# Search results

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

## Continuous logic – I. Basic concepts

A general description of a continuous (‐valued) logic is given, basic operations of the logic are defined, and some problems and particulars of their solutions are…

341

### Abstract

A general description of a continuous (‐valued) logic is given, basic operations of the logic are defined, and some problems and particulars of their solutions are discussed. First, we define algebra of continuous logic and enumerate its basic unary, binary and ternary functions. All laws of continuous logic are compared with laws of discrete binary logic. We discuss how to enumerate all functions of continuous logic with specified number of variables and how to represent the functions in a standard form. Procedures of minimization of continuous logical functions and their decomposition into the functions with less clarity are exploited. The procedures are compared with their counterparts from binary logic. We also tackle problems of analysis and synthesis of continuous logical functions, and show that the problem of synthesis may not have a solution. Basics of differential and integral calculus are applied to continuous valued logic. We demonstrate that any continuous logical function has the points where a derivative does not exist. At the end of the paper we briefly discuss an incompleteness problem of continuous logic, application of continuous logic in mathematics, engineering and economy, give examples, draw a perspective of further development and supply extensive bibliography of Russian works in the field.

### Details

Kybernetes, vol. 29 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

### Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

## INFORMATION RETRIEVAL BASED ON CONCEPTUAL DISTANCE IN IS‐A HIERARCHIES

There have been several document ranking methods to calculate the conceptual distance or closeness between a Boolean query and a document. Though they provide good…

391

### Abstract

There have been several document ranking methods to calculate the conceptual distance or closeness between a Boolean query and a document. Though they provide good retrieval effectiveness in many cases, they do not support effective weighting schemes for queries and documents and also have several problems resulting from inappropriate evaluation of Boolean operators. We propose a new method called Knowledge‐Based Extended Boolean Model (kb‐ebm) in which Salton's extended Boolean model is incorporated. kb‐ebm evaluates weighted queries and documents effectively, and avoids the problems of the previous methods. kb‐ebm provides high quality document rankings by using term dependence information from is‐a hierarchies The performance experiments show that the proposed method closely simulates human behaviour.

### Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

## Designing medical expert system based on logical reduced rule for basic malaria diagnosis from malaria signs and symptoms

Malaria is one of the most sinister life-threatening disease and generally transmitted by the bite of an Anopheles mosquito which was infected. These mosquitoes carry the…

279

### Abstract

#### Purpose

Malaria is one of the most sinister life-threatening disease and generally transmitted by the bite of an Anopheles mosquito which was infected. These mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. Worldwide risk of malaria thread is very hard to deal, because of extreme temperature and climate changes which lead to uncontrolled changes in the mosquito population, as many deaths from malaria occur outside the healthcare system and other infections might be misdiagnosed as malaria unless a diagnostic test is done. The purpose of this study is creating a system which is early diagnosing malaria for settlements adequate healthcare units and non-immune travellers.

#### Design/methodology/approach

In this study’s system, the authors developed a new medical expert system (MES) process using the decreased rule base to detect malaria. The authors’ purpose was to successfully identify the illness by taking all symptoms of malaria into consideration in the MES (six basic signs, 64 different conditions). In the proposed MES process, in place of inspecting all the malaria-related signs, the authors used the decreased rule bases.

#### Findings

So as to take the lessen decreased bases, Boolean functions are used in a two-level simplification method. Using this method, decreased cases were evaluated by taking six symptoms of malaria into account instead of assessing 64 individual conditions.

#### Research limitations/implications

The system can be used in diagnosis of asthma and chronic obstructive respiratory disease.

#### Practical implications

The system can be used in absence of adequate healthcare units. Thus, malaria can be diagnosed early.

#### Originality/value

The authors hope that the system they have developed will be useful for settlements in the absence of adequate healthcare units and non-immune travellers.

### Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

### Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

## A reduced rule-based expert system by the simplification of logic functions for determining the life expectancy of intensive care patients

Specialist physicians, specialist nurses and personnel in the intensive care unit (ICU) work to treat patients. Compared with other hospital units, ICUs are full-fledged…

85

### Abstract

#### Purpose

Specialist physicians, specialist nurses and personnel in the intensive care unit (ICU) work to treat patients. Compared with other hospital units, ICUs are full-fledged and provide 24-h services. However, patients are admitted to this unit because of conditions such as severe trauma, organ failure or dysfunction and poisoning. The life expectancy of such patients is considerably low.

#### Design/methodology/approach

This study developed a reduced rule-based expert system to determine life expectancy. The purpose of this study is to determine the life expectancy of patients using ten variables. The rules were determined by evaluating 210 = 1,024 results. These rules were minimized using Boolean rules for simplification.

#### Findings

Conclusions were drawn by evaluating the minimized cases rather than evaluating 1,024 different cases. ICU patients were evaluated using this method, and the mean success rate was 63.75 per cent.

#### Originality/value

No rule-based expert system has been designed to determine the death risks of patients in the ICU.

### Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

### Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

## A MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL WITH HIERARCHICAL CONCEPT GRAPH

This paper discusses a knowledge based information retrieval model with hierarchical thesaurus. The model computes the conceptual distance between a query and an object…

242

### Abstract

This paper discusses a knowledge based information retrieval model with hierarchical thesaurus. The model computes the conceptual distance between a query and an object and both are indexed with weighted terms from a hierarchical thesaurus. The hierarchical thesaurus is represented by a hierarchical‐concept graph (HCG) in which nodes represent concepts and directed edges represent generalisation relationships. Rada et al. have developed a similar model. However, their model considered only a binary indexing scheme and revealed some counter‐intuitive results. Our proposed model extends theirs by allowing the index term and the edge of the HCG to be weighted. A new concept mapping method is devised to overcome Rada's counter‐intuitive results. In addition, a scheme for allowing Boolean operators in user queries is provided with a formula for computing conceptual distance from negated index terms. Experimental results have shown that our model simulates human performance more closely than Rada's model.

### Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

## On integrated circuit chip reduction

Boolean algebra, Karnaugh map method and Quine‐McClusky algorithm are usually the tools used for minimizing logic functions using gates. However, with the advent of IC…

4272

### Abstract

Boolean algebra, Karnaugh map method and Quine‐McClusky algorithm are usually the tools used for minimizing logic functions using gates. However, with the advent of IC chips, the criteria for implementing a low‐cost circuit have been changed from logic gate reduction to IC chip reduction. In this paper, the IC chip reduction problem is systematically analyzed and illustrated by examples. More specifically, the direct mapping method, the IC chip diagram, the IC chip usage table, the reduced IC chip usage table and the reduced IC chip diagram are created and used for IC chip reduction. The reduction process is illustrated step by step with examples. In addition, six substitution rules for reducing the IC chip usage table are also presented. The IC chip reduction problem is both theoretically challenging and practically useful. The results may have useful applications in picture description reduction, picture semantic network reduction as well as in other related areas. It illustrates the effectiveness of a cybernetic approach.

### Details

Kybernetes, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

### Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

## The L‐map method for sequential machine state minimization

The L‐map method is an innovative method for sequential machine state minimization. More specifically, the L‐map method consists of five steps. This method uses a portion…

309

### Abstract

The L‐map method is an innovative method for sequential machine state minimization. More specifically, the L‐map method consists of five steps. This method uses a portion of the partitioning method (step 1), and a portion of the implication table method (step 4). Steps 2 (eliminate singleton blocks), 3 (order non‐singleton blocks) and 5 (process the block implication table cells) are developed in this paper. The resultant method is more effective than both the partitioning method and the implication table method. The L‐map method is best illustrated by examples. In addition, 11 theorems are proven with illustrative examples. The advantages of this method over the partitioning method and the implication table method are stated. Furthermore, an algorithm which has four steps for finding the shortest input sequences for separating all pairs of distinguishable states using the L‐map method is developed. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate this algorithm. The results obtained in this may have useful applications in logic design, computer design, as well as VLSI design.

### Details

Kybernetes, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

### Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 January 2016

## Archetype Processing and Story Analysis

### Details

Storytelling-Case Archetype Decoding and Assignment Manual (SCADAM)
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-216-0

Book part
Publication date: 5 January 2016

## Theory Refinement, Implications, and Conclusions

### Details

Storytelling-Case Archetype Decoding and Assignment Manual (SCADAM)
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-216-0

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2022

## Exploring factors influencing bicycle-sharing adoption in India: a UTAUT 2 based mixed-method approach

Bicycle sharing offers a novel way to create smart and sustainable mobility solutions for the future. The purpose of this study is to draw on the Unified Theory of…

260

### Abstract

#### Purpose

Bicycle sharing offers a novel way to create smart and sustainable mobility solutions for the future. The purpose of this study is to draw on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT 2) framework for identifying the factors necessary to predict bike-sharing intention among users in India.

#### Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed across four major cities in India, and 515 responses were analyzed. A sequential approach was employed to analyze the data using Partial Least Square–Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) and Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA).

#### Findings

The findings from PLS analysis revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation and price value are the salient variables that affect users' intentions to participate in bike sharing. In addition, based on fsQCA, six configurations of causal conditions are presented as intermediate solutions that produce the same results. Although antecedent conditions, such as habit and social influence, had an insignificant effect on individuals' BSI, they create conditions sufficient to encourage users' participation in bike sharing in combination with other variables.

#### Research limitations/implications

A few limitations of this research and the implications of the findings in terms of theory and policy implications are also discussed.

#### Originality/value

The reported study is one of the earliest to explain bike-sharing adoption in India using the UTAUT 2 model.