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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2007

Michael Georg Grasser

Embedded technologies are one of the fastest growing sectors in information technology today and they are still open fields with many business opportunities. Hardly any…

Abstract

Purpose

Embedded technologies are one of the fastest growing sectors in information technology today and they are still open fields with many business opportunities. Hardly any new product reaches the market without embedded systems components any more. However, the main technical challenges include the design and integration, as well as providing the necessary degree of security in an embedded system. This paper aims to focus on a new processor architecture introduced to face security issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In the short term, the main idea of this paper focuses on the implementation of a method for the improvement of code security through measurements in hardware that can be transparent to software developers. It was decided to develop a processor core extension that provides an improved capability against software vulnerabilities and improves the security of target systems passively. The architecture directly executes bound checking in hardware without performance loss, whereas checking in software would make any application intolerably slow.

Findings

Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed design offers a higher performance and security, when compared with other solutions. For the implementation of the Secure CPU, the SPARC V8‐based LEON 2 processor from Gaisler Research was used. The processor core was adapted and finally synthesised for a GR‐XC3S‐1500 board and extended.

Originality/value

As numerically, most systems run on dedicated hardware and not on high‐performance general purpose processors. There certainly exists a market even for new hardware to be used in real applications. Thus, the experience from the related project work can lead to valuable and marketable results for businesses and academics.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 3 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Ahamed Lebbe Mohamed Aslam and Sabraz Nawaz Samsudeen

The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic inter-linkage between foreign aid and economic growth in Sri Lanka over the period of 1960–2018.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic inter-linkage between foreign aid and economic growth in Sri Lanka over the period of 1960–2018.

Design/methodology/approach

Both exploratory and inferential data analysis tools have been employed to examine the objective of this study. The exploratory data analysis covered the scatter plots, confidence ellipse with kernel fit. The inferential data analysis included the augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) and Phillips–Perron (PP) unit root tests, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) Bounds co-integration technique and the Granger causality test.

Findings

The test result of exploratory data analysis indicates that there is a positive relationship between foreign aid and economic growth. The ADF and PP unit root tests results indicate that the variables used in this study are stationary at their 1st difference. The co-integration test result confirms the presence of long-run relationship between foreign aid and economic growth in Sri Lanka. The estimated coefficient of foreign aid in the long-run and the short-run shows that foreign aid has a positive relationship with economic growth in Sri Lanka. The estimated coefficient of error correction term indicates that approximately 26.6% of errors are adjusted each year and further shows that the response variable of economic growth moves towards the long-run equilibrium path. The Granger causality test result shows that foreign aid in short-run Granger causes economic growth in Sri Lanka which means that one-way causality from foreign aid to economic growth is confirmed. Further, the estimated coefficient of error correction term confirms that there is the long-run Granger causal relationship between foreign aid and economic growth in Sri Lanka.

Practical implications

The findings of this study have some important policy implications for the design of efficient policy related to foreign aid and economic growth, the knowledge of which will help follow sustainable foreign aid and growth nexus.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by using the newly introduced ARDL Bounds cointegration technique to investigate the dynamic inter-linkage between foreign aid and economic growth in Sri Lanka.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

Abbas Ali Chandio, Yuansheng Jiang and Abdul Rehman

This study aims to empirically examine the relationship between energy consumption and agricultural economic growth in Pakistan over the period from 1984 to 2016.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically examine the relationship between energy consumption and agricultural economic growth in Pakistan over the period from 1984 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration to investigate the long-run and short-run determinants of agricultural economic growth in Pakistan.

Findings

The results of the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration revealed that long-run linkage exists among the study variables. The findings of this paper showed that agricultural economic growth is positively affected by gas consumption and electricity consumption both in the long-run and short run. The long-run and short-run coefficients of gas consumption and electricity consumption were estimated to be 0.906, 0.421, 0.595 and 0.276, respectively. The estimated equation remains stable during the period from 1984 to 2016 as analyzed by the stability tests.

Originality/value

This study considers the relationship between energy consumption and agricultural economic growth in Pakistan by using an ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration. The study has three contributions to economic literature:this study used different unit root tests to test stationarity of the variables such as ADF unit root test by Dicky and Fuller and P-P unit root test by Philip and Perron; the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration is applied to test the existence of long-run analysis between energy consumption and agricultural economic growth; and to check the robustness, the authors used the Johansen cointegration test to examine the long-run relationship between dependent and independent variables.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Ahamed Lebbe Mohamed Aslam and Selliah Sivarajasingham

The purpose of this study aims to investigate the nature of the relationship between workers' remittances and financial development (FD) in Sri Lanka for the period from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study aims to investigate the nature of the relationship between workers' remittances and financial development (FD) in Sri Lanka for the period from 1975 to 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used both the exploratory data analysis and inferential data analysis (IDA) techniques to test the objective of this study. The IDA technique consisted of the augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) and Phillips–Perron unit root tests, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds cointegration technique, the Granger causality test and impulse response function analysis.

Findings

The unit root test results show that the variables are in mixed order. The empirical results of cointegration confirm that workers' remittances have a beneficial long-run relationship with FD in Sri Lanka. The Granger causality test result indicates that there is a bidirectional relationship between workers' remittances and FD. The impulse response analysis indicates that a positive shock to workers' remittance has an immediate significant positive impact on the FD of up to 10 years.

Practical implications

The analytical techniques used in this study explain how workers' remittances induce FD in Sri Lanka.

Originality/value

This study fills an important gap in the academic literature by using newly developed ARDL bounds cointegration techniques in Sri Lanka, by using impulse response function analysis, and by studying the dynamic relationship between workers' remittances and FD using time series data.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2006

Mo Chaudhury

This paper provides a fuller characterization of the analytical upper bounds for American options than has been available to date. We establish properties required of…

Abstract

This paper provides a fuller characterization of the analytical upper bounds for American options than has been available to date. We establish properties required of analytical upper bounds without any direct reliance on the exercise boundary. A class of generalized European claims on the same underlying asset is then proposed as upper bounds. This set contains the existing closed form bounds of Margrabe, (1978) and Chen and Yeh (2002) as special cases and allows randomization of the maturity payoff. Owing to the European nature of the bounds, across-strike arbitrage conditions on option prices seem to carry over to the bounds. Among other things, European option spreads may be viewed as ratio positions on the early exercise option. To tighten the upper bound, we propose a quasi-bound that holds as an upper bound for most situations of interest and seems to offer considerable improvement over the currently available closed form bounds. As an approximation, the discounted value of Chen and Yeh's (2002) bound holds some promise. We also discuss implications for parametric and nonparametric empirical option pricing. Sample option quotes for the European (XEO) and the American (OEX) options on the S&P 100 Index appear well behaved with respect to the upper bound properties but the bid–ask spreads are too wide to permit a synthetic short position in the early exercise option.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-441-6

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2020

Nguyen Tuan Anh, Christopher Gan and Dao Le Trang Anh

This study investigates the short-run and long-run impacts of agricultural credit on Vietnam's agricultural GDP over the period 2004:Q4–2016:Q4, with the incorporation of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the short-run and long-run impacts of agricultural credit on Vietnam's agricultural GDP over the period 2004:Q4–2016:Q4, with the incorporation of agricultural labor, public investment and rainfall as important determinants of agricultural GDP.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies the indicator saturation (IS) break tests and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test with structural breaks to examine the credit–agricultural performance nexus. The causal relationships among variables are explored through the Toda–Yamamoto Granger causality test.

Findings

The results indicate that agricultural credit positively influences agricultural GDP in both the short-run and long-run. A unidirectional causal relationship running from credit to agricultural GDP is confirmed. The results also discover the positive and significant effects of labor and rainfall on agricultural GDP in the long-run.

Practical implications

The results imply that the government should focus on expanding agricultural credit as well as enhancing the efficiency of agricultural credit. Furthermore, formal credit institutions should be encouraged to work closely with farmers and agricultural enterprises to offer flexible lending periods and amounts to meet the real situation of agricultural production.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the credit–agricultural performance relationship at the macro-level in Vietnam. Based on the empirical results, the study provides crucial implications for policymakers to optimize the effectiveness of agricultural credit and enhance nationwide agricultural performance.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

H. Aydin Okuyan, Alper Ozun and Erman Erbaykal

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between trade openness and economic growth in developing countries. Under this aim, the co‐integration…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between trade openness and economic growth in developing countries. Under this aim, the co‐integration relationship between trade openness and economic growth of 17 developing countries is examined without relying on data stationarity.

Design/methodology/approach

The co‐integration relationship between trade openness and economic growth is analyzed by Bounds testing approach developed by Pesaran et al. In addition to this, the causality relationship is tested by causality analysis developed by Toda and Yamamoto.

Findings

According to the Bounds test results, co‐integration relationship has been detected for six countries and long‐term coefficients among the variables have been found positive and statistically significant. According to the Toda and Yamamoto causality analysis, causality has been detected for eight countries. In four of these, the direction of causality is from trade openness to economic growth and in the other four, vice versa.

Originality/value

The methodology employed provides an alternative framework for examining relationship among economic variables. The paper shows how to create co‐integration and causality tests without relying on data stationarity, which is a major problem in time series of economic variables. On the empirical side, it adds new empirical results into the literature in the name of identification of relationship between trade openness and economic growth in developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2020

Haroon Rasool, Mushtaq Ahmad Malik and Md. Tarique

The genesis of Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of “grow now clean later” has led to a substantial deterioration of local as well as the global environment. India has not…

Abstract

Purpose

The genesis of Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of “grow now clean later” has led to a substantial deterioration of local as well as the global environment. India has not been spared of this malaise and accounts for the third-largest carbon dioxide emitter in the world. Thus, the present study revisits the curvilinear relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution in case of India over the period of 1971-2014.

Design/methodology/approach

Dickey–Fuller generalised least square (DF-GLS) test developed by Elliott et al. is used to ensure that none of the variables is I(2). The study applies the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds estimation technique to test for the existence of cointegration among variables and estimate long-run and short-run parameters. The study also applies the Bai–Perron structural break test with unknown break date to determine the threshold point. The study further uses the vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality test to check the direction of causality between variables.

Findings

The ARDL bounds estimation technique confirms the cointegration among variables. The long-run coefficients of energy consumption, economic growth and financial development are found to have an adverse impact on environmental quality. The results also validate the existence of conventional EKC hypothesis. Bai–Perron structural break test, along with t-test and scatter graph, shows that inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth holds true. The VECM-based causality results support “growth hypothesis” both in the long run and short run.

Research limitations/implications

This study refrained from considering a variety of variables, as the main intention of the study is to investigate whether any threshold or turnaround point exists for India. The future studies should consider a new set of variables (e.g. population, corruption index, social indicators, political scenario, energy research and development expenditures, foreign capital inflows, public investment towards alternate energy exploration, etc.) in the estimation of EKC hypothesis.

Practical implications

The results validate the existence of conventional EKC hypothesis. Thereby the study argues that instead of being a threat to environmental quality, economic growth is observed to generate a sustainable environment to live in. Further, bi-directional causality is found between carbon emissions and economic growth. Thus, any effort to mitigate CO2 or environment conservation policy will impede economic growth. Consequently, controlling primary energy consumption and supply and replacing it with renewable and clean energy could be desirable for climate change mitigation.

Originality/value

The data set has been refined so that the EKC estimation issues raised by Stern (2004) are addressed. In particular, statistical properties of the data set such as serial correlation, presence of a stochastic or deterministic trend, has been adequately taken care of to remove any spurious correlation. Finally, various control variables have been included to provide consideration to issues of model adequacy, such as the possibility of omitted variables bias. To the authors’ best knowledge, there is no India-specific study which has taken care of data-related issues, as suggested by Stern, in the estimation of a curvilinear relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth in India. Further, this is the first study which has used Bai–Perron structural break test with unknown break date to identify the threshold point while estimating EKC in India.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

Kevin Odulukwe Onwuka and Augustine Obiefuna

The purpose of this paper is to test the Feldstein and Horioka (FH), theory that capital mobility should be low if there is high correlation between saving and investment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the Feldstein and Horioka (FH), theory that capital mobility should be low if there is high correlation between saving and investment, in some African countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tests the cointegration between saving and investment using bounds testing approach to cointegration and derive the long-run elasticities using autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) and Phillips-Hansen fully modified OLS for African countries over the period 1960-2008. This paper conducted the test for unit root properties using Augumented Dick-Fuller procedure.

Findings

Their main findings are: investment and saving are strongly cointegrated for The Gambia and Burkina Faso and marginally cointegrated for Ghana, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire and Benin when investment is the dependent variable and there is evidence of cointegration between saving and investment when saving is the dependent variable for Senegal and Niger and no evidence of cointegration for Cameroon, Chad and Togo; the long-run coefficients on saving are low or negative implying low correlation. This paper concludes that Feldstein and Horioka theory could not be ruled out in African countries investigated.

Originality/value

This paper is the original paper conducted on West African countries. This study has not across any paper bearing the same title on the countries of coverage.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Nicholas M Odhiambo and Lydia Ntenga

The purpose of this paper is to examine the causal relationship between research publications and economic growth – using time-series data from South Africa. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the causal relationship between research publications and economic growth – using time-series data from South Africa. The paper attempts to answer two critical questions: is there a long-run relationship between research publications and economic growth in South Africa? Do research publications from South African researchers Granger-cause economic growth?

Design/methodology/approach

Unlike some of the previous studies, the current paper uses a trivariate ECM-based Granger-causality model to examine this linkage. Specifically, the study incorporates education as an intermittent variable between research and economic growth. In addition, the paper uses the recently developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL)-bounds testing procedure, which has numerous advantages, especially when the sample size is small.

Findings

The results of this study show that there is a long-run relationship between research publications and economic growth in South Africa. The results also show that there is a distinct causal flow from research publications to economic growth in South Africa. This applies both in the short-run and in the long-run. Other results also show that: there is a short-run bidirectional causality between research publications and education; and there is a short-run bi-directional causality between education and economic growth, but a long-run unidirectional causal flow from education to economic growth.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper underscore the crucial role that research plays in economic growth and development. Overall, the findings of this study show that research in South Africa is pro-growth. This implies that the recent significant increase in government expenditure on research and innovation, which is aimed at increasing the country’s scientific research outputs, is likely to pay off.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first of its kind to examine in detail the dynamic causal relationship between research outputs and economic growth in South Africa – using the recently developed ARDL-bounds testing approach within a trivariate setting.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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