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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2009

Margherita Grotzkyj‐Giorgi

While many of the most widely used treatment interventions engage with the psychological, social and spiritual dimensions of addiction, some of the biological aspects can…

Abstract

While many of the most widely used treatment interventions engage with the psychological, social and spiritual dimensions of addiction, some of the biological aspects can at times be neglected. It is increasingly being recognised that there is a close, exacerbating relationship between problematic substance use and poor nutrition.

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Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2015

Anne E. Crylen

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most common brain injury and the leading cause of disability in children in the United States (Schilling & Getch, 2012). In addition to…

Abstract

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most common brain injury and the leading cause of disability in children in the United States (Schilling & Getch, 2012). In addition to physical and cognitive rehabilitation, a family and their child need socio-emotional supports during school re-entry after brain injury. This chapter presents an understanding of the experience of school re-entry for children with TBI from the perspective of the parents. Their narratives of the preinjury, injury, and postinjury experience are framed in the medical and social models as well as special education. Findings suggest that throughout the process, community is a constant while parents’ advocacy roles shift with regard to their child’s holistic care. Academic research in this area is limited given TBI is a hidden disability representing a broad spectrum of diagnosis, where the individual may have no obvious physical effects even though the injury may have a significant impact on their behavior and daily life. This chapter will propose interventions for educators to use with consideration of cultural and familiar traditions.

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Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-250-0

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Kip Errett Patterson

The purpose of this paper is to present a theory that applies Miller et al.’s (1960) Test-Operate-Test-Exit (TOTE) concept to the psychophysiology involved in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a theory that applies Miller et al.’s (1960) Test-Operate-Test-Exit (TOTE) concept to the psychophysiology involved in electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (BFB).

Design/methodology/approach

Six components are presented, namely, the teleological brain, attractors as the “test” in TOTEs, EEG production, positive and negative feedback, synaptogenesis and designated actor, and then integrated into a theoretical structure. Comparisons with the previous conceptualizations are discussed, and finally, suggestions for practical application and needed research are offered.

Findings

Previous theories neglected significant variables and promoted unverified conceptualizations. These issues are redressed with a psychophysiological, cybernetic theory.

Research limitations/implications

The pursuit of substantive research needed to verify the theory would improve the scientific foundations for EEG BFB.

Practical implications

This theory shifts the designated actor in BFB to the participant’s brain, away from the BFB provider. EEG BFB is thus viewed as a means for neuronominalization driven by the brain’s attractor systems instead of as an intrusive intervention.

Social implications

The theory proposes a much more participant-centric process than previous modes, which also promotes self-determination. The research validation needed for the theory could produce wider EEG BFB acceptance and application.

Originality/value

The theory is a complete departure from previous conceptualizations. It is the first instance of TOTE application to psychophysiological processes, and it is the first fully cybernetic conceptualization of EEG BFB.

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Kybernetes, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Frederick J. Brigham, Stacie Harmer and Michele M. Brigham

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unique among areas of eligibility for students with disabilities in federal special education legislation, not in what is assessed, but why…

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unique among areas of eligibility for students with disabilities in federal special education legislation, not in what is assessed, but why the assessment is taking place. If not for the injury, most individuals with TBI would be unlikely to come to the attention of special educators. Few education training programs appear to allocate sufficient attention to the category, so we present background information regarding prevalence, recovery, and outcomes before summarizing advice from the literature regarding assessment of individuals with TBI in schools. Although educators are unlikely to be involved in the initial diagnosis of TBI, they can be important collaborators in promoting recovery or detecting a worsening condition. Almost every assessment tool available to educators is likely to be of value in this endeavor. These include both formal and informal approaches to assessment. Working with individuals with TBI requires sensitivity and compassion.

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Traditional and Innovative Assessment Techniques for Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-890-1

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Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2011

Anthony F. Rotatori and Sandra Burkhardt

While traumatic brain injury (TBI) became a special education category within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990, societies have dealt with TBI…

Abstract

While traumatic brain injury (TBI) became a special education category within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990, societies have dealt with TBI far back in history. According to Granacher (2007), there have been writings about the examination of skulls from battlefields in which a hole was drilled into the skull using a trepanning tool apparently to provide some physical relief for the injured soldier. Interestingly, Levin, Benton, and Grossman (1982) stated that this tool continued to be part of Medieval and Renaissance surgeons' practice. At that time, the surgeons believed that trepanation was a vital procedure to improve the brain pulsations and hence the overall well-being of the person with a TBI; however, the medical effectiveness of this procedure did not materialize and it was replaced by brain surgery in the 20th century (Levin et al., 1982).

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History of Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-629-5

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2010

Rebecca Dawber

Alcohol‐related brain damage (ARBD) is an increasing challenge for service providers working with older people and adults. It has a complex aetiology and does not progress…

Abstract

Alcohol‐related brain damage (ARBD) is an increasing challenge for service providers working with older people and adults. It has a complex aetiology and does not progress in the same way as other causes of dementia. The devastating effects of ARBD undermine a person's ability to lead an independent life, yet it is thought that with the right interventions, a degree of recovery can be seen in 75% of sufferers. People with ARBD do not neatly fit into an existing category of care; they ‘fall through the net’ at multiple points in the care pathway. Using a patient synopsis drawn from clinical practice the author illustrates the impact of an advanced practice role in relation to the nursing care of patients with ARBD, as well as making suggestions for the provision of education and support for mainstream services.

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The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Mark Holloway

The purpose of this paper is to examine the research into prevalence of acquired brain injury in non-ABI specialist services, the impact of the invisible aspects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the research into prevalence of acquired brain injury in non-ABI specialist services, the impact of the invisible aspects of executive impairment and loss of insight upon functioning and to question how this is assessed and managed by generalist services.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature search was undertaken to identify where people with an ABI may come in to contact with services that are not specifically designed to meet their needs.

Findings

ABI is prevalent amongst users of a variety of community, inpatient and criminal justice services. The common albeit invisible consequences of ABI complicate assessment, service use and or treatment particularly in the context of a lack of under pinning knowledge and experience amongst the staff in non-specialist ABI services. As a consequence risks to children and adults are increased, opportunities for rehabilitation and growth are lost and human potential squandered. Addressing the first stage in this process, developing knowledge of the consequences of ABI and how to assess need, is a pre-requisite for change.

Practical implications

An absence of basic underlying knowledge of the consequences of ABI impacts upon assessment and so limits the effectiveness of services. A consequence of this is manifest in the over-representation of people with an ABI to be found in non-specialist settings.

Originality/value

–Little research is undertaken from a social and community perspective into the impact of ABI over the longer term for those who have no contact with specialist services and yet, quite clearly by their use of other services, have unidentified, unrecognised and un-responded to needs.

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Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2013

Emily R. Rosario, Melissa R. Bustos and Colleen Moore

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a significant public health problem that affect an estimated 1.7 million US residents yearly. TBI patients experience a variety of…

Abstract

Purpose

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a significant public health problem that affect an estimated 1.7 million US residents yearly. TBI patients experience a variety of symptoms related to physical functioning, sensory processing, cognition, communication, behavior, and mental health, all of which differ in severity by individual. Recent evidence suggests that hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction may be impacting recovery. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness about the frequency of hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction following a TBI and its effect on functional recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the literature regarding hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction following TBI and discusses the potential benefits of hormone replacement therapy for individuals with hormone deficiencies.

Findings

The rate of hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction following TBI has been reported as anywhere between 25 and 80 percent. Specifically, abnormal hormone levels, both chronic and acute, are generally estimated to be approximately 5-22 percent for thyroid hormones, 15-33 percent for growth hormone (GH), and 25-80 percent for testosterone. The effect of hypopituitarism has been reported on several aspects cognitive and physical function as well as overall quality of life. In these studies, GH and testosterone deficiencies appear to underlie the observed impairments.

Originality/value

The paper suggests the importance of understanding and screening for hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction as hormone replacement therapy may be a beneficial intervention to promote physical and cognitive rehabilitation.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 4 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Andrei Novac and Robert G. Bota

How does the human brain absorb information and turn it into skills of its own in psychotherapy? In an attempt to answer this question, the authors will review the…

Abstract

How does the human brain absorb information and turn it into skills of its own in psychotherapy? In an attempt to answer this question, the authors will review the intricacies of processing channels in psychotherapy and propose the term transprocessing (as in transduction and processing combined) for the underlying mechanisms. Through transprocessing the brain processes multimodal memories and creates reparative solutions in the course of psychotherapy. Transprocessing is proposed as a stage-sequenced mechanism of deconstruction of engrained patterns of response. Through psychotherapy, emotional-cognitive reintegration and its consolidation is accomplished. This process is mediated by cellular and neural plasticity changes.

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2016

Angela I. Canto, Megan A. Crisp, Helaine Larach and A. Paige Blankenship

While often considered a low incidence disability, traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among students are anything but low incidence occurrences. Furthermore, educators are…

Abstract

While often considered a low incidence disability, traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among students are anything but low incidence occurrences. Furthermore, educators are often at times not made aware that a student is injured; when informed, the information provided is generally limited or incomplete at best leaving educators unsure regarding what is needed for the student. In this chapter, information on TBI and its effects on students is provided. We also explore the history of inclusion, mechanisms for service delivery, accommodations and modifications for injured students, and transitioning and reintegrating students post-injury. Lastly, we provide a review of common barriers to service delivery and offer both proactive and reactive strategies to overcome those barriers.

Details

General and Special Education Inclusion in an Age of Change: Impact on Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-541-6

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