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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

John L. Cotton, Bonnie S. O’Neill and Andrea E.C. Griffin

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that Whiteness is used as a normative standard when comparing a variety of first names.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that Whiteness is used as a normative standard when comparing a variety of first names.

Design/methodology/approach

Respondents (full- and part-time business students) evaluated names that sounded common, African-American, Russian, and unusual.

Findings

Results from two studies suggest that “common” or “neutral” names are perceived to be white, and to be more American than African-American, Russian or unusual-sounding names. Results also demonstrate that the common names have more positive attributes, including socio-economic class.

Research limitations/implications

The study found that the basic comparison of American respondents will be to a white person. Second, the authors applied Critical Race Theory (CRT) to the research on names. Finally, the authors demonstrate that unless they are totally anonymous, virtual teams will still have the type of social categorization and stereotyping of team members found in ordinary teams.

Practical implications

Organizations and managers need to recognize that a “colorblind” approach simply reinforces the expectation that any differences in American organizations will be compared against the Whiteness standard. This can be a problem in any organizational setting, especially given the proliferation of virtual teams. This may be addressed with attempts to increase common in-group identity and strategies for identifying bias.

Originality/value

In this research the authors integrate concepts and theory from Virtual Teams, CRT and the Psychology of Names, providing both theoretical and practical implications.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2008

John L. Cotton, Bonnie S. O'Neill and Andrea Griffin

The paper seeks to examine how the uniqueness and ethnicity of first names influence affective reactions to those names and their potential for hire.

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to examine how the uniqueness and ethnicity of first names influence affective reactions to those names and their potential for hire.

Design/methodology/approach

In study 1, respondents evaluated 48 names in terms of uniqueness and likeability, allowing us to select names viewed consistently as Common, Russian, African‐American, and Unusual. In Study 2 respondents assessed the uniqueness and likeability of the names, and whether they would hire someone with the name.

Findings

Results indicated that Common names were seen as least unique, best liked, and most likely to be hired. Unusual names were seen as most unique, least liked, and least likely to be hired. Russian and African‐American names were intermediate in terms of uniqueness, likeability and being hired, significantly different from Common and Unique names, but not significantly different from each other.

Research limitations/implications

The name an individual carries has a significant impact on how he or she is viewed, and conceivably, whether or not the individual is hired for a job.

Practical implications

Human resource professionals need to be aware that there seems to be a clear bias in how people perceive names. When resumés are screened for hiring, names should be left off. Our findings also suggest that when selecting, parents may want to reconsider choosing something distinctive.

Originality/value

This study offers original findings in regards to names, combining diverse research from social psychology and labor economics, and offering practical implications.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2007

Bonnie S. O'Neill and Monica Adya

An employee's willingness to share knowledge may be contingent on whether the organization equitably fulfills its reward obligations. This paper seeks to examine how…

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12562

Abstract

Purpose

An employee's willingness to share knowledge may be contingent on whether the organization equitably fulfills its reward obligations. This paper seeks to examine how managers and organizations can be vehicles for managing psychological contract perceptions favoring knowledge sharing among current employees, newcomers, and applicants.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose an integrative model to discuss psychological contract issues within each stage of employment and HRM initiatives that can encourage knowledge‐sharing behaviors.

Findings

The implicit psychological contracts that often influence knowledge worker attitudes for sharing knowledge are easy to overlook and challenging to manage. Managers must properly assess the nature of psychological contracts maintained by such workers so that knowledge‐sharing messages address employees' key motivators. Different psychological contracts exist at various stages of employment. Several prescriptions for effectively managing each type of psychological contract and reducing perceptions of PC breach were offered.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical studies should seek to investigate whether different psychological contracts actually exist within a field setting. In addition, how workers move between transitional, transactional, balanced and relational psychological contracts should be empirically examined.

Originality/value

The authors sought to better understand the different psychological contract perceptions of knowledge workers at various stages of employment, which has not been done to date. Such workers are keenly aware of the impact of their knowledge and effective management for sharing rather than hoarding becomes a critical success factor for knowledge‐intensive organizations.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

David Everett

According to the introduction, this five volume set is intended to update Eric H. Boehm and Lalit Adolphus's Historical Periodicals: An Annotated World List of Historical

Abstract

According to the introduction, this five volume set is intended to update Eric H. Boehm and Lalit Adolphus's Historical Periodicals: An Annotated World List of Historical and Related Serial Publications (Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Press, 1961). That goal is met admirably. The editors have combed the standard periodical sources, as well as the periodical lists of relevant European indexing services, and produced a list of 8,900 periodicals in history and related fields. The coverage is worldwide. While the United States has the most entries, these entries represent only about fifteen percent of the total.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Steve Moore

Through the lens afforded by two theories drawn from the discipline of social psychology, the purpose of this paper is to explain the evident continuing abuse of adults at…

Abstract

Purpose

Through the lens afforded by two theories drawn from the discipline of social psychology, the purpose of this paper is to explain the evident continuing abuse of adults at risk living in care homes by the staff who should be looking after them.

Design/methodology/approach

By considering existing theories and research into the reasons why vulnerable adults are abused the paper proposes the relevance of other extant theories on the degradation of moral restraint and dehumanisation of victims, and on the social psychology of intergroup relations, to the perpetration of abuse.

Findings

The paper demonstrates how theories that explain the psychology of human behaviour in certain circumstances may be usefully applied to the inveterate social problem of the abuse of vulnerable adults living in care homes.

Practical implications

The paper offers the opportunity for the reader to consider how these theories of social psychology may be applied to explain and guide remedies to the persistent levels of abuse in English care homes, abuse that continues despite government oversight of care provided to adults who may be at risk by virtue of the activities of the statutory regulator and health and social care commissioners, and the interventions of safeguarding personnel.

Originality/value

This is a conceptual paper from which future research and theorising may arise to better understand the most fundamental causes of the abuse of older people in care homes in order to develop feasible and effective measures to overcome it.

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Erick T. Byrd, Bonnie Canziani, James S. Boles, Nicholas Carlton Williamson and Sevil Sonmez

The purpose of this study is to examine winery visitors’ use of information sources in making decisions regarding the choice of wineries to visit. Enrichment theory is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine winery visitors’ use of information sources in making decisions regarding the choice of wineries to visit. Enrichment theory is used as a framework for determining how previous experience influences the decision on how much and what type of information individuals will use when planning a trip using wine tourism as the context for the research.

Design/methodology/approach

A visitor study was conducted at 23 wineries in the US Southeast. Data were collected from winery visitors using a structured self-administered questionnaire.

Findings

Results from 832 consumers indicate that an individual’s previous travel systematically influences the number and type of information sources that they will seek out when making future consumer decisions. Findings confirmed the hypothesized expectations about wine tourist information search behavior and help to partially explain the nature of bounded rationality in the case of tourists’ winery visit decisions.

Research limitations/implications

Because the study focused only on winery visitors in the US Southeast, the research results may lack generalizability.

Practical implications

These findings can assist winery owners and destinations with wineries in their promotional efforts. Of major importance is the finding that increases in experiential knowledge from prior travel are monotonically associated with increases in the number of information sources marked to be valuable in selecting a winery. The influence of experience is particularly dramatic in that the mean number of information sources marked to be valuable moves from a low of 2.5 to a high of 10.0 out of 16 as travel experience increases.

Originality/value

The study contributed significant and useful findings that advance the application of enrichment theory to wine tourism. Enrichment theory does not currently differentiate between types of knowledge that enrich a consumer’s ability to more easily encode and use new information. The current study confirms that experiential knowledge is an important knowledge construct in models of bounded rationality.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Steve Moore

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a research project designed to determine the qualifications held by those staff who had perpetrated abuse in private…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a research project designed to determine the qualifications held by those staff who had perpetrated abuse in private sector care and nursing homes for older people during a 12-month period.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-completion, postal questionnaire was issued to the safeguarding teams of all local authorities in England with adult social care responsibilities to determine the qualifications held by staff who were proven to have perpetrated abuse in these facilities.

Findings

Though findings with respect to qualified nurses who had perpetrated abuse when considered in isolation were inconclusive in numerical terms, the proportion of all nursing and care staff who had perpetrated abuse, and who held either a professional or vocational qualification was high.

Research limitations/implications

Responses to the postal questionnaire represented 21.8 per cent of local authorities with social services responsibilities, yet the data secured suggests that care providing staff who have received recognised training are disproportionately represented among those proven to have perpetrated abuse.

Originality/value

Findings indicate that recognised training for those who provide care in care and nursing homes is of limited efficacy in the prevention of abuse.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Gabriela Capurro and Josh Greenberg

Purpose – The authors examine framing and narrativization in news coverage of health threats to assess variations in news discourse for known, emerging and novel health…

Abstract

Purpose – The authors examine framing and narrativization in news coverage of health threats to assess variations in news discourse for known, emerging and novel health risks. Methodology/Approach – Using the analytical categories of known, emerging, and novel risks the authors discuss media analyses of anti-vaccination, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and Covid-19. Findings – Known risks are framed within a biomedical discourse in which scientific evidence underpins public health guidelines, and following these directives prevent risk exposure while non-compliance is characterized as immoral and risky. News coverage of emerging risks highlights public health guidelines but fails to convey their importance as the risks seem too distant or abstract. Media coverage of novel risks is characterized by the ubiquity of uncertainty, which emerges as a “master frame” under which all incidents and events are subsumed. Stories about novel risks highlight the fluid and changing nature of scientific knowledge, which has the unintended effect of fueling uncertainty as studies and experts contradict each other. Originality/Value – This chapter introduces a new analytical framework for examining how media stories represent public health risks, along with previously unpublished analysis of media coverage about AMR and Covid-19. This chapter provides insight about the nature of risk discourses involving media, public health officials, activists, and citizens.

Details

Media and Law: Between Free Speech and Censorship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-729-9

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Using Subject Headings for Online Retrieval: Theory, Practice and Potential
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12221-570-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1970

John O'Riordan

THE NINETIENTH ANNIVERSARY of Sean O'Casey's birth and the recent acquisition by the New York Public Library of the papers of his literary estate afford an opportunity to…

Abstract

THE NINETIENTH ANNIVERSARY of Sean O'Casey's birth and the recent acquisition by the New York Public Library of the papers of his literary estate afford an opportunity to view, once more, the remarkable achievements of a dramatist of universal distinction. A passionate believer in the cause of man's dignity and freedom, whose plays touched off riots and sparked off controversies, whose works wrung the beauty and passion and heartaches from the experiences of everyday life and ‘whose lips were royally touched’—to quote J. C. Trewin's recent colourful phrase—O'Casey was, with Shaw, one of the few incomparably great playwrights of the present century. Not without his detractors: one critic's jibe that O'Casey is ‘an extremely overrated writer with two or three competent Naturalist plays to his credit, followed by a lot of ideological bloat and embarrassing bombast’ is the kind of factitious reaction one expects from critically immature minds. Shaw's plays, at first, were slighted, but they survived, and today are flourishing; predictably, O'Casey's will enjoy a similar fate. O'Casey is a world dramatist in the widest sense, because he viewed the theatre in the same epic way as Shakespeare and the rest of the Elizabethans.

Details

Library Review, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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