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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Hsiang‐Ming Lee and Ching‐Chi Lee

This study aims to examine the country‐of‐origin's impact on consumer purchase behavior post‐acquisition, especially when the acquirer‐dominant business is afflicted by a…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the country‐of‐origin's impact on consumer purchase behavior post‐acquisition, especially when the acquirer‐dominant business is afflicted by a low country‐of‐origin image and the acquired business enjoys a high country‐of‐origin image. This study also aims to examine brand redeployment strategy impacts on consumer purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from an online questionnaire in Taiwan. A total of 325 usable questionnaires are returned. Data analysis is conducted using regress analysis and ANOVA.

Findings

These results indicate that general country attributes and general product attributes have a positive effect on purchase intentions. In addition, general product attributes play a mediating role between general country attributes and purchase intentions. These results further show that target‐dominant redeployment strategy is the most powerful to purchase intentions. A company which wants to use M&A to increase market share must seriously consider general country attributes, general product attributes and brand redeployment strategy because these three constructs affect purchase intentions, and consequently maintain consumer loyalty and attract new customers.

Originality/value

There were seldom studies which investigated country‐of‐image effect and M&A from marketing perspective. The major contributions of the study were investigating consumers' perception of the effects on country‐of‐origin image and the redeployment strategy on an acquired brand.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2018

Yipeng Liu, Christina Öberg, Shlomo Yedidia Tarba and Yijun Xing

The purpose of this paper is to focus on emerging market companies that internationalize into advanced economies by means of acquisitions and to investigate brand

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2033

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on emerging market companies that internationalize into advanced economies by means of acquisitions and to investigate brand management during post-acquisition integration from a multi-level perspective and to identify how a brand management strategy can be constructed. It takes into account the influences of country-of-origin image, corporate brand and brand portfolio to obtain a granular view of post-acquisition brand management.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study approach was adopted. By using case studies and storytelling qualitative research methods, the empirical setting was related to the acquisitions undertaken by Chinese companies in Germany.

Findings

The authors identified three mechanisms for brand management in the post-acquisition integration of emerging market companies – namely, transferring, dynamically redeploying and categorizing – that underpin the interconnection and combined influence of country-of-origin image at the national level, corporate brand at the organizational level and brand portfolio at the product level.

Practical implications

Brand has been viewed as a strategic asset in Chinese cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Brand management is a dynamic process that involves learning and interaction between the acquirer and target. The research offers a practical guideline for both acquirers and targets in managing brand in the context of acquisitions undertaken by emerging market companies in advanced economies.

Originality/value

The findings provide important insights into the brand management strategies adopted in Chinese cross-border M&As in particular, and emerging market companies venturing into advanced economies in general. The interlinking of country, company and product levels introduces new ideas to the brand literature related to acquisitions, and the setting of Chinese companies acquiring German ones constitutes an important contribution to the understanding of the different ways in which companies from emerging economies may pursue branding strategies in the context of cross-border M&As.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Tiffany Shin Legendre and John Thomas Bowen

The purpose of this study is to provide insight into customers’ psychological processes and behavioral responses after merger and acquisition (M&A) of an artisanal brand.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide insight into customers’ psychological processes and behavioral responses after merger and acquisition (M&A) of an artisanal brand.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 adopts a qualitative approach to understand how craft-beer customers perceive M&A decisions. In Study 2, a two-conditioned (M&A types: local and local company M&A vs local and national company M&A) between-subjects design experiment was executed.

Findings

The findings of this study show M&A’s of artisanal brands cause identity stigmatization, resulting in customers’ identity dissonance and coping strategies. Which coping strategies a customer uses depends on their brand identity, product-category identity and M&A partner types.

Research limitations/implications

This was an exploratory study that serves as a starting point for future research. Future research could investigate the model proposed in this study by testing the effects of potential moderators and mediators.

Practical implications

The findings of the study enable companies to better anticipate post-M&A customer behavior, thereby enabling them to enhance their brand positioning when a competitor is acquired by a large company.

Originality/value

The popularity of locally produced and craft hospitality products has attracted the attention of large companies that acquire artisanal brands. There is a paucity of research investigating post- M&A customer reactions of locally owned artisanal companies by large companies.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Hsiang‐Ming Lee, Ching‐Chi Lee and Cou‐Chen Wu

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variance of two brand images and dimensions of brand equity after M&A, especially when the…

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22638

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variance of two brand images and dimensions of brand equity after M&A, especially when the acquirer‐dominant is affiliated to a weak brand image and the acquired one has a stronger brand image.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 409 responses were collected through random sampling from an internet survey platform in Taiwan (weak image differences were gathered from 209 respondents and strong image differences were gathered from 200 respondents).

Findings

This study uses an experimental design to discuss how the variance of two brand images (this study uses two kinds of M&A: a company with an inferior brand image acquires one with a superior or average brand image) affects the acquirer's brand equity (perceived quality, brand association, and brand loyalty). This study also examines how brand equity of an acquired brand changes after M&A. Results from the MANOVA and paired‐sample t‐test methods show that the greater the perceived differences between acquirers and acquired brands, the more the brand equity of the acquirer will increase. In addition, all the dimensions of brand equity for the brand with a superior image decrease significantly.

Originality/value

Few studies have evaluated the brand image effect of an M&A from a marketing perspective. The contribution is to help managers understand whether the acquirer should preserve the obtained brand and focus on increasing brand equity of the acquired brand to avoid the loss of customer loyalty.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2018

Xiang Fang and Xiaoyu Wang

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cross-border acquisitions on brand image dimensions (functional, symbolic and global image) of the acquirer brand

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cross-border acquisitions on brand image dimensions (functional, symbolic and global image) of the acquirer brand from a consumer’s perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors measured Chinese consumers’ perceptions of eight fictitious cross-border acquisition scenarios and tested the hypotheses by using multiple hierarchical regression.

Findings

First, the acquisition significantly improves functional, symbolic and global image of the acquirer brand. Second, both image perceptions of the acquirer and the acquired brands before acquisition significantly impact post-image of the acquirer. The effect is greater for pre-image of the acquirer (dominance effect). Finally, brand fit, product fit and country-of-origin fit influence attitude toward the acquisition significantly.

Research limitations/implications

There are limitations in the generalizations of the findings due to its reliance on a single country (China) and one industry (home appliances).

Practical implications

First, engaging in cross-border acquisitions significantly enhances the brand image of the acquirer brand. The global image has the largest improvement. Second, practitioners should carefully consider different levels of fit before the acquisition.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the extant literature by investigating brand acquisitions from the perspective of home country consumers (acquirer) and integrating multiple brand image dimensions and various levels of fit simultaneously.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Christina Öberg and Shlomo Yedidia Tarba

This chapter presents a review of the state of the art on the topic of knowledge transfer following post-merger integration (PMI) in international mergers and acquisitions…

Abstract

This chapter presents a review of the state of the art on the topic of knowledge transfer following post-merger integration (PMI) in international mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and identifies points of agreement and disagreement, recognizes underexplored areas and provides suggestions on how they could be explored in future studies. The chapter points to the limited amount of literature that describes knowledge transfer following international acquisitions, while highlighting it as an emerging field of research. The knowledge transfer literature mainly refers to innovation and innovation capabilities, while areas such as marketing and customer knowledge are vitally absent in the literature. In any international acquisition, such knowledge transfer would be of fundamental importance, given the acquisition motive to reach new markets or customers. Two case studies on the transfer of knowledge about customers following international acquisitions are provided. The case illustrations point to a focus on knowledge transfer on strategic levels in the post-merger integration following international acquisitions, while the operational sales forces’ transfer of knowledge is largely disregarded in practice. Since much of the tacit knowledge about customers is handled on that level, it needs to be recognized and developed. The chapter indicates that raising the awareness of the transfer of knowledge about customers following international acquisitions is important from a practitioner’s as well as a research point of view.

Details

Philosophy of Science and Meta-Knowledge in International Business and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-713-9

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Richard C. Leventhal

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633

Abstract

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Case study
Publication date: 23 June 2021

Vibhas Amawate and Madhurima Deb

The learning outcomes are as follows: factors to be considered in devising the best post-acquisition brand identity and outline market research techniques, which can be…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes are as follows: factors to be considered in devising the best post-acquisition brand identity and outline market research techniques, which can be used to identify the best-suited post-acquisition brand identity strategy.

Case overview/synopsis

The case study discusses the brand strategy, which Walmart Inc needs to adopt post its acquisition of Flipkart Pvt. Ltd (Flipkart) Group in India. Flipkart had acquired Myntra Designs Pvt. Ltd (Myntra) and Novarris Fashion Trading Private Limited (Jabong), but had kept their brand identity intact; Walmart Inc was faced with the decision on moving ahead with the brand strategy of keeping individual brand identities or merging all of these into a single brand identity. The study aims to provide valuable insights into the decision-making process adopted by Walmart Inc. It includes also the role of cause-related marketing in the positioning of Myntra as a socially responsible brand. The case study opted for an exploratory research design study using the qualitative research method of in-depth interviews. In total, 10 experts in the area of marketing, market research and marketing communication were interviewed. The qualitative data were analyzed using a template approach, which analyzes the text using a codebook or an analysis guide. The analysis guide already has clearly defined themes or categories. As the qualitative interviews progress, these themes get revised. These themes are analyzed qualitatively rather than statistically. The case study suggests to the management of Walmart Inc that they need to merge Myntra and Jabong based on the degree of similarity of consumer demographics, income/social class of buyers, brand identity and buying behavior. Myntra needs to retain as opposed to Jabong, as Myntra is perceived to be a socially responsible brand that creates a purchase disposition in the minds of the consumers. A more extensive quantitative study would offer better generalizability. It was not feasible to conduct a quantitative study due to time constraints. This research would have used advanced brand imagery assessment techniques such as multi-dimensional scaling to suggest if an overlap exists between consumer segments of Myntra and Jabong. The case study provides a decision-making framework to firms and individuals who are part of organizational teams to create a post-acquisition brand strategy in the e-commerce market. The case study fulfills a need for many academicians and practitioners to understand the decision-making process followed in devising a post-acquisition brand strategy in India.

Complexity academic level

Senior undergraduates; Master of Business Administration; Executive Master of Business Administration.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 8: Marketing.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Robert E. Hinson, Ellis Osabutey, John Paul Kosiba and Frederick O. Asiedu

The purpose of this study is to analyse how professional football clubs have attained success with internationalisation and branding strategies in foreign markets.

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1048

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse how professional football clubs have attained success with internationalisation and branding strategies in foreign markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an inductive approach, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted to analyse the perceptions of Ghanaian fans of four English Premier League teams.

Findings

The findings of this study highlight that the strength of professional football brand equity is jointly determined by the level of brand awareness, brand loyalty and perceived quality. However, increasing competition in international markets require professional football clubs to clearly define their marketing strategies to improve how fans perceive them.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few studies to use country-of-origin paradigm and signalling theory to explain football brand equity building, thereby extending the earlier work of Chanavat and Bodet (2009). Its empirical focus on Africa is also unique and provides evidence to suggest that global marketers have the opportunity to capitalise on market expansion opportunities in developing economies.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Sangwon Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine how developing country brand name and brand origin affect the customer’s evaluation of the brand in radically new high-tech…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how developing country brand name and brand origin affect the customer’s evaluation of the brand in radically new high-tech products. Using processing fluency as a theoretical underpinning, this study can answer the following questions: first, does foreign brand name (developed vs developing Asian brand name) affect the customer’s attitude toward the brand? Second, does the brand origin (developed vs developing country) moderate the effect of foreign brand name on attitude toward the brand? Third, does the individual difference (knowledge and technological sophistication) matter in determining the brand origin and fit effect on willingness to buy?

Design/methodology/approach

A 2×2 between subject experiment was conducted in which two factors were manipulated: foreign brand name (developed: Japan vs developing: China) and brand origin (developed: Japan vs developing: China).

Findings

The fit between brand origin and brand name leads to better evaluation of the brand than no fit. On the other hand, for developing country brand origin (e.g. China), the brand naming effect is mitigated by enhanced processing fluency caused by fit, which leads to better evaluation of developing country brand. Fit effect is more pronounced for more knowledgeable consumers. Technologically more sophisticated consumers are more willing to buy the developing country brand origin than technologically less sophisticated consumers due to the processing fluency effect.

Originality/value

This paper introduces the two dimensions of foreign brand name (developed vs developing) and examines the interaction with the brand origin. This research fills the gap of under-researched area in brand naming literature, which is the effect of developing country brand naming on attitude toward the brand of radically new high-tech products. This research extends the previous literature by applying linguistic mechanism, processing fluency to examine the Asian brand naming including emerging market. This research makes an important theoretical contribution by identifying an underlying individual-level construct, “knowledge” and “technological sophistication,” which explains and influences the effects of brand name and brand origin on willingness to buy the brand.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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