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The Value of Design in Retail and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-580-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Tony Tollington

This paper examines the boundary within which the recognition of an asset currently takes place. It proposes the establishment of a new boundary based upon “separability”…

Abstract

This paper examines the boundary within which the recognition of an asset currently takes place. It proposes the establishment of a new boundary based upon “separability” which would allow internally created or home‐grown assets to be recognised on the balance sheet. It provides a new definition of brand assets so that, whether purchased separately or as part of goodwill or internally created by a business, brands can be recognised as assets within a new boundary.

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Tony Tollington

Examines the various brand asset recognition methods used by the accounting profession, within their existing rules, to highlight, first, the restrictive nature of a brand

Abstract

Examines the various brand asset recognition methods used by the accounting profession, within their existing rules, to highlight, first, the restrictive nature of a brand asset’s current attachment to purchased goodwill and, second, the restrictive requirement for brand asset recognition to be derived solely from a “transaction or event”. Then examines the latest rule change, FRS10, to assess whether the recognition of brand assets is likely to remain restrictive in the future. It concurs with Murphy’s view that brand asset recognition on the balance still continues to be an accounting exercise which is “fudged”.

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Tony Tollington

Purchased goodwill conforms to the current accounting definitions of an asset. However, as the descriptive framework contained within this paper will show, purchased…

Abstract

Purchased goodwill conforms to the current accounting definitions of an asset. However, as the descriptive framework contained within this paper will show, purchased goodwill is not an asset and, therefore, should not be shown on the balance sheet. This would not necessarily matter, from a marketing viewpoint, was it not for the linkage of brand asset recognition to purchased goodwill asset recognition. Currently, the recognition of a purchased goodwill asset tends to be a prerequisite for the recognition of a brand asset extracted from it. If it can be shown that purchased goodwill is not an asset, then the prerequisite disappears. The widespread recognition of brand assets is then unfettered by its association with purchased goodwill. Weakening the basis for the recognition of a purchased goodwill asset is an important first step in encouraging the accounting profession to devise new ways of dealing with the different kinds of intangible assets that are becoming paramount in the governance of companies.

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Ho-Jin Lee and Yongseok Jee

The purpose of this paper was to provide Korean screen golf systems suppliers experiencing severe competition in an oversaturated market with effective brand marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to provide Korean screen golf systems suppliers experiencing severe competition in an oversaturated market with effective brand marketing strategies by examining the interrelationships among brand assets, brand trust, and brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the convenient sampling method of non-probability and distributed questionnaires to 1,200 subjects over 20 years of age from ten screen golf playing facilities in Korea.

Findings

The following results were obtained: first, the subfactors of brand assets were identified to have significant influence upon brand trust in the following order: perceived quality, brand image, and brand awareness. Second, brand trust was identified to have a significant influence on brand loyalty. Lastly, the subfactors of brand assets were identified to have significant influence on brand loyalty in the following order: brand image, brand awareness, and perceived quality.

Originality/value

This paper provides useful information for developing an effective brand strategy in an oversaturated situation.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Neil Thomas Bendle, Jonathan Knowles and Moeen Naseer Butt

Marketers frequently lament the lack of representation of marketing in the boardroom and the short tenure of CMOs. The most common explanations offered are that marketing…

Abstract

Marketers frequently lament the lack of representation of marketing in the boardroom and the short tenure of CMOs. The most common explanations offered are that marketing is not perceived as a strategic discipline and that marketers do not demonstrate a strong enough understanding of how the business makes money.

Financial accounting is how “score is kept” in terms of business performance. It is, therefore, in the self-interest of marketers to become familiar with financial reporting. Doing so will allow them to understand how marketing activities are recorded. In addition, academic researchers need to understand the meaning of the financial measures that they often use as the metrics of success when researching marketing strategy questions.

This is especially important since financial reporting generally does not recognize assets created by marketing investments. In order to substantiate a claim that “brands are assets”, marketers must be able to explain how the financial accounting rules misrepresent economic reality and why managers might use a different set of principles for management reporting.

We argue that the misrepresentation of market-based assets has two forms of negative impact for marketers: external and internal. The external problems are that financial statements are not especially informative about the value of marketing for the providers of capital and do not provide a true portrait of the economic resource base of the company. The internal problems are that marketers cannot point to valuable assets that they are creating, nor can they be effectively held accountable for the way that these assets are managed given that the assets are not recorded.

We do not expect immediate radical changes in financial reporting because financial accounting rules are designed with the specific interests of the suppliers of capital (debt and equity) in mind. To influence financial accounting developments, such as encouraging greater disclosure of marketing activity in the notes to the published accounts, marketers must be able to communicate in language understood by accountants and the current users of financial accounts. To aid this we provide guidance for marketers on the purpose and practices of accounting. We also discuss how academic marketing researchers might wish to adjust financial accounting data to capitalize a proportion of marketing expenses for companies where marketing is a primary driver of business performance.

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Marketing Accountability for Marketing and Non-marketing Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-563-9

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Roberta Costa and Simonluca Evangelista

Brand equity has recently emerged as an important research area in marketing and it has been examined from practical and academic perspectives. Following this lead, the

Abstract

Purpose

Brand equity has recently emerged as an important research area in marketing and it has been examined from practical and academic perspectives. Following this lead, the purpose of this paper is to propose a new method to evaluate the impact of brand intangible assets on a firm value creation process.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes an approach based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique, illustrating its efficacy in the measurement of the value of brand intangible assets and its capacity to overcome the flaws of current methods.

Findings

The outcomes of the AHP application should be considered as a KPI enabling management to optimize brand investments and strategies. The paper concludes with an application of the presented method on a famous multi‐brand company.

Originality/value

This methodology puts in evidence the fundamental aspects of brand intangible assets and, above all, how much they impact on the firm value creation process.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Dorian-Laurentiu Florea, Claudiu-Catalin Munteanu and Alexandra-Elena Postoaca

The purpose of this paper is to integrate brand equity into companies’ overall risk assessment by suggesting a methodology of evaluating the relevant aspects of brand risk.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate brand equity into companies’ overall risk assessment by suggesting a methodology of evaluating the relevant aspects of brand risk.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a theoretical framework which discriminates between brand assets, brand strength and brand value, this paper set two alternative directions that can be followed to assess brand risk: a financial direction, which accounts on brand value, and a marketing direction, which stresses on brand assets and brand strength. Following the latter one, this paper provides mathematical formulas which contain specific factors of volatility that can be integrated in a future scoring system.

Findings

This paper proposes four major risks that need to be considered when evaluating brand assets risk: reputational risk, presence risk, loyalty risk and halo effect risk. This paper provides an evaluation methodology for each one. In addition, a 12-step implementation model is proposed as a managerial guideline for integrating brand risk in the companies’ risk management.

Originality/value

This paper emphasizes the importance of considering brand equity as a potential source of risk and thus integrating it into risk management. Also, we continue Abrahams’ pioneer work on adding risk literacy into brand management.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2019

Hyunjoo Oh, Paulo Henrique Muller Prado, Jose Carlos Korelo and Francielle Frizzo

This paper aims to explore the impact of brand authenticity on forming self-reinforcing assets (enticing-the-self, enriching-the-self and enabling-the-self), which…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the impact of brand authenticity on forming self-reinforcing assets (enticing-the-self, enriching-the-self and enabling-the-self), which subsequently influence the brand-self connectedness and consumers’ behavioral intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed 347 consumers in the USA and Brazil and used structural equation modeling to test the relationship among brand authenticity, self-reinforcing assets, brand-self connectedness and behavioral intentions.

Findings

Brand authenticity was found to influence the self-reinforcing assets. In turn, the self-reinforcing assets promoted closeness toward the brand, thereby increasing the behavioral intentions of consumers to buy a product, visit a store/website in the future and recommend the brand to other people.

Practical implications

Marketing practitioners can use these results to promote better brand positioning by considering brand authenticity as a key factor in how consumers cognitively assess brands.

Originality/value

This paper shows that brand authenticity is a key antecedent of consumer–brand self-reinforcing assets.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Dmitry Kucherov and Violetta Samokish

– This paper aims to assess the value of the employer brand through employer brand equity.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the value of the employer brand through employer brand equity.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the model of employer brand equity by B. Minchington, the core employer brand assets (employer brand awareness, associations, loyalty, perceived employment experience) for three large companies are measured and the total employer brand equity strength is evaluated.

Findings

The paper demonstrates a quantitative approach to employer brand evaluation. It takes into account the core target groups of the employer brand and could be the integrated tool for the assessment of the employer brand equity strength and its separate assets.

Practical implications

In the paper, the universal formula for total employer brand strength evaluation is proposed. It provides evidence that employer brand needs to be measured systematically and depending on the value of its particular assets different employer brand activities should be intervened.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is to provide the human resource team with a holistic set of tools for employer brand measurement to comprehend the competitive position of the company as an employer on the labor market.

Details

Strategic HR Review, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-4398

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