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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

B.S. Sridhar

The present study involved the development of a value-added comminution process for different recycled meat processing by-products such as bones for management of waste…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study involved the development of a value-added comminution process for different recycled meat processing by-products such as bones for management of waste products. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An indigenous cryo-grinding system was developed and pilot scale comminution tests were carried out on goat and hen bones under different temperature conditions ranging between −15°C and −40°C and sample pre-conditioning adopting liquid nitrogen as a grinding medium.

Findings

Cryo comminution produces finer, uniform particle sizes, increased specific surface area per unit mass with lesser specific energy consumption in comparison to room temperature comminution. Breakage behavior studies showed that hardness (609-685 MPa) and brittleness (24-29 m−1/2) and strain energy decreased (3.1-1.1 N-m) as the temperature was lowered. Weight mean diameter, specific energy consumption under ambient and cryogenic conditions, respectively, were 125 and 80 μm, 1,303 and 1,108 kJ/kg. The process developed attempts to eliminate environmental pollution by reducing food wastes generated and incorporates value to waste products.

Originality/value

A value-added comminution process for meat processing by-products such as bones was developed to reduce food wastes generated as well as environmental pollution. The process aims to improve public health stressing the importance of recycling through the management of food waste products. Public and private organizations can act as profit centers generating significant revenue and employment by adopting the process.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Dawn Collins

Alerts health educators to the message that eating a healthy dietand taking regular exercise in childhood and young adulthood can help toprevent the bone disease…

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772

Abstract

Alerts health educators to the message that eating a healthy diet and taking regular exercise in childhood and young adulthood can help to prevent the bone disease osteoporosis in later life. Describes a teaching pack produced by the National Osteoporosis Society for primary school children. Summarizes evidence that school children take insufficient exercise and that many teenagers have a poor calcium intake. Reports on feedback from schools which have used the teaching pack.

Details

Health Education, vol. 95 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Kristy Henson, Paul Constantino, F. Robin O’Keefe and Greg Popovich

The topic of human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations surrounding research of human skeletal material make it difficult to use…

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2880

Abstract

Purpose

The topic of human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations surrounding research of human skeletal material make it difficult to use these remains to characterize various populations. Recent technology has the potential to solve this dilemma. Three-dimensional (3D) scanning creates virtual models of this material, and stores the information, allowing future studies on the material. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess the potential of this methodology, the authors compared processing time, accuracy and costs of computer tomography (CT) scanner to the Artec Eva portable 3D surface scanner. Using both methodologies the authors scanned and 3D printed one adult individual. The authors hypothesize that the Artec Eva will create digital replicas of <5 percent error based on Buikstra and Ubelaker standard osteometric measurements. Error was tested by comparing the measurements of the skeletal material to the Artec data, CT data and 3D printed data.

Findings

Results show that larger bones recorded by the Artec Eva have <5 percent error of the original specimen while smaller more detailed images have >5 percent error. The CT images are closer to <5 percent accuracy, with few bones still >5 percent error. The Artec Eva scanner is inexpensive in comparison to a CT machine, but takes twice as long to process the Eva’s data. The Artec Eva is sufficient in replication of larger elements, but the CT machine is still a preferable means of skeletal replication, particularly for small elements.

Originality/value

This research paper is unique because it compares two common forms of digitization, which has not been done. The authors believe this paper would be of value to natural history curators and various researchers.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Priyadarshi Biplab Kumar and Dayal R. Parhi

Being an interdisciplinary research area, biomechanics has gained interest among researchers. Biomechanics deals with integration of mechanical phenomenon with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Being an interdisciplinary research area, biomechanics has gained interest among researchers. Biomechanics deals with integration of mechanical phenomenon with the structural and functional aspects of biological systems. Biological systems being very much complex provide a very intricate platform for their analysis. In case of damages created by accidents or sport malfunctions, artificial implants are used for the replacement of bones. These implants may cause incompatibility with the human body, depending on their design and characterization. So, this research aims to analyze the vibrational characteristics of a human femur bone and to predict the safe ranges of frequencies of operation.

Design/methodology/approach

The current research is aimed at vibrational characterization of a human femur bone. The model of the femur bone is prepared using SOLIDWORKS software. The material properties of the femur are collected from the available literature and provided with the CAD model. The model is imported to the ANSYS software. Loading patterns as applied on the human body are also applied to the prepared model. Suitable boundary conditions are chosen for normal sitting and standing positions. The natural frequencies of the femur bone and other vibrational parameters are found out.

Findings

The first data obtained from the ANSYS software are the natural frequencies and mode shapes of vibration. Other data include the stress distributions, strain distributions, deformation patterns and potential zones of damage. The frequencies and mode shapes enable the safe ranges of human operation and the frequency range to be followed in the designing of implants. The stress distributions enable to know the potential zones of damage so that those areas can be given focus during strength considerations.

Research limitations/implications

The current investigations take into account only normal sitting and walking conditions. This work can be included under static loadings. This can also be extended toward dynamic loading conditions. In the dynamic loading, walking and running conditions can be taken into account. This work focuses on the safe designing of the artificial implants and their compatibility with the human body. This can also be extended toward role of dynamic forces in the damaged bone formation and the role of implant’s characteristics for healing of bones.

Practical implications

Bone damage and ligament fracture are common nowadays due to increasing number of accidents, which may be vehicular or sports. In case of any damage to the skeletal parts, some artificial implant is used to support the damaged part and to help in the process of healing. The designing of the implants must be compatible with the human body. The natural frequencies and mode shapes give an idea that the vibrational parameters of the implant material must fall in the same range as the actual bone. The stress distribution and potential zone damage emphasize on strength considerations.

Originality/value

The current method is a novel approach toward implant designing. Here an analysis of vibrational parameters of the human femur bone is performed. Those parameters include natural frequencies, mode shapes, principal normal stress distributions, principal shear stress distributions, maximum shear elastic strains and total deformation. These parameters reflect an idea about behavior of the femur bone under actual loading conditions. This analysis enables an implant designer to focus on material properties and strength considerations of the implants which are to be used in case of bone damage.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Shuangyan Lei, Matthew C. Frank, Donald D. Anderson and Thomas D. Brown

The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for representing heterogeneous materials using nested STL shells, based, in particular, on the density distributions of human bones.

Design/methodology/approach

Nested STL shells, called Matryoshka models, are described, based on their namesake Russian nesting dolls. In this approach, polygonal models, such as STL shells, are “stacked” inside one another to represent different material regions. The Matryoshka model addresses the challenge of representing different densities and different types of bone when reverse engineering from medical images. The Matryoshka model is generated via an iterative process of thresholding the Hounsfield Unit (HU) data using computed tomography (CT), thereby delineating regions of progressively increasing bone density. These nested shells can represent regions starting with the medullary (bone marrow) canal, up through and including the outer surface of the bone.

Findings

The Matryoshka approach introduced can be used to generate accurate models of heterogeneous materials in an automated fashion, avoiding the challenge of hand-creating an assembly model for input to multi-material additive or subtractive manufacturing.

Originality/value

This paper presents a new method for describing heterogeneous materials: in this case, the density distribution in a human bone. The authors show how the Matryoshka model can be used to plan harvesting locations for creating custom rapid allograft bone implants from donor bone. An implementation of a proposed harvesting method is demonstrated, followed by a case study using subtractive rapid prototyping to harvest a bone implant from a human tibia surrogate.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

Judy Buttriss

It used to be thought that a humped back and an increased likelihood of fracturing a wrist or hip were simply associated with getting old but it is now known that these…

Abstract

It used to be thought that a humped back and an increased likelihood of fracturing a wrist or hip were simply associated with getting old but it is now known that these painful problems are related to bone weakness that occurs independently of ageing. One in four women over 60 and one in forty men suffer pain and disability from fractures because their bones have become too porous and brittle.1 This disease is called osteoporosis. It is on the increase and has been referred to, by the National Osteoporosis Society and others, as the ‘silent epidemic’.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 89 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Dafeng Ji, Peng Wang, Xinhua Zhang and Xinrong Chen

This paper aims to explore the feasibility of rapid prototyping for human hand bones and additional artery with topological preservation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the feasibility of rapid prototyping for human hand bones and additional artery with topological preservation.

Design/methodology/approach

A serial of slices derived from spiral computed tomography human hand specimen was imported into 3DSlicer 4.4.0 to obtain a three-dimensional virtual model. The model is exported as a standard template library file. Additional arteries were structured according to the atlas and the bone model. Then, a real model was printed based on the virtual model. Measurements were approached in 11 parts of the virtual and real model.

Findings

There is no statistical difference between virtual and real model in 11 parts, and the topological characters were preserved.

Practical implications

This method can be used in reconstruction of clinical iconological blood vessel and anatomical education.

Originality/value

This paper shows that it is possible to keep the topological structure of blood vessel not only in painting but also in clinical data.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

W E Friedrich, N R Spooner and P K Lim

Outlines the development of a sensor‐quipped robot system usingknowledge‐based information processing techniques. The prototypeapplication concerns the removal of the…

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145

Abstract

Outlines the development of a sensor‐quipped robot system using knowledge‐based information processing techniques. The prototype application concerns the removal of the lateral pin bones from fish fillets by means of waterjet cutting, guided by a gantry robot. Describes the sensor system and how it gathers information about each individual fish, and the knowledge‐based control system which based on it’s a priori knowledge of fillet characteristics, determines the cutting co‐ordinates of the proposed cutting path. Gives trial results and concludes that the system is a practical solution for the processing of naturally varying products.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Venessa Garcia

Purpose: Drawing on research in crime and media studies, this research examines media images and stereotypes of criminals within the popular television crime drama series

Abstract

Purpose: Drawing on research in crime and media studies, this research examines media images and stereotypes of criminals within the popular television crime drama series Bones. Methodology/approach: All 24 episodes of Season 9 were examined. Through a content analysis offender gender, race, age, offense type, and motive were examined. Findings: This research revealed that most of the images do not reflect the reality of crime and criminals. Gendered and racialized images were revealed. While male minorities’ victimization was more accurately portrayed, White females were cast in the stereotype as the emotional offender and minority females’ criminality was portrayed as similar to male criminals.

Details

Mass Mediated Representations of Crime and Criminality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-759-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1974

When functioning correctly, the kidney turns vitamin D into a substance which strengthens the bones. In people with kidney disease, this may not happen and may lead to…

Abstract

When functioning correctly, the kidney turns vitamin D into a substance which strengthens the bones. In people with kidney disease, this may not happen and may lead to brittle bones and even to fractures. It now seems possible that kidney sufferers could be given a modified version of vitamin D (1‐hydroxy‐vitamin D) which will by‐pass the kidney and have the necessary improving effect on the bones.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 74 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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