and practice by proposing that consumers’ perceived seriousness of their disease should be considered as a further factor in identifying new marketing strategies in those contexts in which the choice between branded or generic drugs is free.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Dean C.H. Wilkie, Lester W. Johnson and Lesley White

This research aims to provide an empirical comparison of the results of three brands' marketing defence strategies used in advance of generic brands entering the market…

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2520

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to provide an empirical comparison of the results of three brands' marketing defence strategies used in advance of generic brands entering the market. By reviewing the effectiveness of these strategies, this research looks to extend the research on marketing defence strategies into the importance of anticipating competitor launches.

Design/methodology/approach

A data set containing 243 weeks of scanned sales for 21 generic brands was used in a regression model aimed at measuring the effectiveness of each brand's defence strategies in deterring entry and limiting the market share of these generic brands.

Findings

The analysis shows that several marketing mix components were effective in limiting the impact of generic brands. What was critical to each component's success was ensuring that they were implemented before the launch of the generic brands.

Research limitations/implications

This research has the limitation of being confined to a category of pharmaceutical allergy brands, which limits generalisation of the findings.

Practical implications

The managerial relevance of this research has two parts. First, it will encourage managers to move from implementing strategies in reaction to a competitor launch to implementing strategies in advance of their entry. Second, it provides insights into the effectiveness of several strategic options for brands facing the entry of generic brands.

Originality/value

This study brings together literature regarding entry deterrence and market share loss prevention to help highlight the importance of proactive marketing defence strategies in reducing both the number of entrants and the amount of market share lost. It uses a data set to provide an empirical review of a range of marketing mix components used by pharmaceutical brands against low‐price generic brands.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Peter Mayer and Robert G. Vambery

Marketers devote great efforts to maintaining brand value. However, brand value can come under attack in the absence of sufficient product performance and image…

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2634

Abstract

Purpose

Marketers devote great efforts to maintaining brand value. However, brand value can come under attack in the absence of sufficient product performance and image differentiation in a process called unbranding. This paper aims to provide insights and guidelines that will give marketing managers tools to deal with variables that impact consumer decisions on whether to buy a national brand or a store brand product.

Design/methodology/approach

A consumer research study was based on a random, mall intercept with 188 respondents consisting of seven questions scored on a ten‐point scale. The results are presented on a set of graphs accompanied with some analysis of means (ANOM) applications.

Findings

Results indicated that a significant portion of consumers (from over 40 percent to a high of 85 percent) feel that the quality differences between branded and generic products have diminished and the price premiums charged by branded products are often no longer justifiable.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study imply that in branded product premium image must be maintained and enhanced, otherwise it will be lost. In addition, the trend of brand value loss referred to as unbranding will vary significantly by and within a product category.

Practical implications

Branded products must maintain their superior consumer perception and product performance. Store or generic brand marketers should exploit the favorable price‐value relationship gained because of the loss of brand value through a process of store branding.

Originality/value

The new concept of unbranding is introduced together with research‐based recommendations for brand value protection strategies.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

A. Parasuraman

The growing consumer demand for, and acceptance of, so‐called no‐name brands of a variety of food, as well as nonfood, products—from cooking oil to cotton swabs, tomato…

Abstract

The growing consumer demand for, and acceptance of, so‐called no‐name brands of a variety of food, as well as nonfood, products—from cooking oil to cotton swabs, tomato juice to toilet tissue, brownie mix to beauty aids, and liquor to laundry detergent—is a significant development in retailing. No‐name brands have captured about 2 percent of the total grocery sales in the United States in just three years . According to a recent report prepared by A.C. Nielsen Company, no‐name brand shares in the top fifty product categories in which they are strongest range from 4 to 10 percent of the category sales volumes; this is in spite of the fact that no‐name brands have not yet achieved the broad levels of retail distribution enjoyed by branded products . In fact, the share of no‐name brands is as high as 16 percent in certain product categories based on the sales volumes of only those retail outlets that carry them. Contrary to industry expectations, the growth of no‐name brands appears to be a persistent market phenomenon rather than a passing fad. Indeed, retail chains such as Ralph's on the west coast and Jewel in the midwest now have “generic” aisles in their stores.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Shamindra Nath Sanyal and Saroj Kumar Datta

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of country of origin image on brand equity of branded generic drugs.

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7696

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of country of origin image on brand equity of branded generic drugs.

Design/methodology/approach

Brand equity of branded generics is examined through an analytical review. Country of origin image is hypothesised to influence components of brand equity, i.e. brand strength and brand awareness, which in turn influence brand equity. An empirical investigation was carried out among professionally similar respondents, i.e. doctors of different categories in Kolkata megapolis, India.

Findings

Results showed that country of origin image had a positive and significant effect on components of brand equity, i.e. brand strength and brand awareness, derived from factor analysis conducted on brand equity components. The result also showed that country of origin image of branded generics significantly, but indirectly, affected brand equity through the mediating variables, brand strength and brand awareness.

Research limitations/implications

Different variables have influence on brand equity. This study dealt with only one type of variable, i.e. country of origin image, that may limit the total process of brand equity enhancement.

Practical implications

Marketing actions should be implemented to enhance brand strength and awareness levels. Country of origin image should be assessed as a multidimensional concept for enhancing brand equity. Marketers should be aware of the fact that physicians are influenced by the brand's original country image.

Originality/value

This research work has extended prior country of origin research by conceptualising the country of origin image as a brand equity enhancing tool in a new area called branded generic drugs.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Shamindra Nath Sanyal, Saroj Kumar Datta and Asok Kumar Banerjee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the physicians’ attitude toward branded generic drugs in prescribing those drugs in some selective medical conditions and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the physicians’ attitude toward branded generic drugs in prescribing those drugs in some selective medical conditions and to identify the factors that influence physicians’ behavior toward prescribing branded generic drugs in the said selective medical conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out across six major cities in eastern India with 301 physicians. The current study introduced some significant elements into the modified technology acceptance model (TAM) with title the extended tam for product usage (TETPU) to analyze the prescribing factors that influence physicians in five common yet serious medical conditions in India. Out of nine factors considered here, seven were selected from the previous literature studies of different product segments and two were proposed by the authors. Demographic factor was proposed as the confounding variable.

Findings

The results indicated that apart from the factors “perceived no need” and “physicians’ perception and need achievement” rest of the factors showed satisfactory to excellent results.

Practical implications

The current study findings may enable the pharmaceutical managers to revise or modify their current marketing communication and other brand-building strategies so as to achieve a superior performance that offers them a competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils a need for advancing the knowledge on the physician’s prescription influencing factors by introducing the newer aspects of the concept and offers a theoretical framework for the academia and practical framework for the managers who desire to implement the strategies to achieve competitive advantage.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Hernan E. Riquelme, Mohamed Elthani and Rosa E. Rios

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the percentage of generic inventory pharmacists have in stock, to comprehend why pharmacists in Jordan recommend and dispense…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the percentage of generic inventory pharmacists have in stock, to comprehend why pharmacists in Jordan recommend and dispense generic products.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 104 pharmacists were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire contained statements about perception of generic products, inclination to recommend generic products, importance of promotions, factors influencing a recommendation, stock of generics, and among others. Correlational and discriminant analyses were used to establish associations between variables to distinguish characteristics between groups.

Findings

More than half of the Jordanian pharmacists sampled carry between 20 and 39 per cent stock of generic drugs and 46 per cent carry more than 40 per cent stock. One‐third (33 per cent) substitutes branded products by generic ones and slightly more (36 per cent) recommend more generic than branded products as opposed to those who recommend more branded products (24 per cent). Male pharmacists (49 per cent) tend to recommend more generic products than do females (24.6 per cent) and those who recommend more branded products are more influenced by sales visits rather than manufacturer's name or bonuses.

Originality/value

The paper provides valuable information about the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan and the empirical study adds insights from pharmacists about generic medicine.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Fatma Smaoui, Fatma Abdellah Kilani and Mourad Touzani

Taking an emerging country perspective, this paper aims to investigate consumers’ preferences for over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, regarding three attributes…

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1497

Abstract

Purpose

Taking an emerging country perspective, this paper aims to investigate consumers’ preferences for over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, regarding three attributes: country-of-origin (COO), brand status (branded versus generic) and price. The second purpose is to test the effect of COO and brand status on consumers’ perceptions of quality, trust and purchasing intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

After a preliminary qualitative study, consumers answered a follow-up questionnaire to evaluate eight product combinations (COO/brand status/price) for three categories of OTC drugs. Conjoint analysis allowed assessing the importance of COO compared to brand status and price, while ANOVA was used to test the effect of COO and branding status on consumers’ responses.

Findings

Findings show that, in an emerging countries context, COO is less important than brand status in consumers’ preferences. COO and brand status have a greater effect on consumers’ perceptions of drug quality and trust than on purchasing intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The limited number of factors (brand status/COO/price) could have amplified their relative importance.

Practical implications

Pharmaceutical companies from industrialized countries, exporting generic drugs to emerging markets, can benefit from the favorably perceived COO of their drugs and thus help the acceptance of generic drugs in these markets.

Originality/value

The study has two major contributions. It aims to contribute to a better understanding of consumer behavior in the pharmaceutical field. It also transposes the framework on COO to the context of an emerging country: Tunisia.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Ming Cheng, Chris K. Anderson, Zhen Zhu and S. Chan Choi

This study aims to address the following research questions: Do the two types of service firms (individual or aggregator) have similar competitiveness on online search…

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2130

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address the following research questions: Do the two types of service firms (individual or aggregator) have similar competitiveness on online search ads? How should the two types of service firms select optimal branded keywords to improve search performance? In addition, how do consumers’ search queries influence the service search performance of the two types of service firms?

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors conduct an empirical analysis by building a two-stage choice modeling on the process of search engine ranking and consumer click-through decisions. The authors estimate the parameter coefficients and test the hypotheses using maximum likelihood estimation in the logistic regression model.

Findings

The empirical findings suggest that consumer response rates are highly dependent upon three aspects (service types, branded keyword strategy and consumer search query). First, the authors found that service aggregators receive greater consumer responses than individual service providers. Second, depending upon the various branded keyword strategies (e.g. generic vs branded, “within-type” vs “cross-type”) implemented by service aggregators or individual firms, the expected consumer responses could be quite different. Finally, customer’s search query, being either generic or branded, also has direct effect and interactive effect with service type on how consumers would response to the sponsored ads in the service search process.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the research is twofold. First, conversion rate is not considered in the model estimation due to the nature of the data set. Second, the discussion about the keywords selection strategies is focusing on the hospitality industry. Future research shall further validate the generalizability into other industries.

Practical implications

First, given this competitive advantage, service aggregators should take an aggressive approach to adopting paid search strategy in acquiring new users and enhance its brand salience in the service ecosystem. Second, when considering other competitor’s brand names to include, if a firm is a service provider (e.g. hotel), a strategy that can help it receive higher consumer response would be to use “within-type” rather than “cross-type” branded keyword strategy. If a firm is a service aggregator, a better branded keyword strategy would be to use “across-type” instead of “within-type” approach. In addition, given that consumer’s brand awareness can influence the effectiveness of branded keyword strategy, online service search should target consumers in earlier stages of a decision journey.

Social implications

The authors believe their theoretical framework can provide actionable solutions to service firms to ease customer’s search process, increase customer’s stickiness using search engines and add value to the customer relationships with all services entities within the digital ecosystem.

Originality/value

This study is the first to expand online search marketing into granule examinations (main and interactive effects of three key factors) in the service search domain. First, the authors differentiate service firms into two categories – online travel aggregators and individual hotels in the model. Second, the authors introduce two sets of new classifications of branded keywords for online service search research (i.e. own versus other brand and “cross-type” versus “within-type” branded keywords). Third, this study integrates service consumers’ search word specificity into the conceptual framework which is often missing in previous online search research.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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