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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Jeff Smith

Brand metrics are more than just a vehicle to gauge success. They are a vehicle to guide success.

Abstract

Brand metrics are more than just a vehicle to gauge success. They are a vehicle to guide success.

Details

Handbook of Business Strategy, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1077-5730

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Rajagopal

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the essential components of a brand metrics strategy and application of brand scorecard as an integrated approach to measure the

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9934

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the essential components of a brand metrics strategy and application of brand scorecard as an integrated approach to measure the overall performance of brands. Tools for brand performance measurement are integrated by firms into brand measurement systems, with new models for prioritizing the factors of brand influence introduced continuously. Hence, brands need to be periodically measured in terms of the impact on consumers, stimulating market demand, sustaining seasonality effects and exploring opportunities for proliferation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper determines the essential components of a brand metrics strategy conceptualizing the inter‐dependence of “Five‐A” factors which include awareness, acquaintance, association, allegiance and appraisal to measure the performance of brands. The application of a brand scorecard process as an integrated approach to measure the overall performance of brands is also discussed, explaining how different constituents of metrics can be linked to business performance.

Findings

Brand metrics are considered to be effective tools for measuring the qualitative parameters of brand performance in a given market and time, allowing the firm to measure the effectiveness of brand‐building activity in reference to brand investment (financial inputs) and brand impact (growth outputs) in the business. It is also argued in the paper that brand management is not just a marketing issue; it also directly affects corporate profitability. Effective brand portfolio management starts by creating a fact base about the equity in each brand and the brand's economic contribution.

Research limitations/implications

An effective brand measurement system helps businesses to understand how the brand is performing with the framework of customer values and against competing brands. This is a simple and effective tool of measuring brand performance in the market woven around the principle of pooling quantitative variables in various combinations in the metrics. It is important for a firm to understand relationships between brand perception, brand performance and financial impact, to work within the brand metrics process.

Practical implications

Application of brand metrics and brand scorecard would be useful for the managers to conduct analysis of brand metrics for mapping yield‐loss score in reference to brands gained versus brands lost. The metrics tools help in measuring the impact of various market drivers such as demand, consumer preferences, retail sales, brand promotion, price sensitivity, product attributes, trial effects and repeat purchase behavior of consumers on the performance of brands.

Originality/value

Brand metrics is a new concept and plays a major role in measuring the performance of brand in the market and applications of brand scorecard helps the process of determining the brand yield.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2018

Ebha Garg, Sanjeev Swami and Sunita Kumari Malhotra

Literature suggests that branding effectiveness measures are present in for-profit sectors but lacks such comprehensive measures for the non-profit sector. Moreover, most…

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1132

Abstract

Purpose

Literature suggests that branding effectiveness measures are present in for-profit sectors but lacks such comprehensive measures for the non-profit sector. Moreover, most of the branding effectiveness measures are either based on brand image approach or on brand identity approach. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to propose an integrated branding effectiveness measurement metrics for non-profit organizations (NPOs).

Design/methodology/approach

Judgmental and simple random sampling techniques are used for data collection. The final sample comprises 150 respondents including donors, volunteers, beneficiaries and media who were administered interview schedules. Based on the ratings given by the respondents regarding branding effectiveness parameters of the five NPOs of a major city in Northern India, branding effectiveness score of each NPO is computed. The branding measures adopted by NPOs rated high are selected in the proposed brand effectiveness metrics.

Findings

The proposed metrics encapsulates brand identity parameters such as management profile, vision, culture, as well as brand image parameters such as brand awareness, brand understanding, brand association of the stakeholders, etc. The metrics also link the two through brand performance parameters.

Research limitations/implications

Multiple hierarchical structures of government infested with bureaucracy and lack of specialized staff with focused approach have reduced the effectiveness of their socio-development programs in emerging economies. This has led to an increase in number, diversity and impact of NPOs that compete for resource generation. Branding is a powerful tool for NPOs not only for resource generation but also for driving the social goals. The branding effectiveness metrics would help NPO managers reinforce the internal identity by increasing the cohesion and the capacity of the organization as well as create a strong brand image by garnering the support of multiple stakeholders through mutual trust thereby creating a greater social impact.

Originality/value

The uniqueness of the study stems from the fact that the proposed branding effectiveness measurement metrics in non-profit environment encapsulates brand image, brand identity and brand performance parameters.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Kerry Mundt, John Dawes and Byron Sharp

Many service organisations seek to grow by selling additional different products to their existing customers. Many managers are evaluated on the level of customer loyalty…

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4184

Abstract

Purpose

Many service organisations seek to grow by selling additional different products to their existing customers. Many managers are evaluated on the level of customer loyalty in terms of cross‐product holdings – for example, the average number of bank products or insurance policies held per customer. The purpose of this paper is to provide managers and researchers with some contextual knowledge and norms concerning “cross‐category” loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to compare the levels of loyalty for competing brands, five relevant loyalty metrics were used in the analysis, with data sourced from two service industries, banking and insurance.

Findings

The results show little variation in loyalty scores between competing brands, and what variation there is can be explained by historic factors, without reference to CRM strategies. This suggests that investments into CRM and cross‐selling initiatives seem to have less effect on loyalty metrics than many marketing textbooks and CRM advocates have assumed.

Practical implications

Marketers should be very cautious of setting ambitious goals for increasing loyalty to their brand at a cross‐category level.

Originality/value

Very few research papers have explored the issue of cross‐category loyalty. This is despite the value of the specific loyalty metrics as key performance indicators in service industries such as banking and insurance.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Bruno Schivinski and Dariusz Dabrowski

The purpose of this article is to fill the gap in the discussion of the ways in which firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication impacts…

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22481

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to fill the gap in the discussion of the ways in which firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication impacts consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) metrics through Facebook.

Design/methodology/approach

We evaluated 302 data sets that were generated through a standardized online survey to investigate the impact of firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication on brand awareness/associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty across 60 brands within three different industries: non-alcoholic beverages, clothing and mobile network providers. We applied a structural equation modeling technique to investigate the effects of social media communication on consumers’ perception of brand equity metrics, as well as in an examination of industry-specific differences.

Findings

The results of our empirical studies showed that both firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication influence brand awareness/associations; whereas user-generated social media brand communication had a positive impact on brand loyalty and perceived brand quality. Additionally, there are significant differences between the industries being investigated.

Originality/value

This article is pioneering in that it exposes the effects of two different types of social media communication (i.e. firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication) on CBBE metrics, a topic of relevance for both marketers and scholars in the era of social media. Additionally, it differentiates the effects of social media brand communication across industries, which indicate that practitioners should implement social media strategies according to industry specifics to lever CBBE metrics.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2019

Marco Vriens, Song Chen and Judith Schomaker

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new brand association density metric and evaluate its performance in terms of correlations with recall, consideration, brand

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new brand association density metric and evaluate its performance in terms of correlations with recall, consideration, brand equity and market share and to compare different data collection methodologies to identify brand associations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present results from two studies covering three product categories. The authors use an open free association question and associations to a set of pre-defined brand attributes. The responses to the open free format question are text-mined prior to further analysis.

Findings

The authors find that the brand association density metric performs better than a metric that only uses the number of distinct associations. The authors also find that these metrics work best when derived from open free association data.

Practical implications

First, in addition to focusing on trying to build specific brand associations in consumers’ minds, it may be equally important, if not more important, to manage the number and inter-connectedness of the brand’s associations. Second, firms should complement their existing survey approaches with open-ended free association questions.

Originality/value

The brand association density concept presented is believed to be new. The empirical comparison between the use of free association to pre-defined attributes is also new.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Jenni Romaniuk, John Dawes and Magda Nenycz-Thiel

The purpose of this paper is to examine what happens to key brand performance metrics as brands change in market share, in the context of packaged goods. The metrics are…

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1147

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine what happens to key brand performance metrics as brands change in market share, in the context of packaged goods. The metrics are: penetration—the number of buyers a brand has; and loyalty—measured as purchase frequency (PF) and share of category requirements (SCR).

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes 24 data sets in 17 packaged goods categories in three emerging markets: China, Malaysia and Indonesia. The authors examine changes in penetration, loyalty and SCR in the context of volume and value market share change. In addition, the authors examine whether initial price point and price movements influence the results.

Findings

The primary finding is that market share change is accompanied by a greater change in penetration than in any other metric. This finding is very consistent across categories and countries. The relative importance of the two loyalty metrics varies by country. SCR was a stronger factor in Indonesia, while PF was stronger in Malaysia. Analysis indicated that pricing strategy (initial price and promotional depth) did not alter the main pattern of results, suggesting the results hold for brands with different price levels and tactics.

Practical implications

Irrespective of circumstance, to grow in value or volume market share, brands should aim to grow in penetration, while the importance of changes in specific loyalty measures depends on market conditions.

Originality/value

This research extends past research on brand growth to the very different economic, geographic and cultural conditions of three crucially important emerging markets. Its main value lies in recommendations on how much to invest in building the size of the customer base vs consumer retention.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Boban Melović, Marina Dabić, Milica Vukčević, Dragana Ćirović and Tamara Backović

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception of marketing managers in a transition country Montenegro with regards to marketing metrics. The paper examines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception of marketing managers in a transition country Montenegro with regards to marketing metrics. The paper examines the degree in which managers are familiar with the way marketing metrics are applied and how important they are in the process of making business decisions in a company operating in a Montenegro.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected during 2020 through a survey of 171 randomly selected companies and was analyzed using structural equation model and the statistical method of analysis of variance tests.

Findings

The obtained results show that managers are quite familiar with financial and non-financial metrics. Both groups are applied to a significant degree, as managers believe that these indicators provide valuable information needed during the decision-making process. Still, more emphasis is placed on the knowledge, implementation and importance of non-financial metrics compared to financial metrics. This is probably due to the specificities of the economic activities of the companies operating in Montenegro, as most of them are service companies, which is why non-financial metrics (such as consumer metrics) are the most important indicators when it comes to ascertaining the market position of the company. Additionally, in recent years the primary focus in Montenegro, as country that is still in the process of transformation from planned economy to a free-market form, has been placed on strengthening of competitiveness and advancing the market orientation of companies. This led to an increase in the importance that managers in transition countries attach to non-financial metrics.

Research limitations/implications

The fact that the survey only covers companies from one country is its limitation.

Practical implications

The obtained results will have a significant empirical contribution, which is reflected in providing guidelines for managers on how to improve the system of measuring and controlling marketing performance, all that to strengthen the competitiveness of the company, and can serve managers of hierarchy levels in a company as guidelines for making decisions on the implementation of marketing strategy and marketing metrics, to improve business performance, multi-context customer interaction, cost-saving and strengthen competitiveness.

Social implications

Obtaining necessary knowledge management and implementing marketing metrics are important conditions for consideration when it comes to the continuous monitoring and improvement of business results, increasing competitiveness and advancing the market position of the company.

Originality/value

The originality stems from the analysis of the interconnection that exists between marketing metrics and strategic decision-making, which is expected to be positively reflected in the development of society, i.e. strengthening the competitiveness of companies based on knowledge management achieved through the assessment of the degree of knowledge, the implementation and the significance of each of the metrics covered within this research in business decision-making processes. The paper provides insights into the extent to which managers understand the meaning of these indicators and are able to combine different marketing metrics to obtain more complex indicators, serving as necessary inputs when making strategic business decisions.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 25 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Salim Moussa

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and test a new emoji-based metric that could be used to monitor consumers’ emotions toward brands on social media.

Downloads
1365

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and test a new emoji-based metric that could be used to monitor consumers’ emotions toward brands on social media.

Design/methodology/approach

To test this new metric, 720 consumer tweets were retrieved from official Twitter accounts of 18 leading global brands representing 6 product categories/markets. In order to check its validity, the emoji-based metric was correlated with two measures: the percentage of positive emojis from Brandwatch’s (2018) Emoji Report and the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) for 2017.

Findings

The findings of this paper indicate that consumers tend to use more (vs less) positive emojis when expressing their feelings toward Coca-Cola (vs Taco Bell). They also show that the new metric is highly and positively associated with the ACSI, hence supporting its validity.

Research limitations/implications

The new metric is only applicable to brands that have a social media presence.

Practical implications

The proposed metric is easy to implement and interpret by almost every researcher and manager.

Originality/value

While all extant brand sentiment analyses focus on analyzing the words in brand-related user-generated content, this paper considers an alternative source of information about emotions, that is, emojis. Beyond being valid, the proposed emoji-based metric is unique, easy to implement and interpret, and generalizable.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Jenni Romaniuk, Samuel Wight and Margaret Faulkner

Brand awareness is a pivotal, but often neglected, aspect of consumer-based brand equity. This paper revisits brand awareness measures in the context of global brand management.

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8055

Abstract

Purpose

Brand awareness is a pivotal, but often neglected, aspect of consumer-based brand equity. This paper revisits brand awareness measures in the context of global brand management.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the method of Laurent et al. (1995), this cross-sectional longitudinal study examines changes in brand awareness over time, with sample sizes of approximately 300 whisky consumers per wave in three countries: United Kingdom, Taiwan and Greece.

Findings

There is consistency in the underlying structure of awareness scores across countries, and over time, extending the work of Laurent et al. (1995). Results show that a relevant operationalisation of brand awareness needs to account for the history of the brand. Furthermore, the nature of the variation of brand awareness over time interacts with a brand’s market share.

Research limitations/implications

When modelling the impact of brand awareness researchers need to consider two factors – the brand’s market share and whether a more stable or volatile measure is sought. This avoids mis-specifying the country-level contribution of brand awareness.

Practical implications

Global brand managers should be wary of adopting a “one size fits all” approach. The choice of brand awareness measure depends on the brand’s market share, and the desire for higher sensitivity or stability.

Originality/value

The paper provides one of the few multi-country investigations into brand awareness that can help inform global brand management.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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