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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Rajagopal

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the essential components of a brand metrics strategy and application of brand scorecard as an integrated approach to measure the

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9899

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the essential components of a brand metrics strategy and application of brand scorecard as an integrated approach to measure the overall performance of brands. Tools for brand performance measurement are integrated by firms into brand measurement systems, with new models for prioritizing the factors of brand influence introduced continuously. Hence, brands need to be periodically measured in terms of the impact on consumers, stimulating market demand, sustaining seasonality effects and exploring opportunities for proliferation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper determines the essential components of a brand metrics strategy conceptualizing the inter‐dependence of “Five‐A” factors which include awareness, acquaintance, association, allegiance and appraisal to measure the performance of brands. The application of a brand scorecard process as an integrated approach to measure the overall performance of brands is also discussed, explaining how different constituents of metrics can be linked to business performance.

Findings

Brand metrics are considered to be effective tools for measuring the qualitative parameters of brand performance in a given market and time, allowing the firm to measure the effectiveness of brand‐building activity in reference to brand investment (financial inputs) and brand impact (growth outputs) in the business. It is also argued in the paper that brand management is not just a marketing issue; it also directly affects corporate profitability. Effective brand portfolio management starts by creating a fact base about the equity in each brand and the brand's economic contribution.

Research limitations/implications

An effective brand measurement system helps businesses to understand how the brand is performing with the framework of customer values and against competing brands. This is a simple and effective tool of measuring brand performance in the market woven around the principle of pooling quantitative variables in various combinations in the metrics. It is important for a firm to understand relationships between brand perception, brand performance and financial impact, to work within the brand metrics process.

Practical implications

Application of brand metrics and brand scorecard would be useful for the managers to conduct analysis of brand metrics for mapping yield‐loss score in reference to brands gained versus brands lost. The metrics tools help in measuring the impact of various market drivers such as demand, consumer preferences, retail sales, brand promotion, price sensitivity, product attributes, trial effects and repeat purchase behavior of consumers on the performance of brands.

Originality/value

Brand metrics is a new concept and plays a major role in measuring the performance of brand in the market and applications of brand scorecard helps the process of determining the brand yield.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński, Jacek Pogorzelski and Grzegorz Urbanek

The term ‘strategy’ is one of the most frequently used terms in business, and its application in marketing is particularly common. Company strategy, market strategy…

Abstract

The term ‘strategy’ is one of the most frequently used terms in business, and its application in marketing is particularly common. Company strategy, market strategy, marketing strategy, sales strategy, promotion strategy, distribution strategy, low pricing strategy – it would take a long time to list all of them. Although this term is so commonly in use, its definition is not as straightforward and it can be interpreted in different ways. In comparison with tactical decisions, strategy is much more significant for an organisation as it brings long-lasting consequences. It is implemented by higher level managers on a regular basis, and it is based on external, often subjective information, so decisions – especially at the time they are made – are difficult to evaluate.

Taking into consideration the fact that strategy refers to a long-term rather than a short-term period, strategic decisions serve as the basis for undertaking operational activities. However, marketing refers to the market and the competition. It is possible to claim that marketing strategy is trying to find an answer to the question to which path an organisation should follow in order to achieve its goals and objectives. If, for example, a company has a goal to generate a profit of PLN 1 million by selling 100,000 pieces of a product, the market strategy should answer at least the following two questions:

  1. Who will be our target group, for example, who will purchase the 100,000 pieces of the product?

  2. Why is it us from whom a potential buyer should purchase the product?

Who will be our target group, for example, who will purchase the 100,000 pieces of the product?

Why is it us from whom a potential buyer should purchase the product?

The target market will be defined if a reply to the first question is provided. The second question identifies the foundations of competitive advantage. These two issues, that is, target market and competitive advantage are the strategic marketing issues. You cannot change your target group unexpectedly while competitive advantage is the basis for changing decisions regarding prices, promotions and sales.

This chapter describes the measures of marketing activities which refer to strategic aspects and testify a company’s market position – the measures of the performance of target groups and competitive advantage. Readers’ attention should be also focused on the indices that are less popular in Poland and, therefore, may be underestimated. It seems that some of them, for example, the index of marketing resources allocation and the marketing risk index, provide a lot of valuable information and, at the same time, make it possible to show the value of marketing investments. Their wider use in the near future is only a matter of time.

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Abhi Bhattacharya, Valerie Good and Hanieh Sardashti

This paper aims to determine what the brand performance consequences of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities would be during times of recession for well-known brands.

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5042

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine what the brand performance consequences of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities would be during times of recession for well-known brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on signaling theory, this paper investigates if CSR activities serve to signal higher brand value for consumers via perceptions of better quality and greater differentiation, specifically during recessions. This study incorporates a representative longitudinal sample of known US firms for the analyses, which is accomplished through generalized method of moments estimations.

Findings

The findings empirically demonstrate that CSR initiatives during recessions are actually associated with increased perceptions of brand value. More specifically, during recessions, CSR initiatives such as charitable contributions provide a signal to customers of higher brand quality.

Research limitations/implications

This study did not control for the costs of doing specific CSR activities that may be less visible to consumers.

Practical implications

While individual firms or managers may not be able to prevent recessions from happening, they can limit the negative impact of recessions on their performance by engaging in CSR activities (or refrain from cutting back) during these times.

Social implications

Because CSR initiatives during recessions result in more favorable consumer perceptions of the brand, engaging in CSR aligns both social and managerial interests, owing to the economic gains from CSR investments.

Originality/value

During times of recession, some critics indicate that CSR may be an unaffordable luxury. On the contrary, this research shows that managers may want to consider CSR activities as a means of increasing the value of their brands, especially during economic recessions.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Jan-Benedict Steenkamp

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework – the 4V model – for better understanding how global brands create firm value. Organized around the global…

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17566

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework – the 4V model – for better understanding how global brands create firm value. Organized around the global brand value chain, the 4V model includes four sets of value-creating activities: first, valued brands; second, value sources; third, value delivery; and fourth, valued outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is conceptual with illustrative examples.

Findings

The sources of global brand value and the processes through which global brands contribute to firm value differ systematically across types of global brands. This paper highlights interrelations and how different activities built upon and reinforce each other.

Research limitations/implications

The 4V model ties together broad strands of research conducted to date and offers insights into ways the paper might better understand and study global brands. It should inspire empirical research on the associations between the 4Vs.

Practical implications

International marketing managers should be able to develop and evaluate global brand strategies more effectively using the 4V model described in this paper. Linking their strategies to valued outcomes puts marketers more firmly at the level in the organization they deserve, namely, the C-Suite.

Originality/value

The framework offered in this paper is unique in that it blends insights obtained from multiple sources, namely, academic research, articles that appeared in the business press, case studies, and interactions with managers and policy makers around the world.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Pilsik Choi

The purposes of this paper are to propose a different profitability metric (i.e. anchor category profits) at the category level based on the concept of anchor categories…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this paper are to propose a different profitability metric (i.e. anchor category profits) at the category level based on the concept of anchor categories and to illustrate how such a metric can be calculated in field settings to offer a balanced view of profit structure from both the accounting and marketing perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the concept of anchor categories is developed drawing on anchor effects theory and automatic cognitive processing theory. Based on anchor categories, this paper proposes a formula for calculating anchor category profits. Using the data collected with a survey instrument, this paper calculates accounting profits and anchor category profits for two grocery stores.

Findings

The intra-store analysis of accounting profits and anchor category profits reveals that the two profit measures project different profit contribution patterns by product categories for each store. The inter-store analysis provides quite different, yet useful information about profit structures for the two grocery stores. Although the two stores are similar in terms of accounting profits, their anchor category profits show different pictures regarding profit contribution patters by product categories between the two stores, revealing that different categories attract customers to different stores.

Practical/implications

Comparing accounting profits and anchor category profits allows retail managers to identify traffic generator categories and cash generator categories, which helps retail managers develop more effective category management to increase storewide profits.

Originality value

This paper increases understanding of the relationship between product categories and store choice behavior by offering a theoretical rationale to explain why some product categories influence consumers’ store choice. This paper also proposes anchor category profits as a more implementation-friendly category-level profitability metric that combines accounting principles with consumers’ shopping trip planning behavior.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 29 February 2020

Xiaoning Liang and Yuhui Gao

Driven by the growing pressure to justify the contributions of marketing activities, marketers have shown considerable interest in improving their marketing performance…

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1217

Abstract

Purpose

Driven by the growing pressure to justify the contributions of marketing activities, marketers have shown considerable interest in improving their marketing performance measurement systems (MPMSs). The purpose of this study is to examine the neglected mediating effect of marketing capabilities on the MPMS–firm performance relationship and to focus on specific aspects of MPMSs that have been largely omitted in the prior research, namely, the comprehensiveness and uses of MPMSs.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted with marketing and senior managers from 210 Irish-based companies. The proposed research model was tested by using the SPSS Process macro and structural equation modeling in AMOS 24.

Findings

The three characteristics of MPMSs influence firm performance in different manners: while the diagnostic use of MPMSs hinders the development of market-linking capability and thus negatively influences firm performance; the comprehensiveness of MPMSs positively influences firm performance through its impact on architectural marketing capability; and the interactive use of MPMSs via externally focused learning and market-linking capabilities.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study used objective firm performance data to validate subjective data, the use of single-informant and self-reported measures may still be a concern, as the strong relationships between variables may be because of single-informant bias.

Practical implications

This study provides insights into how companies can use a comprehensive MPMS to cultivate specific crucial marketing capabilities and thereby enhance firm performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the marketing performance measurement literature by proposing and empirically validating the mediating effect of marketing capabilities on the MPMS–firm performance relationship.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Donald R. Lehmann

Abstract

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1305-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Jeff Smith

Brand metrics are more than just a vehicle to gauge success. They are a vehicle to guide success.

Abstract

Brand metrics are more than just a vehicle to gauge success. They are a vehicle to guide success.

Details

Handbook of Business Strategy, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1077-5730

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2018

Ebha Garg, Sanjeev Swami and Sunita Kumari Malhotra

Literature suggests that branding effectiveness measures are present in for-profit sectors but lacks such comprehensive measures for the non-profit sector. Moreover, most…

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1091

Abstract

Purpose

Literature suggests that branding effectiveness measures are present in for-profit sectors but lacks such comprehensive measures for the non-profit sector. Moreover, most of the branding effectiveness measures are either based on brand image approach or on brand identity approach. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to propose an integrated branding effectiveness measurement metrics for non-profit organizations (NPOs).

Design/methodology/approach

Judgmental and simple random sampling techniques are used for data collection. The final sample comprises 150 respondents including donors, volunteers, beneficiaries and media who were administered interview schedules. Based on the ratings given by the respondents regarding branding effectiveness parameters of the five NPOs of a major city in Northern India, branding effectiveness score of each NPO is computed. The branding measures adopted by NPOs rated high are selected in the proposed brand effectiveness metrics.

Findings

The proposed metrics encapsulates brand identity parameters such as management profile, vision, culture, as well as brand image parameters such as brand awareness, brand understanding, brand association of the stakeholders, etc. The metrics also link the two through brand performance parameters.

Research limitations/implications

Multiple hierarchical structures of government infested with bureaucracy and lack of specialized staff with focused approach have reduced the effectiveness of their socio-development programs in emerging economies. This has led to an increase in number, diversity and impact of NPOs that compete for resource generation. Branding is a powerful tool for NPOs not only for resource generation but also for driving the social goals. The branding effectiveness metrics would help NPO managers reinforce the internal identity by increasing the cohesion and the capacity of the organization as well as create a strong brand image by garnering the support of multiple stakeholders through mutual trust thereby creating a greater social impact.

Originality/value

The uniqueness of the study stems from the fact that the proposed branding effectiveness measurement metrics in non-profit environment encapsulates brand image, brand identity and brand performance parameters.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Bruno Schivinski and Dariusz Dabrowski

The purpose of this article is to fill the gap in the discussion of the ways in which firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication impacts…

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22349

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to fill the gap in the discussion of the ways in which firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication impacts consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) metrics through Facebook.

Design/methodology/approach

We evaluated 302 data sets that were generated through a standardized online survey to investigate the impact of firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication on brand awareness/associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty across 60 brands within three different industries: non-alcoholic beverages, clothing and mobile network providers. We applied a structural equation modeling technique to investigate the effects of social media communication on consumers’ perception of brand equity metrics, as well as in an examination of industry-specific differences.

Findings

The results of our empirical studies showed that both firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication influence brand awareness/associations; whereas user-generated social media brand communication had a positive impact on brand loyalty and perceived brand quality. Additionally, there are significant differences between the industries being investigated.

Originality/value

This article is pioneering in that it exposes the effects of two different types of social media communication (i.e. firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication) on CBBE metrics, a topic of relevance for both marketers and scholars in the era of social media. Additionally, it differentiates the effects of social media brand communication across industries, which indicate that practitioners should implement social media strategies according to industry specifics to lever CBBE metrics.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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