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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Baba Gnanakumar

Self-esteem values, with the new art of living, in the minds of Indians, lead to establish faith among the spiritual organization. Later on, the spiritual organizations…

Abstract

Purpose

Self-esteem values, with the new art of living, in the minds of Indians, lead to establish faith among the spiritual organization. Later on, the spiritual organizations brand their names and market the products in their branded name. These brands, which are inspired by faith and created by Indian spiritual gurus, have even disrupted the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) market by being customer-centric instead of being geared by lucrative returns. It is in this context that this paper aims to find the cultural divergence factors that lead to change the consumption pattern of FMCG and how such brands of faith have been segmented in the Indian perspective by spiritual gurus. The research concludes that cultural divergence variables such as power distance, collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation influence the brands that are inspired by faith. Spiritual gurus in India are using sociocultural marketing activities such as social endorsement and cause-related marketing strategies for segmenting the markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data were collected from the 1,678 customers of the Isha products. The respondents were selected based on the snowball sampling. The responses were collected from the followers who visited the foundation at least three times during the period of two years in Coimbatore and purchased Isha products worth more than Rs 500. The data were collected between the period August 2016 and April 2018. Of 1,678 responses, 1,465 responses were validated after coding. Of 1,465 responses that were validated, 1,126 responses were found reliable.

Findings

“Cause-related marketing” and “social group endorsement” activities of the firms tend to create a brand image. To find out which of the above activities highly influence the brands of faith, realistic-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out. ROC curves were drawn to assess the brands of faith centroid values with social group endorsement and cause-related marketing variables. ROC curves explored the precision of diagnostic tests and were used to find the best “cut-off” value for impressive and unimpressive cluster test results.

Research limitations/implications

Cultural divergence variables such as power distance, collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation are influencing the brands of faith. The followers of the spiritual foundation have their own distinct culture, and their social affinity values increase the brands of faith. Social group endorsement and cause-related marketing are the marketing strategies suitable for spiritual foundation (to market their product/ service). Age, education and occupation are demographic values that influence the brands of faith. The spiritual foundations are segmenting their customers based on the occupational values, and they use the cause-related marketing strategies to increase the values of brands of faith.

Practical implications

As the cultural values related to the art of living have been recognized by society as the measure of social well-being, the spiritual leaders can enhance their brands of faith. The social media communication about cause-related marketing can create trust in society. On the other hand, societal marketing activities cannot target the entire society. Hence, it is to be stratified. While stratifying, the players of diversity markets have to target a group based on the values generated by the stakeholders in the foundation. The diversified markets created by the Indian spiritual gurus are providing cultural diversity.

Social implications

The business value created by spiritual foundations is increasing the social values which are essential to uplift society. The author concludes that if business values and societal values are integrated by any group of people, it improves economic value to that society and they can use the social currency in the form of “brands of faith”.

Originality/value

The cultural values of a society are measured and compared with national and global index. The enumerate method is an original one.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Timo Muhonen, Saku Hirvonen and Tommi Laukkanen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance effects of brand identity in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance effects of brand identity in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine whether brand identity mediates the relationship between brand orientation and brand performance, and further, whether brand performance leads to better financial performance. The authors also study whether these performance effects are moderated by customer type and industry type. Differing from earlier research, this study analyzes brand identity through its constituent components: brand values, brand vision and brand positioning. The data include altogether 721 effective responses from Finnish SMEs. Structural equation modeling is used for testing the research hypotheses.

Findings

Brand positioning and brand vision have a direct positive effect on brand performance, which in turn, positively affects financial performance. Brand orientation drives the components of brand identity. Importantly, there is variation in some of the relationships between brand orientation, brand values, brand vision and brand positioning across business-to-business firms and business-to-customer firms, and across firms in service industries and in production industries.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on a single-country sample. Including additional factors for the model with the potential to moderate the described relationships is also called for. Future research could also consider new potential brand identity components currently not addressed in the paper.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by increasing the knowledge of SME branding.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2008

Veronika Tarnovskaya, Ulf Elg and Steve Burt

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate branding and market driving. This is achieved by focusing on key dimensions of brand identity such…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate branding and market driving. This is achieved by focusing on key dimensions of brand identity such as brand values and staff behaviours, while acknowledging the role of vision and organisational culture. The links between these brand constituents and the actual activities of the firm in a market are explored through interactions with stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on an in‐depth case study of IKEA at a corporate level and its local market activities in Russia. The single‐case approach is used to generate insights into how corporate branding is related to market driving practices and to identify the mechanisms of market driving in the Russian market.

Findings

The corporate brand provides a further source of the “leap” in customer value recognised as a requirement for a market driving approach. Through a case study of IKEA in Russia it is shown that the core values of the brand guide both the behaviour and activities of internal stakeholders and the relationships with external stakeholders, and the interactions between the corporate “global” brand values and local market level activities are explored.

Originality/value

The paper provides insights on the role of a corporate brand as a driving force of market driving from a broad stakeholder perspective.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 36 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

Mats Urde

This paper aims to describe the uncovering of a corporate brand's core values and implications for strategic management of its track record.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the uncovering of a corporate brand's core values and implications for strategic management of its track record.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the specific track records of Volvo, IKEA, IBM, and Scanpump, focusing on core values and how they evolve. Based on multiple sources of evidence, the track records of the case companies emerge as patterns of values that are: perceived externally by customers and non‐customer stakeholders; and rooted internally within an organisation.

Findings

Four categories of core values emerge, termed true, aspirational, potential, and hollow.

Originality/value

The Core Value Grid is proposed as a managerially useful model on “how to build true values and avoid hollow values”. In principle, a corporate brand cannot be stronger externally than it is internally. Rooted core values with track records supporting a brand promise represent the essence of a corporate brand, guiding internal and external corporate brand building and management. The foundation of a corporate brand risks being undermined by hollow core values and empty promises.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Kotaiba Aal, Laura Di Pietro, Bo Edvardsson, Maria Francesca Renzi and Roberta Guglielmetti Mugion

The purpose of this paper is to extend the understanding of innovation in service ecosystems by focussing on the role of values resonance in relation to the integration of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the understanding of innovation in service ecosystems by focussing on the role of values resonance in relation to the integration of brands, service systems and experience rooms.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical, explorative case study of an innovative service system is carried out using a narrative approach and presented in the form of a saga.

Findings

Insights gleaned from the empirical study are used for conceptual developments. Analysis of the empirical case study is presented as four lessons linked to values, brands, service systems and experience rooms.

Originality/value

The paper extends a conceptual framework of innovative resource integration in service ecosystems. The paper also contributes four propositions to inform theory: values resonance is a basis for service innovation, the innovative integration of brands based on values resonance can foster innovation, the integration of resources across service system boundaries grounded in values resonance can enable innovation and the integration of experience rooms into a coherent servicescape based on values resonance can support novel forms of resource integration and value co-creation efforts in service ecosystems.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Tanja C. Boga and Klaus Weiermair

The purpose of this paper is to serve as an introduction to the usefulness of means‐end chain (MEC) theory and analysis for branding in health tourism.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to serve as an introduction to the usefulness of means‐end chain (MEC) theory and analysis for branding in health tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted within the transnational EU‐project Alpshealthcomp and with two of the largest public health insurances in Germany. Research design is based on hard laddering according to Walker and Olson. MEC items were derived from Rokeach and from Hiesel and from results of a consumer survey (n=1.607) for Alpine health and wellness tourism.

Findings

Several research questions are proposed regarding consumer association structures for health tourism using principal component analysis, cluster analysis and t‐test contrast of hypothesis. Personal values have proven to be most valuable for establishing brand associations. Here an identifiable and describable common structure exists for Alpine health tourism. With increasing product experience, consumers concentrate on viewer values closely linked to their personality. If product experience is low, consumers depend on a multitude of values.

Research limitations/implications

The proportion of female participants in the sample is very high. A more balanced sample and analysis for gender differences could be valuable. Also it should be tried to replicate findings for other types of intangible services.

Practical implications

The identified value structure can be addressed in brand communication and could complement the concept of brand personality. When shifting emphasis in staging and communicating values according to product experience, tourism managers can establish a stable and strong brand. Behavioral branding can be a useful tool in this context.

Originality/value

Branding started to expand into the tourism industry only recently. Specific research work on branding in health tourism is scarce. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there exists no article in which MEC analysis was applied in order to analyze possible carrier of brand associations in health tourism. This work aims to bridge the gap.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 66 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Stephanie D. Atkinson and Jiyun Kang

Given the unclear lines between traditional and newly emerged luxury, this research aims to explore which luxury consumption values are important to young consumers (aged…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the unclear lines between traditional and newly emerged luxury, this research aims to explore which luxury consumption values are important to young consumers (aged 18–44) in the USA and how such new luxury consumption is driven by their personal values. This research thus has two aims. The first is to define new luxury by examining the consumption values that distinguish it from traditional luxury. The second is to examine the personal values that drive these new luxury consumption values, which affect consumers’ intentions to engage with a new luxury brand.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, a conceptual framework was developed to define new luxury from the consumption value perspective, based on a comprehensive review of the traditional luxury and emerging or new luxury literature. In Study 2, the framework was further extended to include the driving sources (personal values) and the consequences (intentions to engage with a new luxury brand), which were subsequently examined with empirical model testing. The data were collected via an online survey with consumers recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (n = 318) and examined with exploratory factor analyses and path analyses.

Findings

The results suggest five major new luxury consumption values that help empirically define new luxury, revealing a trend shift in luxury consumption: inconspicuous consumption, self-directed pleasure, intrinsic experiential value, personal fulfillment and sustainability. Among these five values, three (intrinsic experiential value, personal fulfillment and sustainability) were the most significant factors in directly affecting customer intention to engage with a new luxury brand. The results also found five notable personal values driving new luxury consumption: achievement, benevolence, self-direction, self-esteem and ecocentrism.

Originality/value

While new luxury concepts have been explored conceptually and qualitatively in previous studies, there is a lack of empirical research that clearly defines what new luxury is and that offers testable constructs. This study’s empirical framework for new luxury expands the line of investigation into new luxury consumers, brands and products.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Pradeep Kautish, Arpita Khare and Rajesh Sharma

This paper aims to examine the relationships among two distinct yet interconnected forms of value orientations, namely, terminal and instrumental values, brand

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationships among two distinct yet interconnected forms of value orientations, namely, terminal and instrumental values, brand consciousness and behavioral intentions. This study validated the conceptual model for branded fashion apparel consumption in an emerging market, e.g. India.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design followed a two-step approach to test the measurement and structural models for partial least squares structural equation modeling with SmartPLS (v.3.0) as recommended by Anderson and Gerbing (1988).

Findings

The results illustrated that both the instrumental and terminal values influence brand consciousness and, consequently, brand consciousness had an impact on behavioral intentions for fashion apparel consumption. Instrumental values had a greater influence on brand consciousness and behavioral intentions than terminal values. Brand consciousness mediated the relationship between instrumental/terminal values and behavioral intentions.

Research limitations/implications

This study defined two value orientations (i.e. instrumental versus terminal) using cross-sectional data from an emerging market. Future studies may examine the research findings’ generalizability using diverse data sets (longitudinal and cross-sectional) and evaluate the value orientation and customers’ favorable behavioral intentions for luxury fashion consumption.

Practical implications

This study provides insights into luxury marketers and practitioners to understand the contribution of instrumental and terminal values on brand consciousness and behavioral intentions for luxury fashion apparel. The findings would assist in developing marketing strategies for an emerging market, i.e. India.

Social implications

With the rapid proliferation of materialism, the Indian market has witnessed the dawn of a new era of luxury fashion acceptance. The research offers evidence that in emerging markets such as India, consumers exhibit value orientation toward luxury brands while holding a sense of fashion involvement in their consumption behavior.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneering attempt to understand the relationships between the value orientation, namely, instrumental and terminal values and their underlying influence on brand consciousness and behavioral intentions toward fashion apparel. Rokeach’s (1973) two-dimensional value dichotomy was adapted to understand luxury apparel consumption in an emerging market context, specifically India.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Xian Liu, Helena Maria Lischka and Peter Kenning

This research aims to systematically explore the cognitive and emotional effects of values-related and performance-related negative brand publicity and investigate how the…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to systematically explore the cognitive and emotional effects of values-related and performance-related negative brand publicity and investigate how the psychological effects translate into different behavioural outcomes. In addition, it examines the relative effectiveness of two major brand response strategies in mitigating negative publicity.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental studies were conducted to test the hypotheses. Study 1 examines the effects of values- and performance-related negative brand publicity, using a 3 (negative brand publicity: values-related vs performance-related vs control) × 2 (brand: Dove vs Axe) between-subjects experiment. Study 2 further compares the effects of two major brand response strategies on consumers’ post-crisis perceived trustworthiness and trust and responses towards a brand involved in negative publicity. A 2 (negative brand publicity: values-related vs performance-related) × 2 (brand response strategy: reduction-of-offensiveness vs corrective action) between-subjects design was used.

Findings

The results suggest that values-related negative brand publicity is perceived as being more diagnostic and elicits a stronger emotion of contempt, but a weaker emotion of pity than performance-related negative brand publicity. Moreover, values-related negative brand publicity has a stronger negative impact on consumer responses than performance-related negative brand publicity. Interestingly, compared to perceived diagnosticity of information and the emotion of pity, the emotion of contempt is more likely to cause differences in consumer responses to these two types of negative brand publicity. Regarding brand response strategy, corrective action is more effective than reduction-of-offensiveness for both types of negative brand publicity, but the advantage of corrective action is greater for the performance-related case.

Originality/value

This research enriches the negative publicity and brand perception literature, showing the asymmetric cognitive, emotional and behavioural effects of values- and performance-related negative brand publicity. It also identifies the psychological mechanisms underlying consumer responses to negative brand publicity, and it provides empirical evidence for the relative effectiveness of two major brand response strategies.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

Riza Casidy Mulyanegara and Yelena Tsarenko

This paper aims to examine and compare the strength of personality and values in predicting brand preferences. It seeks to accomplish three main objectives. First, it will…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine and compare the strength of personality and values in predicting brand preferences. It seeks to accomplish three main objectives. First, it will evaluate the strength of personality and values in predicting consumers' brand preferences. Second, it will examine whether values exercise a mediating role between personality and brand preferences. Finally, it will examine the mediating role of prestige sensitivity in influencing brand preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

The study opted to use a quantitative approach involving 251 undergraduate students as the study participants. The constructs used in the study are taken from existing scales as well as self‐developed branding scales. Structural equation modeling technique is utilised for data analysis.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights about how personality and values together affect brand preferences. It suggests that values are indeed better predictors of brand preferences and exercise both direct and indirect effects on brand preferences through the mediating role of prestige sensitivity.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the self‐report method used for personality assessment, there may be bias in terms of the nature of respondents' personality as expressed in the questionnaire.

Practical implications

The paper suggests implications for the development of a strong brand personality which can appeal to both consumer personality and values.

Originality/value

This paper poses interesting insights and empirical evidence with regard to the predictive power of personality and values on brand preferences within a fashion context.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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