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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Tom McNulty

Over the past two decades, a number of social and legislative forces have had the effect of increasing disabled peoples' attendance at institutions of higher education…

Abstract

Over the past two decades, a number of social and legislative forces have had the effect of increasing disabled peoples' attendance at institutions of higher education. Major national legislation, such as the landmark Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, requires provision of equal access for people with disabilities to educational programs that receive federal funding. The more recent Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law by President Bush on 26 July 1990; considered by some the “Bill of Rights” for people with disabilities, the ADA extends opportunity in the areas of employment, housing, and a number of other basic civil rights.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Richard R. Jones and Scott Flechsig

In the past, conversion of a printed text to Braille has been a slow, painstaking process. Trained transcriptionists, using a Braille Writer, manually translated each…

Abstract

In the past, conversion of a printed text to Braille has been a slow, painstaking process. Trained transcriptionists, using a Braille Writer, manually translated each character or group of characters into its appropriate Braille symbol. Using this method, the transcription of large text can take literally thousands of human‐hours and cost an exorbitant amount of money.

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Library Hi Tech, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

David Johnson

Abstract

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Library Hi Tech News, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Đorđe Vujčić, Nemanja Kašiković, Mladen Stančić, Igor Majnarić and Dragoljub Novaković

This paper aims to highlight the importance of braille for visually impaired people and the possibility of printing it by using the ultra-violet (UV) inkjet printing technique.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the importance of braille for visually impaired people and the possibility of printing it by using the ultra-violet (UV) inkjet printing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The vision impairment, definitions and statistics, as well as braille letter and standards, are first reviewed. Then, the methods of printing braille have been discussed, with a focus on UV ink-jet printing. Finally, this study indicates a significant role of UV ink-jet printed Braille, its possibilities and its advantages.

Findings

Research studies in the field of UV ink-jet printed braille are showing that it is possible to print good legible braille of the adequate height of dots. This paper highlights some advantages of printing braille with UV ink-jet, like the possibility of achieving greater dot height than embossing and no need for printing form. Printing of additional elements on top of braille dot has also been tested, and possible use for differentiation of the written notation is shown. This paper also indicates the importance of technological and operating conditions in UV inkjet braille printing. It predicts a significant role of UV inkjet in braille printing.

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed review of UV ink-jet printed braille: possibilities, advantages and application.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

David Johnson

Abstract

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Library Hi Tech News, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Astrid Vik

This study investigates how environmental conditions for development in reading, as well as support in Braille and assistive technology, have influenced the literacy of 11…

Abstract

This study investigates how environmental conditions for development in reading, as well as support in Braille and assistive technology, have influenced the literacy of 11 pupils in Norwegian mainstream schools. It was recommended that these pupils learn to read both Braille and print because of their severe visual impairments ie. a visual acuity of 0.1 (20/200), or complicated visual functioning. Their reading and participation in a modern society depends on extensive use of assistive technology. The analysis is based on the pupils' coping strategies in reading and interviews with pupils, teachers and parents. Findings show that the pupils have appropriate reading devices for Braille and print, but technical aid for Braille is infrequently used. Lack of competence in Braille and reading devices at school and home will influence stimulation of literacy and choice of reading media. Possibilities in assistive technology are thus not fully realised. Each pupil's individual needs, as well as ways in which support and stimulation could be provided, should therefore be addressed when recommending reading media and devices.

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Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2007

AbdulMalik Al‐Salman, Mohamed Alkanhal, Yousef AlOhali, Hazem Al‐Rashed and Bander Al‐Sulami

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a system called Mubser to translate Arabic and English Braille into normal text. The system can automatically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a system called Mubser to translate Arabic and English Braille into normal text. The system can automatically detect the source language and the Braille grade.

Design/methodology/approach

Mubser system was designed under the MS‐Windows environment and implemented using Visual C# 2.0 with an Arabic interface. The system uses the concept of rule file to translate supported languages from Braille to text. The rule file is based on XML format. The identification of the source language and grade is based on a statistical approach.

Findings

From the literature review, the authors found that most researches and products do not support bilingual translation from Braille to text in either contracted or un‐contracted Braille. Mubser system is a robust system that fills that gap. It helps both visually impaired and sighted people, especially Arabic native speakers, to translate from Braille to text.

Research limitations/implications

Mubser is being implemented and tested by the authors for both Arabic and English languages. The tests performed so far have shown excellent results. In the future, it is planned to integrate the system with an optical Braille recognition system, enhance the system to accept new languages, support maths and scientific symbols, and add spell checkers.

Practical implications

There is a desperate need for such system to translate Braille system into normal text. This system helps both sighted and blind people to communicate better.

Originality/value

This paper presents a novel system for converting Braille codes (Arabic and English) into normal text.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Mary A. Roatch

During the 1980s' Decade of the Disabled, legislation, advocacy activities, and special programs stimulated increased awareness of the rights of people with disabilities…

Abstract

During the 1980s' Decade of the Disabled, legislation, advocacy activities, and special programs stimulated increased awareness of the rights of people with disabilities for better access to education, employment, housing, and information. In response to the growing need for easier access to information found in a public library, staff at the Phoenix Public Library designed a library Special Needs Center to make the services and resources of the library totally accessible. The following policy and mission statements illustrate this effort.

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Library Hi Tech, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Elke Mattheiss, Georg Regal, Johann Schrammel, Markus Garschall and Manfred Tscheligi

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issue of tailored text input methods for visually impaired and blind users that are needed on touchscreen devices to support…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issue of tailored text input methods for visually impaired and blind users that are needed on touchscreen devices to support their accessibility. Previous approaches still have issues related to the necessity of searching for characters, slow entry speeds or cumbersome handling.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed a new Braille-based text input method named EdgeBraille, which allows entering six-point Braille characters by swiping one finger along the edges of the touchscreen in an arbitrary sequence. The approach was compared with the current standard method of a talking keyboard, first in a short-term lab study (14 participants) and then during two weeks of daily training (seven participants).

Findings

Overall EdgeBraille was perceived well by the users and possesses favourable handling characteristics. In terms of user performance (words per minute and error rate) the authors found no significant differences between the two methods. However, based on the evaluation results and the feedback of the participants the authors identified possibilities for improvement in terms of a smaller EdgeBraille version allowing the entry of eight-point Braille characters, and conducted a proof-of-concept study (seven participants).

Originality/value

In the paper the authors comprehensively reflect on advantages and disadvantages of Braille-based methods in general and EdgeBraille in particular. The authors argue why and how Braille-based methods should serve as complement to current text input paradigms based on talking keyboard and indicate future directions of research.

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Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Aki Sugano, Mika Ohta, Tsuyoshi Oda, Kenji Miura, Shuji Goto, Masako Matsuura, Eiichi Maeda, Toshiko Ohshima, Yuji Matsumoto and Yutaka Takaoka

The authors develop a program, named eBraille, to translate Japanese text into braille and thereby generate braille documents easily. Public access to this program is…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors develop a program, named eBraille, to translate Japanese text into braille and thereby generate braille documents easily. Public access to this program is provided to anyone via the Internet. The paper aims to evaluate the translation accuracy of the eBraille program.

Design/methodology/approach

eBraille is a CGI program that is accessible via a web browser. The core of the program is a braille translating engine called the Kobe University Intelligent Braille Engine for ChaSen (KUIC). It is based on Japanese Braille Transcription Rules (Japanese Braille Committee, 2001). To evaluate the translation accuracy of eBraille, a corpus was utilized that was created from ordinary text and braille newspaper articles.

Findings

The paper finds that eBraille translation accuracy is equivalent to or better than that of other stand‐alone braille translation programs. This result suggests that the program achieved the goal of being applicable for practical use. In addition, the program is utilized to make Kobe University Hospital brochures in braille for outpatients and inpatients. The brochures are available in the hospital and are favorably accepted by the blind and the visually impaired. This result suggests that the translation program can facilitate accessibility to information for patients.

Originality/value

The braille translation program is based on a client‐server system and is architecture‐independent. Moreover, it is a free system for creating braille text files for anyone who has access to a web browser.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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