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Specialist physicians, specialist nurses and personnel in the intensive care unit (ICU) work to treat patients. Compared with other hospital units, ICUs are full-fledged…
Specialist physicians, specialist nurses and personnel in the intensive care unit (ICU) work to treat patients. Compared with other hospital units, ICUs are full-fledged and provide 24-h services. However, patients are admitted to this unit because of conditions such as severe trauma, organ failure or dysfunction and poisoning. The life expectancy of such patients is considerably low.
This study developed a reduced rule-based expert system to determine life expectancy. The purpose of this study is to determine the life expectancy of patients using ten variables. The rules were determined by evaluating 210 = 1,024 results. These rules were minimized using Boolean rules for simplification.
Conclusions were drawn by evaluating the minimized cases rather than evaluating 1,024 different cases. ICU patients were evaluated using this method, and the mean success rate was 63.75 per cent.
No rule-based expert system has been designed to determine the death risks of patients in the ICU.
Logic function representations play an important role in logic design and computer design, as well as VLSI design. There are many ways to represent a logic function. Presents and classifies 11 representation methods into “unique representation category” and “non‐unique representation category”. History of these methods is also briefly mentioned. There are three non‐unique representation methods: Boolean expression;sum of products; and product sums, and eight unique representation methods: truth table; canonical sum of products; canonical product of sums; sum of minterms; product of maxterms; Karnaugh map; Boolean lattice; and Venn diagram. A theorem is found which states that Boolean expression, sum of products, product of sums, sum of minterms, product of maxterms, and Karnaugh map, form a lattice structure. The results may have useful applications in knowledge representation, pictorial knowledge representation and other related areas.
Malaria is one of the most sinister life-threatening disease and generally transmitted by the bite of an Anopheles mosquito which was infected. These mosquitoes carry the…
Malaria is one of the most sinister life-threatening disease and generally transmitted by the bite of an Anopheles mosquito which was infected. These mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. Worldwide risk of malaria thread is very hard to deal, because of extreme temperature and climate changes which lead to uncontrolled changes in the mosquito population, as many deaths from malaria occur outside the healthcare system and other infections might be misdiagnosed as malaria unless a diagnostic test is done. The purpose of this study is creating a system which is early diagnosing malaria for settlements adequate healthcare units and non-immune travellers.
In this study’s system, the authors developed a new medical expert system (MES) process using the decreased rule base to detect malaria. The authors’ purpose was to successfully identify the illness by taking all symptoms of malaria into consideration in the MES (six basic signs, 64 different conditions). In the proposed MES process, in place of inspecting all the malaria-related signs, the authors used the decreased rule bases.
So as to take the lessen decreased bases, Boolean functions are used in a two-level simplification method. Using this method, decreased cases were evaluated by taking six symptoms of malaria into account instead of assessing 64 individual conditions.
The system can be used in diagnosis of asthma and chronic obstructive respiratory disease.
The system can be used in absence of adequate healthcare units. Thus, malaria can be diagnosed early.
The authors hope that the system they have developed will be useful for settlements in the absence of adequate healthcare units and non-immune travellers.
There is a huge amount of information and data stored in publicly available online databases that consist of large text files accessed by Boolean search techniques. It is widely held that less use is made of these databases than could or should be the case, and that one reason for this is that potential users find it difficult to identify which databases to search, to use the various command languages of the hosts and to construct the Boolean search statements required. This reasoning has stimulated a considerable amount of exploration and development work on the construction of search interfaces, to aid the inexperienced user to gain effective access to these databases. The aim of our paper is to review aspects of the design of such interfaces: to indicate the requirements that must be met if maximum aid is to be offered to the inexperienced searcher; to spell out the knowledge that must be incorporated in an interface if such aid is to be given; to describe some of the solutions that have been implemented in experimental and operational interfaces; and to discuss some of the problems encountered. The paper closes with an extensive bibliography of references relevant to online search aids, going well beyond the items explicitly mentioned in the text. An index to software appears after the bibliography at the end of the paper.
Discusses the relationship between computer proof and human proof. These issues are discussed both in general and specifically regarding the recent solution of the Robbins…
Discusses the relationship between computer proof and human proof. These issues are discussed both in general and specifically regarding the recent solution of the Robbins problem via a proof generated by computer. The Robbins problem was a long‐standing open problem about axioms for Boolean algebra. One point of this paper is to show that the proof of the Robbins conjecture, generated by a computer, can be filled in and understood by human beings. We accomplish this aim in the present paper by presenting a notational reformulation of Boolean algebra and the Robbins problem. The notational/linguistic issue developed here is of cybernetic, linguistic and semiotic interest. It is our contention that mathematics can behave non‐trivially under change of notation. Change of notation can be as significant as change of language. In the present case the change of language afforded by an appropriate change of notation makes a mathematical domain accessible to human beings that has heretofore been only accessible to computers.
Changes in world markets have brought renewed interest in qualitymanagement, and a proliferation of quality‐assurance methods. The newmethods focus on design rather than…
Changes in world markets have brought renewed interest in quality management, and a proliferation of quality‐assurance methods. The new methods focus on design rather than inspection, thereby shifting managers’ attention from inspecting quality to designing quality into products and services. A powerful approach to designs for quality is the quality function deployment (QFD) process. QFD’s simplification procedures call for improvement through the analysis of indirect relationships among quality’s ends and means. An illustrative example enhances QFD’s capability of capturing and representing the effects of multiple interdependencies among specifications and design variables, while the computation that matrix multiplication requires is both simple and efficient.
For reasons of technical convenience, current retrieval algorithms based on probabilistic reasoning are derived from models that assume patrons evaluate documents using a…
For reasons of technical convenience, current retrieval algorithms based on probabilistic reasoning are derived from models that assume patrons evaluate documents using a two value relevance scale. This paper extends the theory by describing a model which includes a more general relevance scale. This model permits a re‐examination of the earlier theory as a special case of that developed here and leads to a more satisfying interpretation of the ranking principle of the earlier models.
We propose a simplified method to simulate damage evolution in heterogeneous media from geodesic propagation calculations. The method introduced for the case of porous…
We propose a simplified method to simulate damage evolution in heterogeneous media from geodesic propagation calculations. The method introduced for the case of porous media (polycrystalline graphite), was generalized to multiphase media, and then to a continuous variation of local fracture energy. It is based on a minimization of the fracture energy criterion, ignoring the local variations of the stored strain energy. With this simplification, the microcracking process is simulated by very efficient algorithms, involving a low calculation cost, to extract minimal paths on graphs with edges valued according to the local fracture energy. From the simulations, made on micrographs in materials or on random microstructure simulations, we get images of the possible microcracks paths, to be compared with real cracking of materials, and an estimation of the effective toughness of heterogeneous materials. Our approach is illustrated from two‐dimensional simulations corresponding to various types of microstructure involving the following micro‐geometrical distributions of the local fracture energy: isotropic and anisotropic two‐phase media, polycrystal with cleavage and intergranular fracture, material with a continuous distribution of surface energy.
A general description of a continuous (‐valued) logic is given, basic operations of the logic are defined, and some problems and particulars of their solutions are discussed. First, we define algebra of continuous logic and enumerate its basic unary, binary and ternary functions. All laws of continuous logic are compared with laws of discrete binary logic. We discuss how to enumerate all functions of continuous logic with specified number of variables and how to represent the functions in a standard form. Procedures of minimization of continuous logical functions and their decomposition into the functions with less clarity are exploited. The procedures are compared with their counterparts from binary logic. We also tackle problems of analysis and synthesis of continuous logical functions, and show that the problem of synthesis may not have a solution. Basics of differential and integral calculus are applied to continuous valued logic. We demonstrate that any continuous logical function has the points where a derivative does not exist. At the end of the paper we briefly discuss an incompleteness problem of continuous logic, application of continuous logic in mathematics, engineering and economy, give examples, draw a perspective of further development and supply extensive bibliography of Russian works in the field.